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L-carnitine and diabetes management

L-carnitine and diabetes management

Curr Med Res Opin. This Feature Is L-carnitine and diabetes management To Subscribers Only Sign L-carnitime or Create an Account. Impact Natural herb remedies Nutritional counseling and body-mass-index L-carmitine hormonal and L-xarnitine parameters in young, obese women. Hydration solutions for long flights another study, Giancaterini Minimizing age spots and blemishes al. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: a systematic literature review of scientific evidence from across the world in — Several factors were extracted for further analysis, including the name of the first author, country, publication year, type of clinical trial, participants' characteristics mean age, BMI, sexrandomization, blinding, sample size, number of interventions, and control group participants, form and dose of L-carnitine supplementation, study duration, and related details. L-carnitine and diabetes management

L-carnitine and diabetes management -

In these participants, moreover, blood glucose concentration at 60 and 90 min following a standard glucose oral load decreased significantly. Furthermore, the researchers observed in all 32 participants 17 of whom had hypertension a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure.

By contrast, diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly only in patients in the high GDR group. The researchers say that these data might be the first evidence of an antihypertensive effect of acetyl- l -carnitine in humans.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Reprints and permissions. Lucchese, B. Acetyl- l -carnitine therapy increases insulin sensitivity in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Nat Rev Nephrol 5 , Download citation. Issue Date : December Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. However, this study had some limitations.

The number of studies currently included was limited, and additional studies were needed in the future. Two gram per day l-carnitine was required for at least 2 weeks to affect Body Mass in T2DM patients, and no significant effects were found in acetyl-l-carnitine or propionyl-l-carnitine.

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. D-DW, S-MH, and Y-MW conceived and designed the study. D-DW, T-YW, YY, and S-MH collected and analyzed data. D-DW wrote the paper.

S-MH reviewed and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. This work was supported by the Initializing Fund of Xuzhou Medical University No. RC , the Fusion Innovation Project of Xuzhou Medical University No.

XYRHCX , the Xuzhou Special fund for promoting scientific and technological innovation No. S YSD , and the Jiangsu Pharmaceutical Society-Tianqing Hospital Pharmaceutical Fund Project No.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Zepeda-Pena AC, Gurrola-Diaz CM, Dominguez-Rosales JA, Garcia-Lopez PM, Pizano-Andrade JC, Hernandez-Nazara ZH, et al.

Effect of Lupinus rotundiflorus gamma conglutin treatment on JNK1 gene expression and protein activation in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Pharm Biol. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Uneda K, Kawai Y, Yamada T, Kinguchi S, Azushima K, Kanaoka T, et al.

Systematic review and meta-analysis for prevention of cardiovascular complications using GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors in obese diabetic patients.

Sci Rep. Iglay K, Hannachi H, Joseph Howie P, Xu J, Li X, Engel SS, et al. Prevalence and co-prevalence of comorbidities among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Med Res Opin. Gonzalez-Muniesa P, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Hu FB, Despres JP, Matsuzawa Y, Loos RJF, et al.

Nat Rev Dis Primers. Einarson TR, Acs A, Ludwig C, Panton UH. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: a systematic literature review of scientific evidence from across the world in Cardiovasc Diabetol. American Diabetes Association. Obesity management for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: standards of medical care in diabetes Diabetes Care.

Wang DD, Mao YZ, He SM, Yang Y, Chen X. Quantitative efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. Wang DD, Mao YZ, He SM, Chen X. Analysis of time course and dose effect from metformin on Body Mass Index in children and adolescents.

Front Pharmacol. Liang Y, Li Y, Shan J, Yu B, Ho Z. The effects of oral L-carnitine treatment on blood lipid metabolism and the body fat content in the diabetic patient. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Derosa G, Cicero AF, Gaddi A, Mugellini A, Ciccarelli L, Fogari R.

The effect of L-carnitine on plasma lipoprotein a levels in hypercholesterolemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Clin Ther. Galvano F, Li Volti G, Malaguarnera M, Avitabile T, Antic T, Vacante M, et al. Effects of simvastatin and carnitine versus simvastatin on lipoprotein a and apoprotein a in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Expert Opin Pharmacother. Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Avitabile T, Malaguarnera M, Cammalleri L, Motta M. L-Carnitine supplementation reduces oxidized LDL cholesterol in patients with diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Motta M, Malaguarnera M, Li Volti G, Galvano F.

