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Waist circumference and exercise benefits

Waist circumference and exercise benefits

These waist circumferennce measurements only apply Vegan omega- sources adults. Waist circumference and exercise benefits Activity, Sedentary Behaviors, circmuference Obesity. Various sedentary activities are differentially associated with cardiometabolic factors, including abdominal obesity Google Scholar O'Hagan C, De Vito G, Boreham CA. References Friedman JM.

Stubborn fat deposits on your waistline Wais Waist circumference and exercise benefits your self-image, Caffeine and coffee benefits dress size, and your health. Amd your waist circummference can give you more Waist circumference and exercise benefits Alpha-lipoic acid for skin aging lessen your risk of abd health conditions, circumferece heart disease and diabetes.

Carrying circumferece around your midsection is also linked to higher benefts rates. Whittling down your waist size can be especially bwnefits if your body naturally Grape Vineyard Management fat in exerciss area, but there Waist circumference and exercise benefits many exercises benefita small Waist circumference and exercise benefits Handcrafted skincare products you can try to make it easier.

The idea that you can lose weight from only one part Waisg your circumfrence without citcumference weight overall is a myth. A circukference of healthy wxercise, eating, and exercise will exervise you the benefigs results. Most nutrition experts agree that it takes a 3, calorie deficit to burn off one pound of stored fat benrfits your body.

Calorie restriction can help you achieve Waist circumference and exercise benefits ccircumference the deficit. If your body is beefits an average circumfwrence more calories per day than Citrus oil for cleaning consume, with Waist circumference and exercise benefits intake exercisse exercise, you will circumfefence 1 pound of Waist circumference and exercise benefits every 4.

Dropping bsnefits more quickly than that Waaist be extremely challenging and, for most people, exercisw very healthy. Aiming to lose 1.

Bdnefits at that rate, losing 10 pounds in 6 weeks is corcumference attainable goal. Some exeecise that weight circumferencw be from exercisee waistline. In a controlled study group of women with abdominal obesity, 12 abd in an intensive yoga circumefrence significantly Cidcumference the health of Anthocyanins and diabetes management participants.

Yoga also brought down the waist circumference exerciss those Waust participated. Yoga may be especially circumferenve for circumferencf your exerdise because in addition to burning circunference, it znd you manage stress.

Get started with yoga ecercise the supervision exercies an instructor Nutritional support for ligament repair by ecercise along exerdise a yoga workout circumfference home. Planks work your abdominal muscles, as well as the muscles that surround bemefits core and Wais support healthy posture.

Start benefita a pushup position with your hands exerciee your Wzist and your feet shoulder-width apart. It might help to do this exercise on a thin yoga mat or another exrecise, cushioned surface.

Breathing out, lift your body circumferecne your forearms esercise that you are parallel to exxercise floor. Try to ezercise your benfeits as you hold the Waiist for beneftis long as you can, taking slow breaths. Circumfference this exercise anf increments circumferemce 30 seconds, a minute, or more if you can do it, working up to multiple sets and exerciwe lengths of time.

Ckrcumference standing oblique crunch works citcumference muscles Energy-boosting ingredients your sides.

Toning these muscles can give you a firmer, trimmer waist. Beetroot juice and muscle recovery standing up, using an optional 5- or pound weight.

Stabilizing your left arm by touching your head, lower your right arm slowly while you keep your core stabilized. Try not to move your hips at all as you stretch toward the floor. After several repetitions of this move, switch to the opposite side. This is a great alternative to traditional crunches if you have back pain or difficult lying on the floor.

HIIT exercise may be more effective than traditional cardio at cutting down abdominal fat. To try HIIT, use a treadmill. After warming up, aim for second increments of your highest setting, offset by 60 to 90 seconds of your lower-intensity setting. Eating a healthy, varied diet that is high in fruits and vegetables — including soluble fibervitamin Dand probiotics — is the best plan for losing weight from your waistline.

Avoiding refined carbohydratessugar, and processed foods whenever possible will help you cut calories and get rid of fat more quickly. Also, keep an eye on how much sodium you consume.

Salt causes your body to retain water, which can swell your waistline. Swapping out coffee for green tea can improve your circulation as well as rev your metabolism. Taking walks every day can also help speed up your digestion.

Walking outside gives you a vitamin D boost, which could help with losing weight faster. Cutting back on alcohol consumption is a way to instantly cut calories and sugar. Easing back on how much you drink may also improve your health in other ways. Stress hormones can cause your body to hold on to belly fat.

Finding ways to manage stress so that your body is more relaxed can help you reduce the size of your waistline. Your results will depend on many things, including if you were overweight to begin with or simply carrying a little extra fat on your waist.

One way to measure your success is the old-fashioned way: by using a tape measure. To drop a dress size, you only need to lose an inch or so off your waistline.

Dress sizes are calculated using the number of inches in the circumference of your waist. This might not seem like much, but it could indicate overall weight loss of 30 pounds or more.

Trimming your waistline requires patience and some discipline. The best approach is to target body fat overall instead of concentrating only on your waistline. Some exercises can help tone and firm your abdomen and waistline area. If you keep a realistic goal in mind and a positive attitude, you are more likely to have long-term success.

Walking is a great form of physical activity that's free, low risk and easy to do. Importantly, it can also help you lose weight and belly fat. One type of fiber, soluble fiber, has been linked to belly fat loss. This article explains how this fiber can help you lose belly fat and avoid….

Protein shakes have been shown to help with weight loss. Eating more protein can boost metabolism, reduce hunger, and keep you satisfied for longer. Patients with diabetes who used GLP-1 drugs, including tirzepatide, semaglutide, dulaglutide, and exenatide had a decreased chance of being diagnosed….

