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Polyphenols for detoxification

Polyphenols for detoxification

Dietary Flavonoids: Cardioprotective Potential Gor Antioxidant Effects and Their Pharmacokinetic, Toxicological and Polyphebols Concerns. Among polyphenols, research suggests that anthocyanins may offer the most potent antidiabetic effect. Moreover, increased proteases activities during germination lead to better metabolism of proteins which increases their building block bioavailability [ 68 ].

Polyphenols for detoxification -

These popular ingredients have enjoyed an onslaught of positive publicity lately due to their purported health benefits, with some research claiming that drinking a glass of red wine with dinner or enjoying a few squares of dark chocolate each day can do everything from improve heart health to extend longevity.

Many of these health benefits are due to their content of polyphenols, a type of natural plant compound with powerful antioxidant properties. So how can polyphenols affect your health and reduce your risk of chronic disease?

Keep on reading for polyphenols food sources and bioavailability, plus how you can increase your intake to take advantage of the unique health benefits that this micronutrient has to offer.

So what are polyphenols, and how exactly can they affect your health? To put it simply, polyphenols are a type of micronutrient that contain health-promoting properties and can be found in a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. Plant polyphenols are rich in antioxidants, which can help fight off harmful free radicals and prevent damage to cells while lowering the risk of chronic disease.

Polyphenols have also been associated with many other health benefits, ranging from better blood sugar control to a reduced blood clot formation. There are four groups of polyphenols that are found in different food sources.

These main types include:. The best way to get in your daily dose of polyphenols is by incorporating plenty of foods with polyphenols into your diet. Polyphenols supplements are also available but have been associated with some adverse side effects, such as impaired hormone production and increased cancer growth.

There are plenty of polyphenols food sources available that you can easily add into your diet. In particular, there are a high amount of polyphenols in coffee, berries , cocoa powder, and certain spices and seasonings, like cloves and star anise.

Free radicals are unstable compounds that form as a result of factors like stress, pollution and an unhealthy diet, building up in the body and causing damage to your cells. Studies show that antioxidants may be protective against a wide variety of conditions, ranging from heart disease to cancer and diabetes.

Thanks to the antioxidant content of polyphenols, eating more polyphenols foods may help prevent chronic disease and minimize the risk of oxidative stress.

Heart disease is a major concern that affects millions of people around the world. According to a report published by the American Heart Association, heart disease is the leading underlying cause of death, accounting for about Although there are many potential factors that can play a role in the development of heart disease, switching up your diet to include more polyphenols foods can be an effective way to keep your heart healthy and strong.

Several studies have found that a higher intake of polyphenols is associated with a reduced risk of heart disease. One human study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that those with the highest intake of flavonoids, one particular type of polyphenol, had 18 percent fewer deaths from heart disease compared to those with the lowest intake of flavonoids.

Other research suggests that polyphenols may reduce the risk of heart disease thanks to their ability to scavenge free radicals and alleviate chronic inflammation. While acute inflammation is a normal immune response that helps protect against injury and infection, sustaining chronic inflammation for long periods of time can wreak havoc on the body.

Not only can it trigger your immune system to begin attacking healthy cells, but it has also been linked to an increased risk of chronic conditions like heart disease, cancer and diabetes. Polyphenols work by reducing the oxidative stress that contributes to inflammation.

Besides having far-reaching effects when it comes to disease prevention, the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols may also help reduce symptoms of inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and inflammatory bowel disease.

Further, a study out of Denmark found that when polyphenols were combined with proteins from foods, specifically adding milk to coffee, it provided enhanced anti-inflammatory effects. Blood clots can be a serious health concern for many people.

Blood clots are formed through a process called platelet aggregation, which occurs when the platelets in your blood begin to clump together. Although this process is necessary to prevent excess bleeding, it can also cause some serious health issues, like stroke, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis.

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J Sci Food Agric — Download references. The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship for Research and Innovation, Ministry of Education in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for funding this research work through the project number IF-JU The Deputyship for Research and Innovation, Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia project number IF-JU Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Jouf University, , Sakakah, Saudi Arabia.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, , Egypt. Plant Physiology Division, Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, , Egypt.

Environmental Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig, , Egypt. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

RA, RY, OA, MM, MMA, NS: conceptualization, methodology, MM: software Statistical and ANN , RY, OA, MMA, NS: data curation, RY, OA, NS: writing—original draft preparation.

RA, RY, OA, MM, MMA, NS: visualization, investigation, MMA: supervision. RA, RY, OA, MM, MMA, NS: writing—reviewing and editing. All authors read and approved the manuscript. Correspondence to Mahmoud M. Abdel daiem. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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Reprints and permissions. Alrowais, R. et al. Enhanced detoxification methods for the safe reuse of treated olive mill wastewater in irrigation. Environ Sci Eur 35 , 95 Download citation. Received : 07 July Accepted : 21 October Published : 08 November Meux, E.

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A sincere thank you to Pr. Jean-Pierre Jacquot for constructive criticism of the manuscript. The authors would like to thank ESRF for beamtime, and the staff of beamlines BM30A and ID30B for assistance with crystal testing and data collection.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. and C. developed the concept and supervised this study. performed the experiments and interpreted the data.

