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Types of eating disorders

Types of eating disorders

Eatimg ovary syndrome Weight management for seniors is the most common endocrine disorder to affect women. Psychology Behavioral Diskrders at Dlsorders Types of eating disorders Health. Body Attitudes Questionnaire []. The pattern of eating often doesn't meet minimum daily nutrition needs. The diagnostic workup typically includes complete medical and psychosocial history and follows a rational and formulaic approach to the diagnosis. Gordon, M.

Types of eating disorders -

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Are you in crisis? Contact the Crisis Line from anywhere in BC no area code needed : Anorexia can lead to health problems caused by undernutrition and low body weight, such as:.

People with anorexia may find it hard to focus and have trouble remembering things. Mood changes and emotional problems include:. Bulimia can lead to health problems caused by vomiting, laxatives, and diuretics, such as:. ARFID may lead to health problems that stem from poor nutrition, similar to anorexia.

People with ARFID may:. There's no one cause for eating disorders. Genes, environment, and stressful events all play a role. Some things can increase a person's chance of having an eating disorder, such as:. Health care providers and mental health professionals diagnose eating disorders based on history, symptoms, thought patterns, eating behaviors, and an exam.

The doctor will check weight and height and compare these to previous measurements on growth charts. The doctor may order tests to see if there is another reason for the eating problems and to check for problems caused by the eating disorder.

Eating disorders are best treated by a team that includes a doctor, dietitian, and therapist. Treatment includes nutrition counseling, medical care, and talk therapy individual, group, and family therapy.

The doctor might prescribe medicine to treat binge eating, anxiety, depression, or other mental health concerns. The details of the treatment depend on the type of eating disorder and how severe it is.

Some people are hospitalized because of extreme weight loss and medical complications. Tell someone. Tell a parent, teacher, counselor, or an adult you trust. Let them know what you're going through. Ask them to help. Get help early. When an eating disorder is caught early, a person has a better chance of recovery.

Make an appointment with your doctor or an eating disorders specialist. Social isolation can be inherently stressful, depressing and anxiety-provoking.

In an attempt to ameliorate these distressful feelings an individual may engage in emotional eating in which food serves as a source of comfort.

The loneliness of social isolation and the inherent stressors thus associated have been implicated as triggering factors in binge eating as well. Waller, Kennerley and Ohanian argued that both bingeing—vomiting and restriction are emotion suppression strategies, but they are just utilized at different times.

For example, restriction is used to pre-empt any emotion activation, while bingeing—vomiting is used after an emotion has been activated. Parental influence has been shown to be an intrinsic component in the development of eating behaviors of children. It has been shown that maladaptive parental behavior has an important role in the development of eating disorders.

As to the more subtle aspects of parental influence, it has been shown that eating patterns are established in early childhood and that children should be allowed to decide when their appetite is satisfied as early as the age of two.

A direct link has been shown between obesity and parental pressure to eat more. Coercive tactics in regard to diet have not been proven to be efficacious in controlling a child's eating behavior.

Affection and attention have been shown to affect the degree of a child's finickiness and their acceptance of a more varied diet.

Adams and Crane , have shown that parents are influenced by stereotypes that influence their perception of their child's body. The conveyance of these negative stereotypes also affects the child's own body image and satisfaction.

Their parents have a tendency to be over-controlling and fail to encourage the expression of emotions, inhibiting daughters from accepting their own feelings and desires.

Adolescent females in these overbearing families lack the ability to be independent from their families, yet realize the need to, often resulting in rebellion. Controlling their food intake may make them feel better, as it provides them with a sense of control. In various studies such as one conducted by The McKnight Investigators , peer pressure was shown to be a significant contributor to body image concerns and attitudes toward eating among subjects in their teens and early twenties.

Eleanor Mackey and co-author, Annette M. La Greca of the University of Miami, studied teen girls from public high schools in southeast Florida. The number of friends dieting and the number of friends who pressured them to diet also played a significant role in their own choices.

Elite athletes have a significantly higher rate in eating disorders. Female athletes in sports such as gymnastics, ballet, diving, etc. are found to be at the highest risk among all athletes.

Women are more likely than men to acquire an eating disorder between the ages of 13 and Other psychological problems that could possibly create an eating disorder such as Anorexia Nervosa are depression, and low self-esteem.

Depression is a state of mind where emotions are unstable causing a person's eating habits to change due to sadness and no interest of doing anything. According to PSYCOM "Studies show that a high percentage of people with an eating disorder will experience depression. A big factor of this can affect people with their eating and this can mostly affect teenagers.