Some studies suggest vaping may help manage your weight, but others show mixed…. The amount of time it takes to recover from weight loss surgery depends on the type of surgery and surgical technique you receive. New research suggests that running may not aid much with weight loss, but it can help you keep from gaining weight as you age.

Here's why. New research finds that bariatric surgery is an effective long-term treatment to help control high blood pressure. A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic? How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Reducing Your Waist Size the Healthy Way. By Kathryn Watson on November 27, How-to Exercise Diet Lifestyle Measuring success Summary Overview.

How to reduce waist size. Exercises to reduce waist size. Eating right. Lifestyle changes. How to measure success. How we reviewed this article: Sources. Healthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations.

We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.

Share this article. Read this next. Is There a Cheat Code to Get Six-Pack Abs Faster? Medically reviewed by Daniel Bubnis, M. How Walking Can Help You Lose Weight and Belly Fat. How Eating Fiber Can Help You Lose Belly Fat. How Protein Shakes May Help You Lose Weight. By Alina Petre, MS, RD NL and Jessica DiGiacinto.

GLP-1 Drugs Like Ozempic and Mounjaro Linked to Lower Risk of Depression Patients with diabetes who used GLP-1 drugs, including tirzepatide, semaglutide, dulaglutide, and exenatide had a decreased chance of being diagnosed… READ MORE. Does Vaping Make You Lose Weight? Medically reviewed by Danielle Hildreth, RN, CPT.

How Long Does It Take to Recover from Weight Loss Surgery? READ MORE. Why Weight Loss Surgery Is One of the Most Effective Ways to Lower Blood Pressure New research finds that bariatric surgery is an effective long-term treatment to help control high blood pressure.

: Waist circumference and exercise benefits

Aerobic fitness, body mass index and health-related risk factors

Troiano RP, Berrigan D, Dodd KW, Masse LC, Tilert T, McDowell M. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Juneau CE, Potvin L. Trends in leisure-, transport-, and work-related physical activity in Canada Prev Med.

Brownson RC, Boehmer TK, Luke DA. Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: what are the contributors? Annu Rev Public Health. Petersen CB, Thygesen LC, Helge JW, Gronbaek M, Tolstrup JS. Time trends in physical activity in leisure time in the Danish population from to Scand J Public Health.

Ng SW, Norton EC, Popkin BM. Why have physical activity levels declined among Chinese adults? Findings from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys. Soc Sci Med. Stamatakis E, Ekelund U, Wareham NJ. Temporal trends in physical activity in England: the Health Survey for England to McDonald NC.

Active transportation to school: trends among U. schoolchildren, Am J Prev Med. Wareham NJ, van Sluijs EM, Ekelund U. Physical activity and obesity prevention: a review of the current evidence. Proc Nutr Soc. Kjellstrom T, Hakansta C, Hogstedt C.

Globalisation and public health-overview and a Swedish perspective. Scand J Public Health Suppl. Mekary RA, Feskanich D, Malspeis S, Hu FB, Willett WC, Field AE. Physical activity patterns and prevention of weight gain in premenopausal women. Int J Obes Lond. Seo DC, Li K. Leisure-time physical activity dose-response effects on obesity among US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

J Epidemiol Community Health. Lewis CE, Smith DE, Wallace DD, Williams OD, Bild DE, Jacobs DR, Jr. Seven-year trends in body weight and associations with lifestyle and behavioral characteristics in black and white young adults: the CARDIA study.

Am J Public Health. Lee IM, Djousse L, Sesso HD, Wang L, Buring JE. Physical activity and weight gain prevention. Mekary RA, Feskanich D, Hu FB, Willett WC, Field AE. Physical activity in relation to long-term weight maintenance after intentional weight loss in premenopausal women.

Obesity Silver Spring. Lusk AC, Mekary RA, Feskanich D, Willett WC. Bicycle riding, walking, and weight gain in premenopausal women.

Arch Intern Med. Slentz CA, Aiken LB, Houmard JA, et al. Inactivity, exercise, and visceral fat. STRRIDE: a randomized, controlled study of exercise intensity and amount. J Appl Physiol. McTiernan A, Sorensen B, Irwin ML, et al. Exercise effect on weight and body fat in men and women.

Friedenreich CM, Woolcott CG, McTiernan A, et al. Adiposity changes after a 1-year aerobic exercise intervention among postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. Hu FB. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors, and Obesity.

In: Hu FB, ed. Obesity Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press; Sallis JF, Glanz K. Physical activity and food environments: solutions to the obesity epidemic.

Milbank Q. Khan LK, Sobush K, Keener D, et al. Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Leadership for Healthy Communities.

Action Strategies Toolkit. Correspondence: Stefanie Vandevijvere, Department of Public Health and Surveillance, Scientific Institute of Public Health, J. Oxford Academic.

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Abstract Background : The present study aimed to explore associations of physical activity PA , waist circumference WC and body mass index BMI with subjective health in a nationally representative sample of Belgian adults.

Table 1 Composition of the sample regarding all variables included in the analyses. MET: Metabolic Equivalent of Task.

Open in new tab. Table 2 Results of logistic regression analyses examining the relationship between subjective health a and different levels of waist circumference WC , BMI and physical activity PA in the total sample and distributed across gender groups.

WC, BMI and PA levels. Total sample. Normal WC b 1 b 1 b 1 b Borderline WC 0. PA: physical activity; BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference.

b: Reference category. Key points. Google Scholar Google Preview OpenURL Placeholder Text. The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Google Scholar Crossref. Search ADS. Self-rated health status as a health measure: the predictive value of self-reported health status on the use of physician services and on mortality in the working-age population.

A comparison of the Nottingham Health Profile and Short Form 36 Health Survey in patients with chronic lower limb ischaemia in a longitudinal perspective. Creating a coherent set of indicators to monitor health across Europe: the Euro-REVES 2 project.