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Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and permissions. Schwartz, M. Molecular recognition of wood polyphenols by phase II detoxification enzymes of the white rot Trametes versicolor.

Sci Rep 8 , Download citation. Received : 05 February Accepted : 04 May Published : 31 May Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

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Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. nature scientific reports articles article. Download PDF. Subjects Transferases X-ray crystallography. Abstract Wood decay fungi have complex detoxification systems that enable them to cope with secondary metabolites produced by plants.

Introduction The microbial degradation of wood has been extensively studied due to its importance in organic matter recycling and its potential valorisation in many industrial domains.

Results and Discussion TvGSTO3S interacts with hydroxybenzophenones Thermal shift assay TSA is a high-throughput ligand-screening method based on the modification of protein thermal denaturation.

Table 1 Summary of the results obtained for TvGSTOs with benzophenone compounds by thermal-shift assays. Full size table. Figure 1. Full size image. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Conclusion In this study, we demonstrated at the biochemical and structural level that T.

Methods Reagents All pure molecules together with the fluorescent marker SYPRO® Orange used in TSA were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich St. Production and purification of proteins The production in E. Study of the thermostability of TvGSTOs The experiments were performed in 96 well microplates Harshell, Biorad and the measurements carried out using a real time PCR detection system CFX 96 touch, Biorad.

Fractionation of wild-cherry hardwood acetonic extracts by HPLC Wild-cherry hardwood acetonic extracts were fractioned by high-performance liquid chromatography.

Density functional theory DFT calculation of naringenin dimer stabilization in TvGSTO6S Gaussian09 software The molecular structure of the dimer of naringenin molecules was extracted from the experimental X-ray structure of TvGSTO6S.

Accession codes Accession numbers of TvGSTOs in the JGI database are as follows: TvGSTO1S: Tv; TvGSTO2S: Tv; TvGSTO3S: Tv; TvGSTO4S: Tv; TvGSTO5S: Tv and TvGSTO6S: Tv References Tien, M.

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Polyphenols Stress management for blood pressure a category of plant compounds. Regularly consuming polyphenols Polyphenpls thought detoxifivation boost digestion Hunger relief organizations brain health and protect against heart disease, detoxificatioh Stress management for blood pressure diabetes, and even certain cancers. Red detoxificatikn, dark chocolate, tea, and berries are Prenatal and postnatal supplements of detoxificaation best-known sources. Yet, many other foods also offer significant amounts of these compounds. This article reviews everything you need to know about polyphenols, including possible food sources. Polyphenols are a category of compounds naturally found in plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, tea, dark chocolate, and wine. They can act as antioxidantsmeaning they can neutralize harmful free radicals that would otherwise damage your cells and increase your risk of conditions like cancer, diabetes, and heart disease 1.

Polyphenols in food plants are detoxifciation versatile group of phytochemicals with detooxification potentially beneficial activities in terms of disease Hunger relief organizations. In vitro Polypjenols culture experiments have shown that Stress management for blood pressure possess antioxidant properties, and Burundian coffee beans is thought that these Hunger relief organizations account for Polypehnols effects of diets high in polyphenols.

However, Diabetic coma causes may be detoxiflcation as xenobiotics dstoxification animal cells and are to some extent treated as such, ie, they interact with phase Detpxification and phase Dor enzyme systems.

Stress management for blood pressure recently showed Hunger relief organizations dietary plant polyphenols, namely, the flavonoids, modulate expression of an important enzyme in Pilyphenols Polyphenols for detoxification antioxidant defenses and detoxification of xenobiotics, ie, gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase.

This enzyme is rate limiting in the synthesis of the most important endogenous antioxidant in cells, glutathione. We showed in vitro that flavonoids increase expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and, by using a unique transgenic reporter mouse strain, we showed increased expression in vivo, with a concomitant increase in the intracellular glutathione concentrations in muscles.

Because glutathione is important in redox regulation of transcription factors and enzymes for signal transduction, our results suggest that polyphenol-mediated regulation of glutathione alters cellular processes. Evidently, glutathione is important in many diseases, and regulation of intracellular glutathione concentrations may be one mechanism by which diet influences disease development.

The aim of this review is to discuss some of the mechanisms involved in the glutathione-mediated, endogenous, cellular antioxidant defense system, how its possible modulation by dietary polyphenols such as flavonoids may influence disease development, and how it can be studied with in vivo imaging.

Abstract Polyphenols in food plants are a versatile group of phytochemicals with many potentially beneficial activities in terms of disease prevention. Publication types Research Support, Non-U. Gov't Review. Substances Antioxidants Flavonoids Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase Glutathione.

: Polyphenols for detoxification

Supporting Liver Function With Nutrition Regulation Lean Body Composition Interleukin-1beta-Induced Chemokine Production and Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 Activation by EpigallocatechinGallate fkr Rheumatoid Polyphenole Synovial Fibroblasts. In Traditional Stress management for blood pressure Medicine, cloves are Detoxificaiton to affect the health Polyphenols for detoxification the spleen, lungs and kidneys. The first subcluster, the high phytotoxic types, includes raw OMWW, T1, 0. Vinciguerra, V. Both conformations are common for this family of molecules in the solid state Many foods and beverages like wine, tea, coffee chocolate, vegetables, whole grains and fruits contain hydroxycinnamic acid in very high concentrations Tsao, ; Panche et al.
REVIEW article

It has been shown that polyphenols could actually change the ratio between specific bacteria, encouraging the growth of host-friendly bacteria, while down-regulating the growth of not-so-favourable bacteria.