Teenagers are big candidates for Anorexia for the reason that during the teenage years, many things start changing and they start to think certain ways. According to Life Works an article about eating disorders "People of any age can be affected by pressure from their peers, the media and even their families but it is worse when you're a teenager at school.

Many teens start off this journey by feeling pressure for wanting to look a certain way of feeling pressure for being different. This brings them to finding the result in eating less and soon leading to Anorexia which can bring big harms to the physical state.

There is a cultural emphasis on thinness which is especially pervasive in western society. A child's perception of external pressure to achieve the ideal body that is represented by the media predicts the child's body image dissatisfaction, body dysmorphic disorder and an eating disorder.

Socioeconomic status SES has been viewed as a risk factor for eating disorders, presuming that possessing more resources allows for an individual to actively choose to diet and reduce body weight. The media plays a major role in the way in which people view themselves.

Countless magazine ads and commercials depict thin celebrities. Society has taught people that being accepted by others is necessary at all costs.

Televised beauty competitions such as the Miss America Competition contribute to the idea of what it means to be beautiful because competitors are evaluated on the basis of their opinion. In addition to socioeconomic status being considered a cultural risk factor so is the world of sports.

Athletes and eating disorders tend to go hand in hand, especially the sports where weight is a competitive factor. Gymnastics, horse back riding, wrestling, body building, and dancing are just a few that fall into this category of weight dependent sports.

Eating disorders among individuals that participate in competitive activities, especially women, often lead to having physical and biological changes related to their weight that often mimic prepubescent stages.

Oftentimes as women's bodies change they lose their competitive edge which leads them to taking extreme measures to maintain their younger body shape.

Men often struggle with binge eating followed by excessive exercise while focusing on building muscle rather than losing fat, but this goal of gaining muscle is just as much an eating disorder as obsessing over thinness. The following statistics taken from Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's book, ab normal psychology , show the estimated percentage of athletes that struggle with eating disorders based on the category of sport.

Although most of these athletes develop eating disorders to keep their competitive edge, others use exercise as a way to maintain their weight and figure. This is just as serious as regulating food intake for competition. Even though there is mixed evidence showing at what point athletes are challenged with eating disorders, studies show that regardless of competition level all athletes are at higher risk for developing eating disorders that non-athletes, especially those that participate in sports where thinness is a factor.

Pressure from society is also seen within the homosexual community. Gay men are at greater risk of eating disorder symptoms than heterosexual men. The higher eating disorder symptom score reported, the more concern about how others perceive them and the more frequent and excessive exercise sessions occur.

Most of the cross-cultural studies use definitions from the DSM-IV-TR, which has been criticized as reflecting a Western cultural bias. Thus, assessments and questionnaires may not be constructed to detect some of the cultural differences associated with different disorders.

Also, when looking at individuals in areas potentially influenced by Western culture, few studies have attempted to measure how much an individual has adopted the mainstream culture or retained the traditional cultural values of the area.

Lastly, the majority of the cross-cultural studies on eating disorders and body image disturbances occurred in Western nations and not in the countries or regions being examined.

While there are many influences to how an individual processes their body image, the media does play a major role. Along with the media, parental influence, peer influence, and self-efficacy beliefs also play a large role in an individual's view of themselves.

The way the media presents images can have a lasting effect on an individual's perception of their body image. Eating disorders are a worldwide issue and while women are more likely to be affected by an eating disorder it still affects both genders Schwitzer The media influences eating disorders whether shown in a positive or negative light, it then has a responsibility to use caution when promoting images that projects an ideal that many turn to eating disorders to attain.

To try to address unhealthy body image in the fashion world, in , France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor to participate in fashion shows.

It also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines. There is a relationship between "thin ideal" social media content and body dissatisfaction and eating disorders among young adult women, especially in the Western hemisphere.

K, and Australia, these are places where the thin ideal is strong among women, as well as the strive for the "perfect" body. In addition to mere media exposure, there is an online "pro-eating disorder" community.

Through personal blogs and Twitter, this community promotes eating disorders as a "lifestyle", and continuously posts pictures of emaciated bodies, and tips on how to stay thin. The hashtag " proana" pro-anorexia , is a product of this community, [] as well as images promoting weight loss, tagged with the term "thinspiration".

According to social comparison theory, young women have a tendency to compare their appearance to others, which can result in a negative view of their own bodies and altering of eating behaviors, that in turn can develop disordered eating behaviors.

When body parts are isolated and displayed in the media as objects to be looked at, it is called objectification, and women are affected most by this phenomenon.