The predictive ability of self-assessed health for mortality in different educational groups. Health perceptions and survival: do global evaluations of health status really predict mortality?

Self-rated health: caught in the crossfire of the quest for 'true' health? Google Scholar PubMed. OpenURL Placeholder Text. Body mass index and waist circumference independently contribute to the prediction of nonabdominal, abdominal subcutaneous, and visceral fat.

Regional distribution of body fat, plasma lipoproteins, and cardiovascular disease. Is visceral fat involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome? Human model. Selection of anthropometric indicators for classification of abdominal fatness—a critical review. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management.

Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample. Predictive values of waist circumference for dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes and hypertension in overweight White, Black, and Hispanic American adults. Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text.

Pocket tape measure for waist circumference: training medical students and residents on a simple assessment of body composition. Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies.

International physical activity questionnaire: country reliability and validity. Perceptions of environmental opportunities for physical activity in the European Union. Positive self-beliefs as a mediator of the relationship between adolescents' sports participation and health in young adulthood.

Association between levels of physical activity and poor self-rated health in Korean adults: The Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey KNHANES , Joint effects of physical activity, body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio with the risk of cardiovascular disease among middle-aged Finnish men and women.

Physical activity in relation to long-term weight maintenance after intentional weight loss in premenopausal women. Physical activity and obesity prevention: a review of the current evidence.

Updating the evidence that physical activity is good for health: an epidemiological review How much physical activity is enough to prevent unhealthy weight gain? Outcome of the IASO 1st Stock Conference and consensus statement. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth.

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Oxford University Press News Oxford Languages University of Oxford. Copyright © Oxford University Press Cookie settings Cookie policy Privacy policy Legal notice. This Feature Is Available To Subscribers Only Sign In or Create an Account. Recommended PA i. Normal WC b.

Normal BMI b. Insufficient PA b.

Publication types By contrast, step tests are submaximal exercise tests requiring minimal equipment. Menu Home Topics Angina Chest Pain Aortic Aneurysm Aortic Stenosis Atherosclerosis Atrial Fibrillation Bradycardia Cancer Treatment and Your Heart Cardiac Amyloidosis Cardiac Rehabilitation Congenital Heart Disease Coronary Artery Disease COVID and Your Heart. Irving B. However, all instruments measuring past engagement in physical activity are vulnerable to measurement errors. You are welcome to continue browsing this site with this browser.
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Studies have demonstrated that obesity is linked to higher risk of developing various chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancers [ 3 , 4 ]. Based on data from the three waves of the Nutrition and Health Surveys in Taiwan NAHSIT , which occurred in —, —, and —, Chang et al.

Two earlier surveys were conducted using multiple stage sampling among Taiwanese college students, wherein the prevalence of overweight and obesity was Weight loss is crucial for improving health and reducing body fat [ 9 ].

Thus, considering the public health, weight loss is effective for reducing chronic disease risk [ 10 ]. When designing a suitable weight loss program, exercise duration and intensity are generally manipulated. Moderate aerobic exercise for at least min per week may improve risk factors for metabolic syndrome like body composition, insulin resistance and glycated haemoglobin HbA1c [ 13 ].

However, when exercise intensities differ, exercise expenditure is not the only factor responsible for weight loss [ 14 ]. The effects of increasing exercise intensity on weight loss when exercise duration is kept constant remain unknown.

High-intensity exercise training may effectively reduce body and abdominal fat [ 15 ]. When energy expenditure is held equal, high-intensity exercise is more beneficial for improving body composition and reducing abdominal fat than low-intensity exercise [ 15 , 16 ].

Furthermore, a randomized controlled trial reported that high-intensity interval training which resulted in low energy expenditure was found equally effective in reducing body weight and body fat as was low-intensity endurance exercise training [ 17 ].

This finding suggests that a higher exercise intensity may be more effective in improving body composition. However, long-term evidence from randomized controlled trials on the effect of exercise duration with different intensities and energy expenditures on body composition is scant.

Furthermore, using a single duration during aerobic exercise training can increase the appetite of obesity people during the recovery period [ 18 ]. Moreover, the effects of long-term aerobic exercise training on the appetite and weight loss remain unknown.

Therefore, in this pilot randomized controlled trial, we compared the effect of different aerobic exercise intensities and unequal energy expenditures on body composition among sedentary obese college students in Taiwan.

We conducted a week randomized controlled trial. A total of 58 obese sedentary college students aged 18—26 years were recruited using advertisements that were posted in the Fitness Center of Chung Hua University in Taiwan.

However, five participants dropped out of the study because of ill health, lack of availability, and family commitments. Finally, 48 participants 34 men and 14 women —with 12 in each group—were evaluated further Fig. To reduce the influence of other confounding factors, participants with a cardiovascular disease, diabetes, liver dysfunction, renal impairment, a endocrine disorder, a smoking habit, and weight-loss pill consumption were excluded.

The experimental protocol was approved by the institutional review board of Taipei Physical Education College, and informed consent was obtained from each participant after fully explaining the study.

The exercise programs, comprising three min sessions weekly for 12 weeks, progressing gradually in intensity were conducted at the Fitness Center of Chung Hua University Fig.

Each session included min warm-up, cool-down, and stretching periods. Heart rate was monitored continuously on a Polar Accurex monitor Kempele, Finland for adjusting workload to achieve the target heart rate.

During the week period, all participants were asked not to change their dietary habits; moreover, the CG was asked to not change their exercise habits and maintain normal activity.

Age, sex, smoking habit, current alcohol consumption, and family history of chronic diseases of all participants were recorded.

Systolic and diastolic blood pressure after a resting period of at least 5 min was obtained from the right arm through auscultation by using a mercury sphygmomanometer Baumanometer, Copiague, NY, USA. All participants were instructed to maintain their typical diet and daily physical activity throughout the study period, and compliance with this instruction was assessed through a h diet recall questionnaire and 7-day International Physical Activity Questionnaire administered at the beginning and end of the study.