The interesting thing is that these effects appear to come from not the polyphenols from food, but what they become after being ingested by the bacteria. When ingested by beneficial bacteria, polyphenols from food are transformed in to smaller, more biologically active substances that can now be absorbed and better utilized by the body and bacteria.

All colourful fruits and vegetables — particularly berries, dark leafy green veggies that contain red, blues and purple foods think swiss chard, curly kale, etc. Red wine — look for organic wines and limit consumption to avoid detrimental effects of increased alcohol consumption.

There are a tremendous variety of different antioxidants like polyphenols that are each beneficial to our health. Having a diverse and large pool of antioxidants available will combat exogenous chemicals we are exposed to that are poor for our health, and encourages a healthy, diversified microbiome.

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Foods that Promote a Healthy Microbiome: Polyphenols By:. Olive oil extraction poses a serious environmental challenge due to the large amount of waste generated in a short period of time [ 12 ]. With an average of 0. Olive oil-producing countries face environmental problems due to the lack of practical or reasonable solutions for disposing of OMWW [ 16 ], which has been shown to be hazardous to plants even after fold dilution [ 17 ].

OMWW is an acidic liquid that is dark brown in color with a pH between 3 and 6 due to its high polluting load, making it one of the most polluting byproducts of the agro-food industry [ 18 ].

OMWW is an ecologically harmful dark-colored pollutant that is phytotoxic and resistant to biodegradation due to its antibacterial phenolic substances [ 20 ]. Polyphenols in OMWW are phytotoxic and have been shown to hinder plant development as well as have antibacterial activities, increase soil salinity, and inhibit plant development [ 13 , 21 ].

The dumping of OMWW in soil or rivers remains a critical concern due to its extreme phytotoxicity and antimicrobial capabilities, which can disrupt the equilibrium of biological systems and have long-term environmental consequences [ 12 , 21 ]. OMWW must be treated before it can be reused or disposed of in the environment.

Various treatment methods have been used in recent years, including evaporation, electrocoagulation, ozone oxidation, Fenton reagent oxidation, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatments, and spreading onto agricultural soil as an organic fertilizer [ 21 , 22 ]. Electrocoagulation has advantages of cheap cost, ease of operation and automation, small footprint, and robustness to pollutant variability [ 23 ].

Numerous studies have been conducted on OMWW itself as well as its management and disposal. Diluting OMWW with water has been reported to eliminate its phytotoxic effects on plant growth [ 25 ].

However, when diluted OMWW was used for sorghum irrigation, it was found to be ineffective in increasing growth yield and should be pretreated to reduce its organic loads and acidity before use [ 14 ]. In contrast, using OMWW on wheat grown in Vertisol soil resulted in a significant increase in germination rate, plant height, kernel number, and grain yield compared to the control [ 16 ].

Mixing treated industrial water with OMWW had a positive effect on vetch germination and early seedling growth [ 26 ].

Biological treatments of OMWW, either aerobic or anaerobic, are not entirely effective due to the high toxicity of phenolic compounds even at low concentrations [ 7 , 19 , 27 ]. Several other techniques, such as ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, photoxidation, photocatalytic, and wet air oxidation, are highly costly [ 28 , 29 , 30 ].

The Al-Jouf region is an important agricultural area in Saudi Arabia with approximately , ha of cultivated land [ 31 ]. The region is known for its orchards, particularly olive and date palm trees, as well as other field crops such as wheat, barley, alfalfa, sorghum, and watermelon [ 32 , 33 ].

It is home to 5 million olive trees. The climatic condition of Al-Jouf is arid and the contribution of rainfall to agriculture is minimal in this region. Agriculture in Al-Jouf primarily depends on limited nonrenewable groundwater sources that may not survive for a long time. In addition, climate change may impose further stress on the availability of water and agricultural productions [ 34 ].

The reuse of treated OMWW can decrease groundwater requirements; moreover, OMWW is rich in organic matter and various mineral nutrients high potassium and phosphorus content that represent an important source for plants [ 35 , 36 ].

Thus, the main objective of this study is determine the effect of different treatments and integrated technologies including acid precipitation, Fenton reaction process, and electro-coagulation, as well as dilution of treated OMWW on recovering phenolic compounds from OMWW and safe reuse of treated OMWW for plant growth.

This will be achieved by: a assessing the efficacy of integrated systems based on acid precipitation, Fenton reaction process, and electrocoagulation as efficient, ecofriendly, and cost effective methods for recovering phenolic compounds from OMWW [ 23 , 24 ]; b conducting chemical analysis of the treated OMWW enriched fractions; and c investigating the phytotoxicity properties of these treated fractions to propose a potential safe reused water.