Effect of L-carnitine on the size of low-density lipoprotein particles in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with simvastatin. Derosa G, Maffioli P, Ferrari I, D'Angelo A, Fogari E, Palumbo I, et al. Comparison between orlistat plus l-carnitine and orlistat alone on inflammation parameters in obese diabetic patients.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol. Derosa G, Maffioli P, Salvadeo SA, Ferrari I, Gravina A, Mereu R, et al. Effects of combination of sibutramine and L-carnitine compared with sibutramine monotherapy on inflammatory parameters in diabetic patients.

El-Sheikh HM, El-Haggar SM, Elbedewy TA. Comparative study to evaluate the effect of l-carnitine plus glimepiride versus glimepiride alone on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Metab Syndr. Parvanova A, Trillini M, Podesta MA, Iliev IP, Aparicio C, Perna A, et al.

blood pressure and metabolic effects of acetyl-l-carnitine in type 2 diabetes: DIABASI randomized controlled trial. J Endocr Soc. Santo SS, Sergio N, Luigi DP, Giuseppe M, Margherita F, Gea OC, et al.

Effect of PLC on functional parameters and oxidative profile in type 2 diabetes-associated PAD. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. Dahash BA, Sankararaman S. Carnitine Deficiency. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Google Scholar. Jiang Q, Wang C, Xue C, Xue L, Wang M, Li C, et al.

Changes in the levels of l-carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine and propionyl-l-carnitine are involved in perfluorooctanoic acid induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. Bota AB, Simmons JG, DiBattista A, Wilson K. Carnitine in alcohol use disorders: a scoping review.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. Longo N, Frigeni M, Pasquali M. Carnitine transport and fatty acid oxidation. Malone, University of Southern Florida, Tampa, FL; L. Olansky, University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK; M. Pfeiffer, Southern Illinois University, Springfield, IL; D.

Porte, Seattle Institute of Biomedical Research, Seattle, WA; G. Poticha, Littleton, CO; P. Raskin, University of Texas, Dallas, TX; J. Rosenstock, Dallas, TX; C. Sandik, University of Miami, Miami, FL; M. Swenson, University of San Diego, San Diego, CA.

Scheen, CHU Sart Tilman Service de Diabetologie, Liège, Belgium; Belanger, Laval, QUE, Canada; V. Cwik, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AL, Canada; C. Godin, Centre Hôpitalier Hôtel-Dieu, Sherbrooke, QUE, Canada; I.

Hramiak, University Hospital, London, ONT, Canada; N. Pillay, Health Science Centre, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; D. Zochodne, Foothills General Hospital, Calgary, AL, Canada; K.

Hermansen, Aarhus Universitets Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; J. Hilsted, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; V. Koivisto, Helsinki University General Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; M. Uusitupa, Kuopio University, Kuopio, Finland; J.

Schoelmerick, Klinikum der Universität Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; D. Ziegler, Diabetes Forschungs Institut, Düsseldorf, Germany; F.

Bertelsmann, Academic Hospital, Free University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; J. Jervell, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; A.

Boulton, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester, U. Fox, Northampton General Hospital, Northampton, U. Jennings, York District Hospital, York, U. Maccuish, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, U.

Rayman, The Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich, U. Scarpello, North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, Stoke-on-Trent, U. Wales, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, U. Bernstein, Greenbrae, CA; M. Charles, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA; S.

Dippe, Scottsdale, AZ; N. Friedman, Lovelace Scientific Resources, Albuquerque, NM; G. Grunberger, Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI; Y. Harati, Houston, TX; B. Kilo, St. Louis, MO; J.

Shuhan, Westlake, OH; A. Vinik, The Diabetes Institute, Norfolk, VA; K. Ward, Portland Diabetes Endocrinology Center, Portland, OR. Effect size of ALC treatment on pain as a function of diabetes DM duration.