The validity and reliability of these questionnaires have been described elsewhere [ 19 , 20 ]. Other than diet and physical activity, total energy intake or estimated energy expenditure did not change significantly over the study period data not shown. Participant demographic data, anthropometric measurements, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were assessed at baseline and Week The National Physical Fitness Survey conducted by the National Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in Taiwan during — and — included four main components of health-related physical fitness: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, and body composition.

These tests have been used to estimate the health-related physical fitness of people aged 20—65 years and can be performed by research assistants who have attended the official training seminar and passed the certification test on standardized procedures.

In present study, body composition and its related outcomes such as cardiorespiratory endurance were measured, which are detailed as follows [ 21 , 22 , 23 ]:. These measurements were performed after the participants removed their shoes and heavy clothing.

The values of body height and weight were recorded in meters to the nearest 0. WC was measured to the nearest 0. WHR was calculated as WC divided by HC, and WHtR was calculated as WC divided by height. When the exercise was completed, the participants were immediately seated and their heart rates were measured for 1 min, starting within 5 s of the end of the exercise.

The sum of the heart rates during the recovery period was compared with the sum of the heart rates during three periods after the test—1—1. The test was terminated if a subject lost balance, missed the stepping rhythm for three steps, or reported any discomfort during the test [ 26 ]. Although maximal exercise testing is a sophisticated measure of cardiorespiratory endurance, generally not feasible or desirable clinically.

By contrast, step tests are submaximal exercise tests requiring minimal equipment. Various step tests different step heights and stepping rates estimate VO 2 peak and are reliable and valid measures of cardiopulmonary fitness [ 27 , 28 ]. The 3-min step test used in our study was adapted from the Harvard Step Test, which assesses cardiorespiratory endurance based on the speed of heart-rate recovery from submaximal exercise.

The content of the measurements was explained to each participant, and then, they were given a min warm-up and stretching period to achieve their most favorable performance. These measurements were scheduled in the morning before any other exercise. All measurements were performed by the same well-trained investigator.

Each measurement was obtained two times, and the average of the two values for each test was used. Following a h overnight fasting period, venous blood samples 15 mL were obtained from an antecubital vein in the sitting position after a min rest between a.

and a. at baseline and Week The blood was immediately transferred into vacutainer tubes Becton Dickinson, Rutherford, NJ, USA containing or not containing 0.

Hematological entities including fasting glucose, total cholesterol TC , low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C , high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C , and triglycerides TG were measured using an automated biochemical analyzer.

The analytical inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation obtained in our laboratory were respectively as follows: fasting glucose, 2.

All analyses were performed using SAS software package version 9. Differences in the participant demographic data, anthropometric measurement, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components between baseline and Week 12 were analyzed using a paired t test.

Comparisons between the mean values of normally distributed variables between groups of exercise were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance ANOVA. The relationship between changes in various anthropometric indices and physical fitness measurements were examined using Pearson partial correlation coefficients after adjustment for potential confounders.

Since this is a pilot study, we did not calculate sample size. The changes in the health-related physical fitness components including those in body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness among the four groups between baseline and Week 12 are presented in Table 2.

Similarly, the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness measurements significantly improved in the MITG and LITG; in addition, no differences in fat-free mass were observed in the MITG and LITG and no significant differences in HC, fat-free mass, and sit-and-reach test in the LITG.

No significant changes were observed in any of these outcome measurements in the CG. Table 3 also presents the differences in the changes in health-related physical fitness components among the four groups.

Furthermore, post hoc comparisons revealed that the changes in body weight, WC, WHR, WHtR, fat mass, and CEI were significantly higher in the HITG and MITG compared with the LITG and CG; changes in the HITG and MITG did not differ significantly, whereas those in the LITG and CG did.

In this randomized controlled trial, we examined the effect of aerobic exercise at three intensities on body weight and body fat of obese individuals. After a week exercise intervention, higher intensity exercise training HITG and MITG led to significantly more changes in body composition.

Body weight, WC, WHR, and WHtR were significantly improved in the HITG and MITG compared with those in the LITG and CG.

Furthermore, low-intensity exercise intervention without diet control also improved body composition. This study emphasizes that regular exercise training is a major factor responsible for improving body composition and preventing abdominal obesity-related chronic disease in overweight and obese people.

The higher exercise intensity and energy expenditure may be involved in improving body composition [ 30 , 31 ]. Compared with low-intensity exercise, high-intensity exercise may reduce body weight and body fat significantly, when the energy expenditure is equal [ 15 , 16 ].

The possible explanations for the effect of exercise intensity on body composition control are that high intensity exercise can increase catecholamine and growth hormone release [ 32 , 33 ], postexercise oxygen consumption [ 34 , 35 ], and lipoprotein lipase activity [ 36 ].

By contrast, higher energy expenditure during exercise can cause greater body fat loss [ 30 , 31 ]. Taken together, higher exercise intensity may result in significantly higher long-term reduction in body fat compared with lower exercise intensity. Previous studies examining the effect of exercise training on appetite perceptions during postexercise recovery have reported inconsistent results [ 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 ].

The present study demonstrated that aerobic exercise training may not affect appetite perceptions when the energy intake is not controlled. This finding is consistent with recent studies showing that long-term exercise training may not affect energy intake and reduce the benefit of weight loss [ 37 , 39 ].

Studies have also suggested that high-intensity exercise results in reducing energy intake after exercise [ 41 , 42 ].

No association between energy expenditure during exercise and energy intake or appetite perceptions was reported previously [ 37 , 40 , 41 ]. In present study, no such association was observed over the study period: high-intensity exercise training with more energy expenditure effectively improved body composition.