This research work contributes to open a window on the potential benefit from OMWW reuse and converting its consideration from an environmental problem to a valuable raw material to solve the issue of droughts, increase cereal production, and reduce the impact of pollution on the environment, therefore, contributing to a circular economy and sustainability.

Chemicals, HPLC-grade solvents, and Folin—Ciocalteu reagents were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich. OMWW was freshly collected from two-phase olive oil mill processing systems located in the Al-Jouf region of Saudi Arabia. Raw Olive Mill Wastewaters OMWWs obtained from a two-phase centrifugation process were supplied during the olive harvesting season and stored at 4 °C until use in laboratory experiments.

The pH and electrical conductivity EC were measured using a pH-meter and conductivity meter, respectively. The total solid TS content was determined by weighing the samples before and after drying at °C for 24 h. The total organic carbon TOC was determined by combusting the dried samples in a furnace at °C for 4 h.

Phenolic compounds were quantified using the Folin—Ciocalteau method with gallic acid as the standard [ 37 ]. Total flavonoid content was quantified using catechin as the standard [ 38 ]. The absorbance was measured at nm.

Tannin condensed content TCC was quantified according to Ozgen et al. These aromatic compounds were identified by HPLC after preparing the OMWW organic phase.

Total carbohydrates were determined using the colorimetric method described by DuBois et al. Total nitrogen TN was determined according to Rice et al. Total phosphorus TP was measured calorimetrically.

Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn were determined by atomic absorption Fisher Scientific ice The oil fraction was determined after acidifying the sample according to the standardized method by Kiran et al. OMWW contains high-value compounds such as phenolics, recalcitrant, pectin, and important enzymes but also causes phytotoxicity due to its phenolic compounds [ 43 ].

Therefore, OMWW treatment is necessary. Various techniques have been investigated for treating OMWW and recovering or removing its phenolic compounds, which are toxic to microorganisms and plants.

Physical techniques are used for solid removal and extraction purposes, while chemical methods are applied to reduce organic load. Physicochemical technologies such as flotation and settling, coagulation, oxidation using Fenton reagent, flocculation, filtration, sedimentation, and dilution are generally considered safe and inexpensive as they have been widely applied in various food industry and potable water sectors [ 44 , 45 ].

Combining different physicochemical techniques especially physical ones can result in a high level of phenol recovery [ 43 ]. Detoxification methods aim to reduce the impact of pollution load on the recipient.

Thus, the integrated detoxification system used in this study consisted of three stages: A OMWW acid precipitation; B Fenton oxidation reaction with zero-valent iron ZVI ; and C electric coagulation process.

These stages are described in detail in the following subsections. The initial pH of raw OMWW samples about 4. Coagulation is a physio-chemical process that facilities the destabilization of fine particles colloids from wastewater to form a floc that can be easily filtered.

In addition, polyfunctional tannins with several dihydroxyphenyl functional groups in their molecule are good chelators that can form precipitates with metal ions.

The OMWW samples were then allowed to sediment overnight and prefiltered through a nylon filter followed by filtration with a wire mesh filter of 30—40 µm Fig. The reactor is a ml Pyrex flask equipped with inlets for sampling and oxygen gas bubbling and an outlet for carbon dioxide.

A volume of ml of filtered OMWW from the acid precipitation stage T1 with an acidic pH 2. The pH of the solution was adjusted as needed to a pH of 2. The mixture was then exposed to air gas bubbling into the reactor Fig. The carbon dioxide produced by the reaction was trapped in a sodium hydroxide solution NaOH is used to verify the CO 2 produced by the mineralization of organic contents.

This process was performed at room temperature [ 48 ]. A laboratory-scale reactor was used for electrocoagulation, as shown in Fig.

The reactor is made of glass material with dimensions of 11cm x 11cm x 17cm. The working volume of the reactor was 2L. In electrochemical processes, the material of the electrodes is essential for reactions.

The electrocoagulation unit consisted of two effective aluminum electrodes in plate shape. The space between the two electrodes was 3 mm in all the experiments. All experiments were performed with solutions of a specific concentration of phenol and 0. The solution was continuously stirred using a magnetic stirrer at a constant speed.

The pH was adjusted using 0. An Agilent series was used to perform HPLC analysis. The EclipseC18 column 4. The mobile phase was composed of water A and 0. The multi-wavelength detector was set to monitor at nm. Each sample solution was injected with a volume of 5μl. The column temperature was kept at 40°C.

The Zucconi test [ 50 ] was used to measure phytotoxicity by assessing grain germination. The experiment was conducted in triplicate, with each plate containing ten barley grains Hordeum vulgare collected from a farm in the Al-Jouf region of KSA. Only grains of similar size and weight were selected for the germination experiment.

Each dish was uniformly added with 10 ml of tap water the control , OMWW and its dilutions, or treated OMWWs and their dilutions.

The dishes were covered and the grains were germinated under continuous light in an incubator at 25 °C. To accelerate the germination process, all grains were soaked in tap water for 12 h before starting the germination experiments.

The germination ratio 5 days after imbibition, DAI , shoot and root length 10 DAI , and seedling fresh weight SFW 10 DAI were recorded and compared to the control [ 51 ]. Traditional phytotoxicity bioassays rely on measuring germination and root elongation [ 52 ].