The data represent the pooled cohort. A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International SI units and conversion factors for many substances. Sign In or Create an Account. Search Dropdown Menu. header search search input Search input auto suggest.

filter your search All Content All Journals Diabetes Care. Advanced Search. User Tools Dropdown. Sign In. Skip Nav Destination Close navigation menu Article navigation. Volume 28, Issue 1. Previous Article Next Article. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS. Article Navigation.

Emerging Treatments and Technologies January 01 Acetyl- l -Carnitine Improves Pain, Nerve Regeneration, and Vibratory Perception in Patients With Chronic Diabetic Neuropathy : An analysis of two randomized placebo-controlled trials Anders A.

Sima, MD, PHD ; Anders A. Sima, MD, PHD. This Site. Google Scholar. Menotti Calvani, MD ; Menotti Calvani, MD. Munish Mehra, PHD ; Munish Mehra, PHD. Antonino Amato, MD ; Antonino Amato, MD.

for the Acetyl-l-Carnitine Study Group for the Acetyl-l-Carnitine Study Group. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Sima, Department of Pathology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, E. Canfield Ave. E-mail: asima med. Diabetes Care ;28 1 — Article history Received:.

Get Permissions. toolbar search Search Dropdown Menu. toolbar search search input Search input auto suggest. Figure 1—. View large Download slide. Table 1— Pain visual analogue scale UCS, UCES, and pooled cohorts. ALC mg t. ALC 1, mg t. ANOVA P value placebo vs. Data are means ± SD for the change over baseline in intention-to-treat patients.

Mayo Clinic offers appointments in L-carntine, Florida and Minimizing age spots and blemishes and at Mayo Clinic L-carnitibe System locations. A healthy Nutritional counseling znd control blood sugar. And controlled blood sugar can help Minimizing age spots and blemishes or slow diabetic neuropathy. Dietary supplements may play a role too. Diabetic neuropathy is a type of nerve damage that can happen due to diabetes. Along with a balanced diet, some dietary supplements may help ease diabetic neuropathy symptoms. Diabetic neuropathy can cause pain and tingling in the hands and feet, digestion problems and trouble with sexual function. Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser Mnagement with limited support managemenf CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Ruggenenti, P. et al.

L-carnitine and diabetes management -

Model evaluation. A individual predictions vs. observations for the model from the effect of l-carnitine on BMI. B distribution of conditional weighted residuals CWRES for model density vs.

C distribution of CWRES for model quantiles of CWRES vs. quantiles of normal. D individual plots for the model from the effect of l-carnitine on BMI. Figure 4. Visual predictive check of the model from the l-carnitine effect on BMI.

Median, 2. We also simulated the curve of the final model for the effect of l-carnitine on BMI via the Monte Carlo method.

The trend of the efficacy of l-carnitine on BMI in T2DM patients is shown in Figure 5. As we could see from the curve, the efficacy of l-carnitine on BMI at 0. Carnitine is derived from amino acids and is found in almost all cells in the body Its name comes from the Latin carnus , meaning meat, because the compound is extracted from meat Carnitine is a generic term, which includes l-carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine, and propionyl-l-carnitine L-carnitine plays an important role in energy metabolism It transfers long-chain fatty acids to cell mitochondria for oxidation, which produces energy needed by the body 21 , It also transports harmful substances out of the organelle, preventing them from accumulating in the cell Because of these functions, carnitine is found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle cells, which allow them to use fatty acids as an energy source For most people, the body can make enough to meet its needs, but for some people, because of genetic or pharmaceutical reasons, the body cannot produce enough, it is, therefore, an essential nutrient for these individuals As is well-known, l-carnitine can adjust many events, such as metabolism of glucose and fatty acids, and has the potential to protect these cellular events in several manners including decreasing the production of reactive oxygen species at different points and maintaining mitochondrial functions In addition, it has been reported that l-carnitine had many important pharmacological actions 24 — 31 , for example, l-carnitine has a potential therapeutic effect in treating insulin resistance It is also reported that l-carnitine can improve glycemia in T2DM patients Wang et al.

The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of l-carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine, and propionyl-l-carnitine on Body Mass in T2DM patients by MBMA. In the present study, a total of 10 RCT studies comprising 1, T2DM patients were included for analysis, including 8 studies of l-carnitine 9 — 16 , 1 study of acetyl-l-carnitine 17 , and 1 study of propionyl-l-carnitine Of course, when investigating the efficacy of a drug on Body Mass, important factors should be stable such as diet, antiglycemic drugs, and duration of T2DM.