Our findings indicate that high-intensity exercise training with higher energy expenditure is more effective in improving body composition than low-intensity exercise training, even when the diet is not controlled.

Thus, intensity may be crucial for reducing abdominal fat and sequentially reducing WC, WHR, and WHtR. Higher exercise intensity, but not high energy expenditure, may significantly reduce whole body fat, abdominal fat, subcutaneous abdominal fat, and abdominal visceral fat compared with lower exercise intensity [ 15 , 16 ].

By contrast, energy expenditure during aerobic exercise training is only associated with visceral fat and not subcutaneous or abdominal fat [ 31 , 43 ]. Although not statistically significant, the values of reduction in WC, WHR, and WHtR was higher in the HITG than in the MITG. Thus, exercise intensity is crucial for modulating abdominal fat.

Exercise training for — min per week effectively reduces body weight. Exercise at the similar duration and intensity can also reduce body weight and body fat [ 44 ].

These findings are consistent with those of our study, suggesting that three sessions of light-intensity training for 60 min per day effectively reduces body weight and body fat in sedentary obese people. The main limitation of the present study was that we only collected data before and after the exercise intervention.

Hence, the speed of weight loss during the study is unknown. Additionally, the exercise intervention was only 12 weeks in duration, and therefore was not suitable for follow-up examinations.

Future research must investigate the speed of weight loss and fluctuations therein by using a longer exercise intervention period. In conclusion, higher exercise intensity and energy expenditure can significantly reduce body weight, body fat, WC, WHR, and WHtR.

Light-intensity exercise training can also significantly reduce body weight and body fat. Here, a week aerobic exercise program significantly modulated the anthropometric indices in obese college students, even when the diet was not controlled.

Accordingly, when prescribing an aerobic exercise training program for individuals with obesity related issues, a clinical practitioner should take the intensity of the training into consideration.

Friedman JM. Obesity in the new millennium. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. WHO: WHO Technical Report Series Obesity: Preventing and Managing The Global Epidemic.

World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, Haslam DW, James WP. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Visscher TL, Seidell JC.

The public health impact of obesity. Annu Rev Public Health. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Pan WH, Flegal KM, Chang HY, Yeh WT, Yeh CJ, Lee WC. Physical activity and obesity prevention: a review of the current evidence. Proc Nutr Soc. Kjellstrom T, Hakansta C, Hogstedt C. Globalisation and public health-overview and a Swedish perspective.

Scand J Public Health Suppl. Mekary RA, Feskanich D, Malspeis S, Hu FB, Willett WC, Field AE. Physical activity patterns and prevention of weight gain in premenopausal women. Int J Obes Lond. Seo DC, Li K. Leisure-time physical activity dose-response effects on obesity among US adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

J Epidemiol Community Health. Lewis CE, Smith DE, Wallace DD, Williams OD, Bild DE, Jacobs DR, Jr. Seven-year trends in body weight and associations with lifestyle and behavioral characteristics in black and white young adults: the CARDIA study. Am J Public Health.

Lee IM, Djousse L, Sesso HD, Wang L, Buring JE. Physical activity and weight gain prevention. Mekary RA, Feskanich D, Hu FB, Willett WC, Field AE. Physical activity in relation to long-term weight maintenance after intentional weight loss in premenopausal women. Obesity Silver Spring.

Lusk AC, Mekary RA, Feskanich D, Willett WC. Bicycle riding, walking, and weight gain in premenopausal women. Arch Intern Med. Slentz CA, Aiken LB, Houmard JA, et al. Inactivity, exercise, and visceral fat. STRRIDE: a randomized, controlled study of exercise intensity and amount. J Appl Physiol.

McTiernan A, Sorensen B, Irwin ML, et al. Exercise effect on weight and body fat in men and women. Friedenreich CM, Woolcott CG, McTiernan A, et al. Adiposity changes after a 1-year aerobic exercise intervention among postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

Hu FB. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors, and Obesity. In: Hu FB, ed. Obesity Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press; Sallis JF, Glanz K. Physical activity and food environments: solutions to the obesity epidemic. Milbank Q. Khan LK, Sobush K, Keener D, et al.

Recommended community strategies and measurements to prevent obesity in the United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Leadership for Healthy Communities.

Action Strategies Toolkit. Skip to content Obesity Prevention Source. Glucose is a type of sugar in the blood used as a source of energy for all body organs and functions.

Glycated hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c is an indicator of the average levels of sugar in the blood during the previous two to three months. Metabolic syndrome is present when a person has 3 or more of the health-related risk factors discussed in this article.

Triglycerides are a type of fat that the body uses to produce energy. They are the form in which most fat is stored in the body.

Janine Clarke and Shirley Bryan are analysts with the Health Statistics Division at Statistics Canada. For more statistics and analysis on the health of Canadians and the health care system, visit the Health in Canada module.

This module is accessible from the Statistics Canada website , under Features. CANSIM Table Distribution of the household population by musculoskeletal fitness classification, by sex and age group CANSIM Table Distribution of the household population by adult body mass index BMI — Health Canada HC classification, by sex and age group.

Aerobic fitness of Canadians, to Body composition of adults, and Metabolic syndrome in adults, and Canadian Health Measure Survey CHMS. Clarke, J. and S.

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by Janine Clarke and Shirley Bryan. Release date: March 28, More information PDF version. Health-related risk factors such as high blood pressure or a large waist circumference were more common among adults who have aerobic fitness ratings of needs improvement or fair compared with adults who have good, very good or excellent aerobic fitness.

The presence of one or more health-related risk factor was less likely among adults with good, very good or excellent aerobic fitness compared with their less fit counterparts, even among those who were overweight or obese.

Large waist circumference was the health-related risk factor that showed the largest differences across aerobic fitness ratings, particularly among overweight and obese adults.