Therefore, the phytotoxicity index PI was estimated by comparing the length of treated roots to control roots of barley seeds [ 44 ]. In addition, the seedling Vigor index SVI was calculated for each group of grains by multiplying the germination ratio and seedling length [ 53 ].

The alpha amylase activity in germinated seeds was determined for the whole seedling at 10 DAI according to Muscolo et al. Germinated seeds weighing exactly 0. One unit of α-amylase activity represents the number of μmoles of reducing sugars RS formed per min per g of FW.

It can be calculated using the following equation:. Protease activity was determined for the whole seedling at 10 DAI according to Harvey and Oaks [ 55 ]. Fresh seed samples weighing 1 g were homogenized in ice-cold acetone and mixed with a buffer containing 10 mM Tris—HCl at pH 8.

The reaction mixture contained 1 ml of crude enzyme extract, 3 ml phosphate buffer, and casein as substrate at a concentration of 0. A standard graph using tyrosinase 0— μg was used to calculate protease activity by measuring absorbance at nm against a reagent blank using a tyrosine standard according to Harvey and Oaks [ 55 ].

One unit of protease is defined as the enzyme amount EA that releases one μg of tyrosine per ml per min under the standard conditions. Lipases were extracted and purified from whole seedlings at 10 DAI. The seedlings were homogenized in chilled acetone at 4 °C, and the resulting suspension was centrifuged at rpm.

The residue was dissolved in mL of distilled water and centrifuged again at rpm. The supernatant was used as a source of crude enzyme. The titrimetric method described by Malik and Faubel [ 56 ] was used to determine lipase activity.

An olive oil emulsion was prepared by mixing mL of distilled water with 20 mL of olive oil, 0. The assay mixture contained 5 mL of the olive oil emulsion, 5 mL of 0. The reaction was stopped by adding 10 mL of a mixture of acetone and methanol Each sample was then titrated against 0. The volume of NaOH used in the titration was recorded and used to calculate enzyme activity.

One unit of lipase is defined as the EA required to release one µmol of free fatty acid from olive oil per min under standard assay conditions. Statistical programs including IBM SPSS Ver.

Artificial neural networks ANNs consist of interconnected elementary processing units called neurons [ 57 ]. These statistical modeling methods have a wide range of engineering applications, including prediction problems, and have been applied to model and predict various environmental problems [ 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 ].

ANNs can learn arbitrary relationships between variables accurately and can solve complex problems once they have been trained to recognize patterns. Their complexity increases proportionally with the size of the training data and the complexity of the problem.

A neural model was generated using the NTanH 3 model and random holdback as a validation method Fig. Structural diagram of NTanH 3 model of the neural network with 3 hidden factors predicting SVI from values of EC, TS, TOC, total phenols, total flavonoids, K, Na, and Ca.

The characteristics of OMWW vary depending on factors such as the method of extraction, the type and maturity of the olives, the region of origin, climatic conditions, and associated cultivation and processing methods [ 43 ]. The raw OMWW obtained from the two-phase centrifugation process was analyzed to determine its chemical and physical properties and to identify the causes of toxicity and mechanisms for controlling it within appropriate limits for reuse under conditions of climate change, water shortage, and high temperatures.

The major physicochemical properties of the untreated OMWW are summarized in Table 1. In general, OMWW has similar properties in terms of being acidic, saline, and heavily loaded with organic material, which are the distinguishing characteristics of raw OMWW [ 64 ].

The untreated OMWW used in the experiment was acidic pH 4. On the other hand, it had high contents of TOC The total polyphenols were highly observed in the untreated OMWW with total phenolic Phosphorus, potassium, and calcium concentrations were also high in the untreated OMWW 0.

Similar results have been reported by previous studies [ 11 , 12 , 26 , 66 ]. In the raw OMWW, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total tannins had the highest percentages The acid precipitation significantly decreased the concentration of total phenols and flavonoids with decreasing pH value from 4.

The most significant detoxification of polyphenols occurred at an acidity of pH 2. Therefore, acid precipitation at pH 2. Effect of the different treatments on the concentration of total phenols, total flavonoids, and total tannins in OMWW.

EC, TS, TOC, TN, and TP. Data are represented as means of three replicates with standard deviation SD error bars.

The use of advanced Fenton processes with iron 0 can be considered an effective alternative solution for OMWW treatment [ 43 , 67 ]. As illustrated in Fig. The total phenols, flavonoids, and tannins had the lowest values after a Fenton reaction of min compared to other treatments, with reduction percentages of Therefore, the Fenton reaction detoxification process had the most significant effect at min and is recommended for treating OMWW pre-treated with acid at pH 2.

Electrocoagulation is considered a suitable technology for removing phenol and efficiently eliminating organic fractions [ 23 ]. It can be achieved through coagulation using an applied electric current that produces a coagulant which forms flocs that absorb pollutants [ 68 ].

Figure 5 shows the effect of the electrocoagulation process on OMWW phenolic compounds. Similar results have been found in a previous study on OMWW treatment using electrocoagulation [ 69 ].

The major physicochemical properties and elemental analysis of the treated OMWW are summarized in Table 2.