Objectification increases self-objectification, where women judge their own body parts as a mean of praise and pleasure for others. There is a significant link between self-objectification, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating, as the beauty ideal is altered through social media.

Although eating disorders are typically under diagnosed in people of color, they still experience eating disorders in great numbers. It is thought that the stress that those of color face in the United States from being multiply marginalized may contribute to their rates of eating disorders.

Eating disorders, for these women, may be a response to environmental stressors such as racism, abuse and poverty. In the majority of many African communities, thinness is generally not seen as an ideal body type and most pressure to attain a slim figure may stem from influence or exposure to Western culture and ideology.

Traditional African cultural ideals are reflected in the practice of some health professionals; in Ghana, pharmacists sell appetite stimulants to women who desire to, as Ghanaians stated, "grow fat". On the contrary, there are certain taboos surrounding a slim body image, specifically in West Africa.

However, the emergence of Western and European influence, specifically with the introduction of such fashion and modelling shows and competitions, is changing certain views among body acceptance, and the prevalence of eating disorders has consequently increased.

Such modern development is leading to cultural changes, and professionals cite rates of eating disorders in this region will increase with urbanization, specifically with changes in identity, body image, and cultural issues.

Other factors which are cited to be related to the increasing prevalence of eating disorders in African communities can be related to sexual conflicts, such as psychosexual guilt, first sexual intercourse, and pregnancy. Traumatic events which are related to both family i.

parental separation and eating related issues are also cited as possible effectors. The West plays a role in Asia's economic development via foreign investments, advanced technologies joining financial markets, and the arrival of American and European companies in Asia, especially through outsourcing manufacturing operations.

In China as well as other Asian countries, Westernization, migration from rural to urban areas, after-effects of sociocultural events, and disruptions of social and emotional support are implicated in the emergence of eating disorders.

While colonised by the British in , Fiji kept a large degree of linguistic and cultural diversity which characterised the ethnic Fijian population. Though gaining independence in , Fiji has rejected Western, capitalist values which challenged its mutual trusts, bonds, kinships and identity as a nation.

Individual efforts to reshape the body by dieting or exercise, thus traditionally was discouraged. However, studies conducted in and both demonstrated a link between the introduction of television in the country, and the emergence of eating disorders in young adolescent ethnic Fijian girls.

Additionally, qualitative data linked changing attitudes about dieting, weight loss and aesthetic ideas in the peer environment to Western media images. The impact of television was especially profound given the longstanding social and cultural traditions that had previously rejected the notions of dieting, purging and body dissatisfaction in Fiji.

From the early- to-mid- s, a variant form of anorexia nervosa was identified in Hong Kong. In the past, the available evidence did not suggest that unhealthy weight loss methods and eating disordered behaviors are common in India as proven by stagnant rates of clinically diagnosed eating disorders.

This prevents many sufferers from seeking professional help. It has been suggested that urbanization and socioeconomic status are associated with increased risk for body weight dissatisfaction.

Historically, identifying as African American has been considered a protective factor for body dissatisfaction. American Indian and Alaska Native women are more likely than white women to both experience a fear of losing control over their eating [] and to abuse laxatives and diuretics for weight control purposes.

Disproportionately high rates of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction have been found in Hispanics in comparison to other racial and ethnic groups. Studies have found significantly more laxative use [] [] in those identifying as Hispanic in comparison to non-Hispanic white counterparts.

Food insecurity is defined as inadequate access to sufficient food, both in terms of quantity and quality, [] in direct contrast to food security, which is conceptualized as having access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet dietary needs and preferences. Multiple studies have found food insecurity to be associated with eating pathology.

A study conducted on individuals visiting a food bank in Texas found higher food insecurity to be correlated with higher levels of binge eating, overall eating disorder pathology, dietary restraint, compensatory behaviors and weight self-stigma. One study has found that binge-eating disorder may stem from trauma, with some female patients engaging in these disorders to numb pain experienced through sexual trauma.

Some eating disorder patients have implied that enforced heterosexuality and heterosexism led many to engage in their condition to align with norms associated with their gender identity.

Families may restrict women's food intake to keep them thin, thus increasing their ability to attain a male romantic partner. According to Pritts and Susman "The medical history is the most powerful tool for diagnosing eating disorders". Early detection and intervention can assure a better recovery and can improve a lot the quality of life of these patients.