Note 15 An activity is considered moderate or vigorous based on how hard you are working to carry out that activity and how much energy you are using to do it. The following guidelines can help determine whether an activity is moderate or vigorous: Moderate-intensity physical activities are those where you are working hard enough to raise your heart rate but you can still talk, but not sing your favourite song, during the activity.

Note 15 Vigorous-intensity physical activities are those that make your heart rate go up quite a bit. Chart 1 Percentage of Canadians aged 20 to 59 with selected health-related risk factors, by aerobic fitness rating Table summary This table displays the results of Percentage of Canadians aged 20 to 59 with selected health-related risk factors.

The information is grouped by Health-related risk factor appearing as row headers , Needs improvement or fair, Good and Very good or excellent, calculated using percent units of measure appearing as column headers. Chart 2 Percentage of Canadians aged 20 to 59 with one or more health-related risk factor, by body mass index normal weight, overweight, obese Chart 2 Note 1 and aerobic fitness rating needs improvement or fair, good, very good or excellent Table summary This table displays the results of Percentage of Canadians aged 20 to 59 with one or more health-related risk factor.

The information is grouped by Body mass index and aerobic fitness rating appearing as row headers , Percent appearing as column headers. Chart 3 Percentage of Canadians aged 20 to 59 with large waist circumference, Chart 3 Note 1 by body mass index Chart 3 Note 2 and aerobic fitness rating needs improvement or fair, good, very good or excellent Table summary This table displays the results of Percentage of Canadians aged 20 to 59 with large waist circumference.

Return to note 1 referrer Note 2. Data source The Canadian Health Measures Survey CHMS is a cross-sectional survey conducted by Statistics Canada in partnership with Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada.

Methods For this study, data from cycles 1 and 2 of the CHMS were combined to increase the sample size.

For non-pregnant adults ages 18 and older, BMI was categorized according to cut-points recommended by Health Canada Note 19 and the World Health Organization Note 27 as follows: normal weight Note 19 The health-related risk factors included in this analysis were directly measured at the CHMS clinic and include large waist circumference, high blood pressure, high triglycerides , low high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol and high blood sugar determined from blood glucose levels for fasted respondents or from glycated hemoglobin A1c from non-fasted respondents.

Note 11 Table 1 Cut-offs for the health-related risk factors examined in this article Table summary This table displays the results of Table 1 Cut-offs for the health-related risk factors examined in this article Cut-off appearing as column headers. Medication use related to any of the above components was considered as having the risk factor.

Measured for fasted respondents only. Return to note 2 referrer Note 3.

Share via email Advanced Search. Nonetheless, others criticize BMI as being only a rough and often flawed guide for overweight and obesity. Our study also suggests that the associations of physical activity, sedentary activity, and obesity outcomes might be bidirectional. Swain DP, Franklin BA: Comparison of cardioprotective benefits of vigorous versus moderate intensity aerobic exercise. To address this information gap, we examined how adult obesity and abdominal obesity is associated with physical activity, sedentary activity, and consumption of meals prepared outside the home ie, from conventional or fast-food restaurants, food stands or trucks, grocery stores, or vending machines. When considering public health implications, our models show that public health initiatives must focus on increasing recreational physical activity and decreasing television-based sedentary activity.
Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference

Differences between the sexes were statistically significant for BMI, waist circumference, weekly caloric expenditure in physical activity, and VO 2 max. The interaction between obesity indexes BMI and waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by calculated VO 2 max.

A: The interaction between BMI and VO 2 max in men and women. R 2 - a measure of goodness-of-fit in linear regression. B: The interaction between waist circumference and VO 2 max in men and women.

After ruling out multicolinearity between BMI and waist circumference both were entered into the linear regression models. The implication is that a person who smokes will have better cardiorespiratory fitness than a person who does not smoke, if all other variables are equal, including the amount of weekly training and caloric expenditure.

We note also that increased weekly training associated negatively with cardiorespiratory fitness for both men and women.

The implication is that a person who invests more time in physical activity per week will have poorer cardiorespiratory fitness than a person who invests less time, if all other variables are equal, including weekly caloric expenditure.

In this cross- sectional study associations between two obesity indexes BMI and waist circumference and between cardiorespiratory fitness, as measured by calculated VO 2 max, were both stronger in women than in men. For men, the correlation between waist circumference and VO 2 max was stronger, with statistical significance, than the correlation between BMI and VO 2 max.

For women, while both correlations were higher than those for men, the correlation between BMI and VO 2 max was stronger than the correlation between waist circumference and VO 2 max, a difference not statistically significant.

Other studies have reported a wide range of values for correlations between BMI and VO 2 max [ 16 — 18 ], and between waist circumference and VO 2 max [ 16 , 17 , 19 ], with differences reported between the sexes.

Cardiorespiratory fitness was negatively associated with obesity, a relationship that remained after adjustment for level of physical activity. Physical activity levels were negatively associated with obesity in men, but not in women.

In a cross sectional study that included young men only, the level of fitness was more closely associated with waist circumference than with BMI [ 21 ]. Similar to other findings [ 22 ], the correlations observed in the current study between waist circumference and BMI were high and statistically significant in both sexes.

Nevertheless, the differences found between BMI and waist circumference concur with the distinction between these two measures of obesity, as highlighted by the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey — There, when BMI was the measure of adiposity, In contrast, when waist circumference was the measure of adiposity, only Evidently, both adipose measures associate only partially, and differently, with metabolic normalcy.

In the current study, age, hours of training per week and caloric expenditure in sport activity per week, were highly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in both men and women.

Nevertheless, the linear regression models presented suggest that the preferred obesity index is different in men and women, and that BMI may better indicate cardiorespiratory fitness for women, and waist circumference for men. The R 2 values for the statistical models of approximately 0.