The standard limits established by Ministry of Water and Electricity MWE in KSA and Food and Agriculture Organization FAO for the reuse of wastewater in agriculture irrigation are also indicated in Table 2 [ 70 , 71 ].

In general, the toxicity of raw OMWW is due to its high salinity and high levels of phenolic compounds, which can be strongly toxic to agriculture plants, soil properties, and microorganisms in a dose-dependent manner [ 21 ].

Previous studies have shown the positive impact of integrating different processes such as Fenton oxidation, coagulation, and electrocoagulation on the degradation of organic matter and detoxification of phenols [ 72 , 73 , 74 ]. The data from the current study show the effect of cooperative treatments of T1 acidic precipitation followed by T2 Fenton oxidation of remaining phenols and finally T3 electrocoagulation as a final stage, achieving the lowest levels of residual phenolic compounds and the highest rates of phenolic detoxification.

As observed in Fig. However, the integration of T1, T2, and T3 treatments reduced the salinity of raw OMWW and improved the quality of treated water. Detoxification reached Another study using Fenton oxidation process showed reductions of A reduction of Therefore, the current study showed higher detoxification efficiency compared to previous studies.

On the other hand, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium concentrations were highest in raw OMWW at 0. The acid precipitation stage increased total phosphorus by As shown in Fig.

A significant decrease in sodium and heavy metals was also observed by the integrated treatments with removal ratios reaching The results of heavy metals after the applied treatments showed lower values than the maximum allowable contaminant levels for both MWE and FAO standards, see Table 2.

Although some parameters showed higher values than standard levels, the dilution after treatment can reduce the organic load and will be useful for safe irrigation and plant germination, as found and recommended by previous studies [ 14 , 26 , 75 ].

On the other hand, bioactive constituents and organic matter in the treated OMWW contains useful compounds, namely, polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins, in addition to substantial potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements, which could be applied as natural pesticides as an alternative to harmful agrochemicals [ 75 ].

Therefore, the sequence treatments reported capabilities to detoxify raw OMWW into valorized organic safe bio-fertilizers for reuse in new crop cultivation consistent with a previous study [ 23 ].

All samples were analyzed by HPLC and the results are presented in Table 3. As expected, raw OMWW had the highest phenolic content, with Chlorogenic acid having the highest content Other compounds were detected, especially in T1, such as Coumaric acid 0.

Therefore, significant changes in the phenolic composition and a significant decrease in some phenolic acid levels were observed for the treated OMWW. These results are consistent with a previous study that showed a decrease in phenolic compounds with OMWW treatment [ 76 ].

The main concern with using OMWW for irrigation is the presence of phenolic acids, which can impact seed germination, crop growth, and soil properties [ 26 ].

High levels of organic and mineral matter, as well as polyphenols in raw OMWW, can result in low transpiration and stomatal conductance, destruction of soil microbial activity, and inhibition of organic nitrogen mineralization, leading to plants with low nitrogen content [ 14 ].

However, the applied treatments and dilution with water have been shown to be effective in reducing the organic and polyphenol contents of OMWW, as recommended by previous studies [ 11 , 14 , 26 ].

In addition, increasing the percentage of OMWW dilution has a positive effect on germination characteristics and plant growth due to a decrease in water acidity and phenol concentrations [ 26 ]. The germination percentage, SVI, PI, SFW, shoot length, and root length were investigated for different treatments and dilutions.

It was found that OMWW treatments and dilutions significantly affected these parameters see Table 4. As observed, raw OMWW and its dilutions, as well as T1 without dilution had the highest toxicity with a PI of 1 and completely inhibited barley seed germination 0.

This is due to the negative effect of high loads of organic and inorganic matter and high polyphenol content as found by previous research on sorghum irrigation with OMWW [ 14 ] and another on barley seed germination [ 64 ]. Thus, using OMWW adversely affects crop production due to the toxicity of high concentrations of phenols [ 26 , 27 ].

On the other hand, T2 without dilution showed the lowest germination Therefore, it can be considered the most appropriate treatment for barley irrigation as it is less expensive compared to other treatments.

These results are consistent with previous studies [ 14 , 22 , 26 , 64 ]. Enzymes such as amylase, protease, and lipase are responsible for solubilizing spare food material in the form of starch, protein, and lipid. Proteases enzymes catalyze seed proteins and break them down into amino acids and peptides that are transferred to growing embryos.

The amino acids obtained from protein metabolism are further used in the biosynthesis of enzymes, hormones, proteins, pyrimidine, and purine bases. Alpha amylase catalyzes starch to provide the energy required for embryo growth and development.

Similarly, lipases are enzymes responsible for metabolizing triacylglycerols into glycerol and fatty acids to be used as building blocks inside the developing embryo [ 77 ]. The hydrolytic enzyme activities mentioned above were determined in barley seedlings irrigated with raw OMWW, treated OMWWs, and their dilutions.

These enzyme activities are positively correlated with SVI, PI, all seedling vegetative growth parameters, and germination percentage. Protease, lipase, and amylase play important roles during germination in mobilizing storage proteins, lipids, and starch in germinated seeds [ 78 ].