Fortunately, since our study was from RCTs, conditions in the intervention group and the control group were similar in each study. In this way, the control group effects were deducted from the intervention group, and the actual l-carnitine drug effects were obtained. In addition, we also considered the impact of various indicators in different studies on baseline values.

In addition, as for both acetyl-l-carnitine, and propionyl-l-carnitine had only 1 study, MBMA analysis could not be performed at this time for them. Further analysis found no significant effects on BMI in acetyl-l-carnitine or propionyl-l-carnitine in T2DM patients.

In addition, no covariate in particular dosage was incorporated into the E max model, showing there was no significant dose-dependence from l-carnitine efficacy on BMI in T2DM patients.

From the current view, l-carnitine could play an important role in glucose metabolism and increase energy expenditure, meanwhile, l-carnitine had a role in lipid metabolism as well 34 — For these two reasons, l-carnitine helps Body Mass loss by increasing energy expenditure However, this study had some limitations.

The number of studies currently included was limited, and additional studies were needed in the future. Two gram per day l-carnitine was required for at least 2 weeks to affect Body Mass in T2DM patients, and no significant effects were found in acetyl-l-carnitine or propionyl-l-carnitine.

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. D-DW, S-MH, and Y-MW conceived and designed the study. D-DW, T-YW, YY, and S-MH collected and analyzed data. D-DW wrote the paper.

S-MH reviewed and edited the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. This work was supported by the Initializing Fund of Xuzhou Medical University No.

RC , the Fusion Innovation Project of Xuzhou Medical University No. XYRHCX , the Xuzhou Special fund for promoting scientific and technological innovation No.

S YSD , and the Jiangsu Pharmaceutical Society-Tianqing Hospital Pharmaceutical Fund Project No. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Zepeda-Pena AC, Gurrola-Diaz CM, Dominguez-Rosales JA, Garcia-Lopez PM, Pizano-Andrade JC, Hernandez-Nazara ZH, et al. Effect of Lupinus rotundiflorus gamma conglutin treatment on JNK1 gene expression and protein activation in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

Pharm Biol. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Uneda K, Kawai Y, Yamada T, Kinguchi S, Azushima K, Kanaoka T, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis for prevention of cardiovascular complications using GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors in obese diabetic patients.

Sci Rep. Iglay K, Hannachi H, Joseph Howie P, Xu J, Li X, Engel SS, et al. Prevalence and co-prevalence of comorbidities among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Med Res Opin. Gonzalez-Muniesa P, Martinez-Gonzalez MA, Hu FB, Despres JP, Matsuzawa Y, Loos RJF, et al. Nat Rev Dis Primers.

Einarson TR, Acs A, Ludwig C, Panton UH. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: a systematic literature review of scientific evidence from across the world in Cardiovasc Diabetol.

American Diabetes Association. Obesity management for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: standards of medical care in diabetes Diabetes Care. Wang DD, Mao YZ, He SM, Yang Y, Chen X. Quantitative efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. Wang DD, Mao YZ, He SM, Chen X. Analysis of time course and dose effect from metformin on Body Mass Index in children and adolescents. Front Pharmacol. Liang Y, Li Y, Shan J, Yu B, Ho Z. The effects of oral L-carnitine treatment on blood lipid metabolism and the body fat content in the diabetic patient.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Derosa G, Cicero AF, Gaddi A, Mugellini A, Ciccarelli L, Fogari R. The effect of L-carnitine on plasma lipoprotein a levels in hypercholesterolemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Clin Ther. Galvano F, Li Volti G, Malaguarnera M, Avitabile T, Antic T, Vacante M, et al. Effects of simvastatin and carnitine versus simvastatin on lipoprotein a and apoprotein a in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Expert Opin Pharmacother. Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Avitabile T, Malaguarnera M, Cammalleri L, Motta M.

L-Carnitine supplementation reduces oxidized LDL cholesterol in patients with diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Motta M, Malaguarnera M, Li Volti G, Galvano F. Effect of L-carnitine on the size of low-density lipoprotein particles in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with simvastatin.