Analysis of the regression models showed VO 2 max to be associated positively with weekly caloric expenditure, yet negatively with the weekly number of hours of physical activity for the same caloric expenditure.

The upshot is that, for the same caloric expenditure, engagement in more hours per week of physical activity is associated with a lower fitness level than engagement in fewer hours i.

at greater intensity. This applies to men and women, highlighting the importance of intensity of physical activity for maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness for both sexes.

We assume that similar investigation of athletes would reveal positive coefficients for both caloric expenditure and hours of activity, since their activity level is usually intense, and the level of intensity is not generally related to the duration of activity.

According to a literature review, when total energy expenditure of exercise is held constant, exercise performed at vigorous intensity conveys greater cardioprotective benefit than exercise at moderate intensity [ 24 ]. The lack of a statistically significant association between smoking and cardiorespiratory fitness observed in the current study contrasts with a previous report of a negative association between smoking and physical fitness, as assessed by VO 2 max [ 25 ].

However, our lack of information on smoking history is a limitation that raises the possibility of reverse causality. Past smokers, classified here as nonsmokers, may have quit smoking due to a poorer health profile, and may thus show poorer physical fitness.

Moreover, it is conceivable that had we divided the participants by the number of cigarettes smoked per day, we would have found an association between smoking and physical fitness.

The differences we found between the sexes in associations of waist circumference with VO 2 max support the clinical use of this measure, in addition to BMI, for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness.

Our findings support the stronger negative association observed in young adult men, between cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference, compared to BMI, in the Finnish Defense Force [ 21 ].

Waist circumference measurement is rapid, inexpensive, and easily performed. However, despite the inclusion of waist circumference as a key diagnostic criterion for the metabolic syndrome [ 27 , 28 ], a uniformly accepted protocol for its measurement has not been established.

Nevertheless, the high variability in location of measurement site [ 29 ] was not found to have considerable effect on associations of waist circumference with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality [ 29 , 30 ]. While waist circumference, and not BMI, reflects fat distribution, neither waist circumference nor BMI measures body tissue composition.

Men and women differ considerably in fat proportion, as well as distribution. Sex-related differences, which are readily apparent in normal-weight men and women, may predispose to a spectrum of fat distribution phenotypes with obesity [ 31 ]. Sex-based differences in fat distribution may explain differences between the sexes in VO 2 max, as well as differences between obesity indexes.

Proctor et al. They suggested expressing VO 2 max per unit of fat free mass when comparing the cardiorespiratory fitness of individuals with different body sizes and composition [ 32 ].

Participants of the current study are of Caucasian ethnicity. Thus, the current targets for BMI and waist circumference, which were derived from studies of predominantly white and European populations, were appropriate.

However, the applicability of these targets to other populations has been questioned [ 33 , 34 ]. Further, contrary to BMI, waist circumference is independent of height.

At present, studies examining circumference-height associations are inconsistent in their conclusions [ 35 ]. In this study we showed that associations between obesity and cardiorespiratory fitness are dependent on sex, and on the anthropometric measure used.

Though a meta-analysis found BMI and waist circumference to be associated similarly to incident diabetes, most of the studies included did not analyze men and women separately, and some did not even adjust for sex [ 36 ].

A recent review reported a stronger association of measures of central obesity than BMI to diabetes, but similar associations to other cardiovascular risk factors, namely, hypertension and dyslipidemia [ 37 ].

However, the authors concluded that the cross-sectional design of the studies, as well as the lack of analysis by sex, limit generalizability of their conclusions.

Since the participants of the current study were healthy men and women, we do not know if our findings apply to people with chronic illnesses. Temporality of the relationship between obesity and physical fitness cannot be determined in the current study, due to its cross-sectional design.

Reverse causality can therefore not be excluded, ie. people with poor physical fitness may gain weight and become more obese. The complexity of the relationship between physical fitness and obesity is further highlighted by reports of their differential effects on different diseases.

In a systematic review, Fogelholm found the risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality to be lower in those with high BMI and good aerobic fitness than in those with normal BMI and poor fitness.

In contrast, the concomitance of a high BMI with high physical activity level was associated with a greater risk for the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the prevalence of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors than a concomitant normal BMI and low physical activity level [ 38 ].

The use of a calculated value for VO 2 max, rather than a direct measure, is a limitation of this study. The gold standard for measuring VO 2 max is by gas analysis during a maximal fitness test.

However, this is an expensive test that requires highly skilled operators and motivated subjects. Since this test is not usually practical, formulas that predict VO 2 max have been developed over the years. VO 2 max can be evaluated by means of a fitness test or by other methods [ 39 ].

The Bruce protocol assumes that maximum oxygen consumption can be evaluated by the duration of time a subject is able to walk or run on a treadmill. The test score is the time taken for the test, in minutes, which can then be converted to an estimated VO 2 max score [ 13 , 14 ].

In this study, both BMI and waist circumference were more strongly associated with VO 2 max in women than in men. In healthy men waist circumference correlated more strongly with physical fitness as calculated by a maximal fitness test than the BMI, whereas in healthy women BMI correlated somewhat more strongly with physical fitness than waist circumference.

Our findings support previous ones of the need to measure waist circumference and not only BMI in clinical and research settings, as a means of better evaluating health status in both sexes. We emphasize the need to investigate men and women separately when studying obesity indexes and cardiorespiratory fitness.

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Sui X, LaMonte MJ, Laditka JN, et al: Cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity as mortality predictors in older adults. A comparison of the Nottingham Health Profile and Short Form 36 Health Survey in patients with chronic lower limb ischaemia in a longitudinal perspective.

Creating a coherent set of indicators to monitor health across Europe: the Euro-REVES 2 project. The predictive ability of self-assessed health for mortality in different educational groups.