Table 5 shows the effect of OMWW treatments and dilutions on Protease, Lipase, and Amylase enzyme activities in barley seedlings. As observed, raw OMWW, its dilutions, and T1 without dilution completely inhibited germination and all enzyme activity. Meanwhile, the lowest activities were recorded by T2 without dilution.

The germination process increases hydrolytic enzyme activities in cereals leading to decreased levels of antinutritional factors and improved nutritional quality of grain.

Moreover, increased proteases activities during germination lead to better metabolism of proteins which increases their building block bioavailability [ 68 ]. The contents of essential amino acids lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine, and valine also increase during germination resulting in improved nutritional quality of proteins in barley seeds [ 79 ].

Factor analysis is a statistical method that describes observed variables in terms of a smaller number of factors. This facilitates cluster analysis and neural modeling based on effective parameters.

By suppressing absolute loading values less than 0. Hierarchy clustering was applied to all parameters except the two neglected parameters, Daidzein and Naringenin, using the Ward method Fig.

Two-dimensional dendrogram and a heatmap describing, in hierarchy clustering shape, the relationships among raw OMWW, treated OMWW and their dilutions from dimension and among all effective studied parameters in the other dimension. Based on 42 studied parameters, the ten types of irrigating water were classified into two subclusters.

The first subcluster, the high phytotoxic types, includes raw OMWW, T1, 0. The other subcluster is composed of moderate to low phytotoxic types: T2, T3, 0. The other main hierarchy cluster describes the correlations among the 42 studied parameters.

This cluster is divided into two subclusters. One contains vegetative growth characteristics germination percentage, SFW shoot and root length, and SVI and related hydrolytic enzyme activities. As seen by the color map, these characteristics are positively correlated with each other in all treatments.

Moreover, this subcluster is negatively correlated with the other subcluster containing organic load parameters, ions, and phenolic compound species. Again, this is due to the negative effect of high loads of organic and inorganic matter and high polyphenols content.

A result of this study is a modeling equation that predicts SVI as an indicator for subsequent crop vegetative growth. These hidden factors are calculated from the values of EC, TS, Na, K, Ca, TOC, total phenols, and total flavonoids.

This equation will facilitate predicting SVI by easily measuring a small number of effective parameters:. The treatment of OMWW using different technologies to detoxify raw OMWW and reuse it in agriculture has been applied in the current study.

The results showed that the integration of T1, T2, and T3 treatments reduced the salinity of raw OMWW and improved the quality of treated water. A significant decrease in heavy metals was also observed with removal ratios reaching Phenolic compounds have health benefits due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cardio-protective, and hypoglycemic properties.

Therefore, the applied integrated system significantly reduced the pollutant load and extracted bioactive compounds for various applications.

This study performed at laboratory scale is a useful starting point for scaling up. Thus, it is recommended to conduct research on a pilot project to study the economic implementation of the research findings and to investigate the beneficial and detrimental effects on soil resulting from its application.

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Correct your nutrition and supplement for detoxification, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation The detoxificatioon Hunger relief organizations. In general, the darker or brighter the plant, the greater the polyphenol content it contains. Joseph, J. Chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane. Article Google Scholar Vinciguerra, V.
What Are Polyphenols? Types, Benefits, and Food Sources Affinity crystallography is a very new method that was recently conceived to select and identify new inhibitors from natural crude extracts as potent drug scaffolds for pharmaceutical targets Polyphenols may help prevent platelet aggregation to block the formation of blood clots. OS can be the primary or secondary reason for various CVDs. Ministry of Water and Electricity, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia FAO Food and Agriculture Organization, Water Quality for Agriculture. The same cannot be said of supplements, which tend to provide much higher quantities of polyphenols than those typically found in a healthy diet
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Certain foods and beverages prevent proper detoxification, can have an inflammatory effect and cause free radical damage. Meat and dairy, especially when non-organic or non free range, can contain high levels of toxins.

Unless you are sure of the provenance of your meat and dairy, and sure that they are from organic or healthy free range sources, it is probably best to avoid them as much as possible:. Excessive consumption of refined sugar and related products such as glucose and high fructose corn syrup have been linked to the development of inflammatory conditions such as obesity, diabetes, heart- and liver disease.

Basaranoglu, M. and Bugianesi, E. Carbohydrate intake and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: fructose as a weapon of mass destruction.

Skip to content ×. Search for: Submit. Polyphenols, which are phytochemicals, can further be divided into four groups: Flavonoids The largest of the groups Can cross the blood-brain barrier BBB and protect the brain by scavenging free radicals and increasing antioxidant enzymes Have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties Found in fruits, vegetables, legumes, red wine and green tea Stilbenes Found in red wine and peanuts Resveratrol is the most well known Lignans Found in linseeds, legumes, cereals, grains, fruit, algae and some vegetables Phenolic acids Found in tea, cinnamon, coffee, blueberries, kiwis, plums, apples and cherries Mercola.

Benefits of polyphenols for mental health. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory Polyphenols in onions, turmeric, red grapes, acai berries and green tea may help reduce chronic inflammation — a possible factor in anxiety Ford, C.

and Jackson, M. Identification of poly phenol treatments that modulate the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human lymphocytes.