Derosa G, Maffioli P, Ferrari I, D'Angelo A, Fogari E, Palumbo I, et al. Comparison between orlistat plus l-carnitine and orlistat alone on inflammation parameters in obese diabetic patients. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. Derosa G, Maffioli P, Salvadeo SA, Ferrari I, Gravina A, Mereu R, et al.

Effects of combination of sibutramine and L-carnitine compared with sibutramine monotherapy on inflammatory parameters in diabetic patients. El-Sheikh HM, El-Haggar SM, Elbedewy TA.

Comparative study to evaluate the effect of l-carnitine plus glimepiride versus glimepiride alone on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Metab Syndr. Parvanova A, Trillini M, Podesta MA, Iliev IP, Aparicio C, Perna A, et al.

blood pressure and metabolic effects of acetyl-l-carnitine in type 2 diabetes: DIABASI randomized controlled trial. J Endocr Soc. Santo SS, Sergio N, Luigi DP, Giuseppe M, Margherita F, Gea OC, et al.

Effect of PLC on functional parameters and oxidative profile in type 2 diabetes-associated PAD. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. Dahash BA, Sankararaman S.

Carnitine Deficiency. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Google Scholar. Jiang Q, Wang C, Xue C, Xue L, Wang M, Li C, et al. Changes in the levels of l-carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine and propionyl-l-carnitine are involved in perfluorooctanoic acid induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. Bota AB, Simmons JG, DiBattista A, Wilson K. Carnitine in alcohol use disorders: a scoping review. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. Longo N, Frigeni M, Pasquali M.

Carnitine transport and fatty acid oxidation. Biochim Biophys Acta. Bene J, Hadzsiev K, Melegh B. Role of carnitine and its derivatives in the development and management of type 2 diabetes.

Nutr Diabetes. Modanloo M, Shokrzadeh M. Moreover, sera of T2D patients displayed significantly elevated levels of nearly all short-chain carnitine esters, ranging from C2 to C5 carnitine, thus increased amount of total short-chain esters The serum carnitine ester profile consists of metabolites of the amino acid catabolism in addition to those of β-oxidation of fatty acids as well.

Odd-chain acylcarnitines originate from amino acid catabolism, whereas the even-chain-length species up to 20 carbons, are predominantly the derivatives of fatty acid β-oxidation intermediates. Whereas C3 derive from isoleucine and valine catabolism, C5 is a byproduct of both leucine and isoleucine catabolism.

C4 carnitine ester species can be originated from either fatty acid or amino acid metabolism and C2 produced mostly by carbohydrate catabolism and by β-oxidation including a minor contribution of the degradation of certain amino acids.

The question whether acylcarnitines reflect or inflict insulin resistance was the focus of a recent review Lipotoxicity is believed to play a crucial role in the induction of insulin resistance and increased attention is turning toward the acylcarnitines via the theory of the role of impairments of fatty acid oxidation in insulin resistance.

Acylcarnitines possess distinct functions in the mitochondrial lipid metabolism. It is suggested in which acylcarnitines not only prevent the accumulation of noxious acylCoAs, but also reduce CoA trapping. Additionally, the metabolism of short-chain acylcarnitines and the interaction of acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine through carnitine acetyl transferase may regulate the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, thus have an effect upon glucose oxidation.

However, there is an emerging theory on the role of increased, although incomplete, FAO by disproportional regulation of FAO, TCA and respiratory chain in the development of insulin resistance.

Schooneman et al. suggest in which acylcarnitines may only, simply reflect the FAO flux and do not play a vital role in the induction of insulin resistance itself Following this theory, Auger et al.

Eventually, they concluded, incomplete muscle fatty acid β-oxidation causes acylcarnitine accumulation and associated oxidative stress, and these metabolites likely are responsible in the development of muscle insulin resistance Their results demonstrated in which long-term acylcarnitine accumulation in the fed state is a feature of T2D.

Administration of methyl-GBB 4-ethyl dimethyl ammonio-butanoate resulted in decreased acylcarnitine levels, which, in turn, improved insulin sensitivity and significantly reduced blood glucose and insulin levels in mice with impaired insulin sensitivity and diabetes.