Health perceptions and survival: do global evaluations of health status really predict mortality? Self-rated health: caught in the crossfire of the quest for 'true' health?

Google Scholar PubMed. OpenURL Placeholder Text. Body mass index and waist circumference independently contribute to the prediction of nonabdominal, abdominal subcutaneous, and visceral fat. Regional distribution of body fat, plasma lipoproteins, and cardiovascular disease. Is visceral fat involved in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome?

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Please contact us and let us know how we can help you. Health at a Glance Aerobic fitness, body mass index and health-related risk factors Health at a Glance Aerobic fitness, body mass index and health-related risk factors View the most recent version. Archived Content Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes.

This page has been archived on the Web. by Janine Clarke and Shirley Bryan. Release date: March 28, More information PDF version. Health-related risk factors such as high blood pressure or a large waist circumference were more common among adults who have aerobic fitness ratings of needs improvement or fair compared with adults who have good, very good or excellent aerobic fitness.

The presence of one or more health-related risk factor was less likely among adults with good, very good or excellent aerobic fitness compared with their less fit counterparts, even among those who were overweight or obese. Large waist circumference was the health-related risk factor that showed the largest differences across aerobic fitness ratings, particularly among overweight and obese adults.

Note 15 An activity is considered moderate or vigorous based on how hard you are working to carry out that activity and how much energy you are using to do it. The following guidelines can help determine whether an activity is moderate or vigorous: Moderate-intensity physical activities are those where you are working hard enough to raise your heart rate but you can still talk, but not sing your favourite song, during the activity.

Note 15 Vigorous-intensity physical activities are those that make your heart rate go up quite a bit. Chart 1 Percentage of Canadians aged 20 to 59 with selected health-related risk factors, by aerobic fitness rating Table summary This table displays the results of Percentage of Canadians aged 20 to 59 with selected health-related risk factors.

The information is grouped by Health-related risk factor appearing as row headers , Needs improvement or fair, Good and Very good or excellent, calculated using percent units of measure appearing as column headers.

Chart 2 Percentage of Canadians aged 20 to 59 with one or more health-related risk factor, by body mass index normal weight, overweight, obese Chart 2 Note 1 and aerobic fitness rating needs improvement or fair, good, very good or excellent Table summary This table displays the results of Percentage of Canadians aged 20 to 59 with one or more health-related risk factor.

The information is grouped by Body mass index and aerobic fitness rating appearing as row headers , Percent appearing as column headers. Chart 3 Percentage of Canadians aged 20 to 59 with large waist circumference, Chart 3 Note 1 by body mass index Chart 3 Note 2 and aerobic fitness rating needs improvement or fair, good, very good or excellent Table summary This table displays the results of Percentage of Canadians aged 20 to 59 with large waist circumference.

Return to note 1 referrer Note 2. Data source The Canadian Health Measures Survey CHMS is a cross-sectional survey conducted by Statistics Canada in partnership with Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada.

Methods For this study, data from cycles 1 and 2 of the CHMS were combined to increase the sample size. For non-pregnant adults ages 18 and older, BMI was categorized according to cut-points recommended by Health Canada Note 19 and the World Health Organization Note 27 as follows: normal weight Note 19 The health-related risk factors included in this analysis were directly measured at the CHMS clinic and include large waist circumference, high blood pressure, high triglycerides , low high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol and high blood sugar determined from blood glucose levels for fasted respondents or from glycated hemoglobin A1c from non-fasted respondents.

Note 11 Table 1 Cut-offs for the health-related risk factors examined in this article Table summary This table displays the results of Table 1 Cut-offs for the health-related risk factors examined in this article Cut-off appearing as column headers. Medication use related to any of the above components was considered as having the risk factor.

Measured for fasted respondents only. Return to note 2 referrer Note 3. A type of fat that the body uses for energy. Return to note 3 referrer Note 4. Return to note 4 referrer Note 5. Additional information For more statistics and analysis on the health of Canadians and the health care system, visit the Health in Canada module.

Related tables CANSIM Table Distribution of the household population by musculoskeletal fitness classification, by sex and age group CANSIM Table Distribution of the household population by adult body mass index BMI — Health Canada HC classification, by sex and age group Related articles Aerobic fitness of Canadians, to Body composition of adults, and Metabolic syndrome in adults, and Data sources Canadian Health Measure Survey CHMS How to cite this article Clarke, J.

ISSN: Report a problem on this page. Is something not working? Is there information outdated? Can't find what you're looking for? Privacy notice. Source: Statistics Canada, combined cycle 1 to and cycle 2 to , Canadian Health Measures Survey.

Return to note 1 referrer NI needs improvement; F fair; G good; VG very good; Ex excellent Note: See the 'Data source, methods and definitions' text box for more information on aerobic fitness and on the health-related risk factors included in this chart.

Return to note 2 referrer NI needs improvement; F fair; G good; VG very good; Ex excellent Note: See the 'Data source, methods and definitions' text box for more information on aerobic fitness.

Note 1.

Exerccise, belly fat may be circumfdrence most dangerous Waist circumference and exercise benefits of body Powerful anti-fungal agents, increasing exxercise for heart circcumference, type 2 diabetes and circumferene serious medical benefite. To address this issue, researchers tested the Waist circumference and exercise benefits of both low- and high-intensity exercise on waist size. Published exrrcise the Annals of Internal Medicinethis study assigned adults with abdominal obesity to exercise five times a week over a six-month period. The only difference was that participants were randomly chosen to exercise at varying intensities, ranging from low intensity walking to high intensity running. After analysis, researchers found that all exercise groups experienced similar weight loss and reductions in waist size compared to individuals who were not physically active. However, high-intensity exercise was the only type of physical activity that improved blood sugar levels and significantly improved physical fitness. Waist circumference and exercise benefits

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