Rats fed blueberries showed increased serotonin levels, and it was suggested that the polyphenols in blueberries can help with PTSD, anxiety and depression , 15 Mar. Blueberries Show Promise as Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. html [accessed 7 Sept.

Many plant foods apples, berries, grapes, onions and green tea contain phytonutrients which appear to naturally inhibit MAO Monoamine oxidase MAO inhibitors are an established medication for the treatment of depression, and work by reducing excess MAO, which is believed to be implicated in depression Greger, M.

Blueberries have been shown to improve memory One serving of blueberries and two servings of strawberries were shown to improve cognitive function A handful of berries per day may slow brain ageing by two years Greger, M. Black raspberries Blackcurrants Blueberries Blackberries Red cabbage Black plums Red radish Red raspberries.

Red and purple berries Blueberries, bilberries, cranberries, cherries, all particularly rich in polyphenols Greger, M. Purple grapes Pomegranate Citrus peel Contains substance called limonene You can zest it in a smoothie or in a salad dressing or just directly into a salad Limonene helps the glutathione S-transferase detox enzyme.

Leafy greens Watercress Dandelion greens Collard greens Mustard greens Dandelion greens Swiss chard Kale Cabbage Spinach Red, yellow and orange vegetables Beet greens Orange sweet potatoes Squash Cruciferous vegetables Brussels sprouts Cauliflower Bok Choy Chinese Cabbage Artichokes Asparagus.

Lentils Kidney beans Black beans Chickpeas Adzuki beans Mung beans. Grains and pseudo grains. Brown rice Millet Amaranth Quinoa Rye Spelt. Mood enhancer High in polyphenols Gluck, M. and Edgson, V. It Must Be My Hormones. Camberwell, Vic.

Brazil nuts Almonds Hazel nuts Macadamia nuts Pine nuts Walnuts Try to eat nuts whole, unroasted and unsalted. Olive oil. Herbs and spices.

While there is some controversy about the value of turmeric, some studies cite the value of anti-inflammatory foods such as turmeric in reducing depression Kocaadam, B.

and Şanlier, N. Curcumin, an active component of turmeric Curcuma longa , and its effects on health. Omega 3 rich foods. Wild fish avoid tuna, swordfish, the larger ocean predators which contain large amounts of the neurotoxin mercury Hemp, linseed, chia seed, green leafy vegetables, walnuts, pumpkin seeds etc.

Green tea contains an abundance of anti-inflammatory, detoxifying and antioxidant polyphenols and other phyto-nutrients Greger, M. Quality black and white teas are also high in polyphenols and phyto-nutrients. Red wine. High in resveratrol, a powerful polyphenol.

AGE Advanced Glycation End products. Meat and dairy. Amino acids. Integrative Mental Health Care. All colourful fruits and vegetables — particularly berries, dark leafy green veggies that contain red, blues and purple foods think swiss chard, curly kale, etc.

Red wine — look for organic wines and limit consumption to avoid detrimental effects of increased alcohol consumption. There are a tremendous variety of different antioxidants like polyphenols that are each beneficial to our health. Having a diverse and large pool of antioxidants available will combat exogenous chemicals we are exposed to that are poor for our health, and encourages a healthy, diversified microbiome.

Authorized to prescribe certain controlled medications and provide injectable therapies, she is a member of both the Ontario and Canadian Associations of Naturopathic Doctors.

Annex Naturopathic Clinic is committed to creating high quality and medically reviewed content to help educate readers on subjects related to their health and wellness. Here is how we achieve this goal:. Writing: Our content is meticulously researched and written by our practitioners who source details from highly-respected databases, academic journals, and scientific articles in the field of medicine and healthcare.

Our practitioners also include insights from their robust clinical practices. Editing: Each article is carefully edited by a peer reviewer a senior practitioner to ensure accuracy, clarity, and relevance. Medically Verified: The article is thoroughly reviewed and verified by a registered naturopathic doctor from Annex Naturopathic Clinic to ensure the factual accuracy of medical facts, assumptions, and interpretations within the content.

Foods that Promote a Healthy Microbiome: Polyphenols By:. Article contents. So how do we encourage the growth and maintenance of a healthy microbiome?

A diet rich in polyphenols have been found to be crucial for good health.

Dietary polyphenols including phenolic acids, flavonoids, Detoxificatio, tannins, lignans, stilbenes, and detoxificqtion are widely Hunger relief organizations dehoxification grains, cereals, Polypheonls, vegetables, spices, fruits, chocolates, and detoxificatiion like fruit Lean Body Formation, tea, coffee and wine. Pre-clinical Hunger relief organizations clinical evidence strongly suggest that long term consumption of diets rich in polyphenols offer protection against the development of various chronic diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases CVDscancer, diabetes, inflammatory disorders and infectious illness. Increased intake of foods containing polyphenols for example, quercetin, epigallocatechingallate, resveratrol, cyanidin etc. It has been suggested that the antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols plays a pivotal role in the prevention of OS-induced human diseases. This review specifically focuses a current understanding on the dietary sources of polyphenols and their protective effects including mechanisms of action against various major human diseases. Polyphenols for detoxification

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