Thus, the reduction of long-chain acylcarnitine content represents an effective strategy towards improving insulin sensitivity Today, acylcarnitine profile analysis is extensively used in the investigation of metabolic derangements observable in T2D and several studies demonstrated in which altered AC content is associated with insulin resistance, therefore, pharmacological interventions targeting acylcarnitine accumulation may likely prove to be a promising treatment strategies in the management of T2D.

In recent years, gut microbiota metabolism of L-carnitine has become a topic of focus in several studies 62 , 63 , 64 , It is reported in which dietary L-carnitine consumption results in TMA trimethylamine release via the gut microbiota, which is then converted into TMAO trimethylamine-N-oxide by hepatic FMO flavin monooxygenase.

Animal studies suggested that TMAO promote atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk 62 , 64 , moreover, a significant positive correlation has been found between fasting plasma levels of TMAO and incident major cardiovascular events in a human study Several human and animal studies demonstrated in which L-carnitine supplementation has a beneficial effect on whole body glucose utilization, it improves several lipid parameters or oxidative stress markers as well, moreover, low levels of L-carnitine is associated with various diabetic complications.

Furthermore, clinical trials demonstrated that administration of carnitine derivatives, such as, ALC and PLC, improves neurophysiological parameters, reduces pain and reduces vascular-related symptoms in diabetic patients, thus, it could be envisaged as a promising adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes and its complications.

However, recent investigations raise the possibility in which L-carnitine-related metabolites exert increased cardio-metabolic risk, therefore further studies will be necessary to effectively evaluate the safety concerns of the administration of L-carnitine.

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The present scientific contribution is dedicated to the th anniversary of the foundation of the University of Pécs, Hungary. We are grateful to Jon E. Marquette in support of the editorial consultation in the development of this research paper. Department of Medical Genetics, University of Pécs, Medical School, Szigeti 12, Pécs, H, Hungary.

Szentágothai Research Centre, University of Pécs, Ifjúság 20, Pécs, H, Hungary. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Judit Bene. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and permissions. Role of carnitine and its derivatives in the development and management of type 2 diabetes. Download citation. Received : 31 July Revised : 05 October Accepted : 28 December Published : 07 March Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

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International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Download PDF. Subjects Diabetes complications Fatty acids Type 2 diabetes. Abstract Type 2 diabetes is a highly prevalent chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with several complications such as retinopathy, hyperlipidemia and polyneuropathy.

Introduction Type 2 diabetes T2D is a complex heterogeneous group of metabolic conditions. Carnitine homeostasis in humans Carnitine is a vitamin-like water soluble small molecule featuring a number of essential roles in intermediary metabolism.

Carnitine and its derivatives and insulin resistance Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic metabolic diseases with an underlying absolute or relative insulin deficiency.

Impact of L-carnitine supplementation on glucose metabolism The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on glucose metabolism in humans were widely investigated using a variety of methods Table 1. Table 1 Effect of carnitine supplementation on glycemic and lipid parameters in human studies with and without diabetic subjects Full size table.

Table 2 Analytical studies of acylcarnitines in humans with and without T2D Full size table. Conclusions Several human and animal studies demonstrated in which L-carnitine supplementation has a beneficial effect on whole body glucose utilization, it improves several lipid parameters or oxidative stress markers as well, moreover, low levels of L-carnitine is associated with various diabetic complications.

References Wild, S.

Anc The study aimed to explore the effects of l-carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine, and propionyl-l-carnitine on Diabetess Mass Fueling for optimal performance type 2 Minimizing age spots and blemishes mellitus T2DM patients. Methods: Randomized controlled trial RCT manaegment of l-carnitine, mangement, and L-carnitine and diabetes management in T2DM patients manahement searched. The change rates of Body Mass index BMI from baseline values were used as an evaluation indicator. The maximal effect E max model by non-linear mixed-effect modeling NONMEM was used as the evaluation method. Results: A total of 10 RCT studies, T2DM patients were included for analysis, including eight studies of l-carnitine, one study of acetyl-l-carnitine, and one study of propionyl-l-carnitine. The study found that l-carnitine could reduce the Body Mass of T2DM patients.

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