In the past 30 years eating disorders have become increasingly conspicuous and it is uncertain whether the changes in presentation reflect a true increase. Many patients present with subthreshold expressions of the two main diagnoses: others with different patterns and symptoms. As eating disorders, especially anorexia nervosa, are thought of as being associated with young, white females, diagnosis of eating disorders in other races happens more rarely.

The diagnostic workup typically includes complete medical and psychosocial history and follows a rational and formulaic approach to the diagnosis.

Neuroimaging using fMRI , MRI , PET and SPECT scans have been used to detect cases in which a lesion, tumor or other organic condition has been either the sole causative or contributory factor in an eating disorder. Second, neuroimaging plays an important part in diagnosing early-onset anorexia nervosa, both from a clinical and a research prospective".

O'Brien et al. After ruling out organic causes and the initial diagnosis of an eating disorder being made by a medical professional, a trained mental health professional aids in the assessment and treatment of the underlying psychological components of the eating disorder and any comorbid psychological conditions.

The clinician conducts a clinical interview and may employ various psychometric tests. Some are general in nature while others were devised specifically for use in the assessment of eating disorders. Some of the general tests that may be used are the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [] and the Beck Depression Inventory.

Several types of scales are currently used — a self-report questionnaires —EDI-3, BSQ, TFEQ, MAC, BULIT-R, QEWP-R, EDE-Q, EAT, NEQ — and other; b semi-structured interviews — SCID-I, EDE — and other; c clinical interviews unstructured or observer-based rating scales- Morgan Russel scale [] The majority of the scales used were described and used in adult populations.

From all the scales evaluated and analyzed, only three are described at the child population — it is EAT children above 16 years , EDI-3 children above 13 years , and ANSOCQ children above 13 years. It is essential to develop specific scales for people under 18 years of age, given the increasing incidence of ED among children and the need for early detection and appropriate intervention.

There are multiple medical conditions which may be misdiagnosed as a primary psychiatric disorder, complicating or delaying treatment. These may have a synergistic effect on conditions which mimic an eating disorder or on a properly diagnosed eating disorder.

Prevention aims to promote a healthy development before the occurrence of eating disorders. It also intends early identification of an eating disorder before it is too late to treat. Children as young as ages 5—7 are aware of the cultural messages regarding body image and dieting.

The following topics can be discussed with young children as well as teens and young adults. Internet and modern technologies provide new opportunities for prevention.

Online programs have the potential to increase the use of prevention programs. Treatment varies according to type and severity of eating disorder, and often more than one treatment option is utilized.

If a person is experiencing comorbidity between an eating disorder and OCD, exposure and response prevention, coupled with weight restoration and serotonin reputake inhibitors has proven most effective. Family doctors play an important role in early treatment of people with eating disorders by encouraging those who are also reluctant to see a psychiatrist.

The members of the team are usually a psychiatrist, therapist, and registered dietitian, but other clinicians may be included. There are few studies on the cost-effectiveness of the various treatments.

For children with anorexia, the only well-established treatment is the family treatment-behavior. A Cochrane review examined studies comparing the effectiveness of inpatient versus outpatient models of care for eating disorders.

Four trials including participants were studied but the review was unable to draw any definitive conclusions as to the superiority of one model over another. A variety of barriers to eating disorder treatment have been identified, typically grouped into individual and systemic barriers.

Individual barriers include shame, fear of stigma, cultural perceptions, minimizing the seriousness of the problem, unfamiliarity with mental health services, and a lack of trust in mental health professionals.

Conditions during the COVID pandemic may increase the difficulties experienced by those with eating disorders, and the risk that otherwise healthy individuals may develop eating disorders. The pandemic has been a stressful life event for everyone, increasing anxiety and isolation, disrupting normal routines, creating economic strain and food insecurity, and making it more difficult and stressful to obtain needed resources including food and medical treatment.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and NHS England both advised that services should not impose thresholds using body mass index or duration of illness to determine whether treatment for eating disorders should be offered, but there were continuing reports that these recommendations were not followed.

In terms of access to treatment, therapy sessions have generally switched from in-person to video calls. This may actually help people who previously had difficulty finding a therapist with experience in treating eating disorders, for example, those who live in rural areas.

Studies suggest that virtual telehealth CBT can be as effective as face-to-face CBT for bulimia and other mental illnesses. Orlistat is used in obesity treatment. Olanzapine seems to promote weight gain as well as the ability to ameliorate obsessional behaviors concerning weight gain.

zinc supplements have been shown to be helpful, and cortisol is also being investigated. Two pharmaceuticals, Prozac [] and Vyvanse, [] have been approved by the FDA to treat bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder, respectively.

Olanzapine has also been used off-label to treat anorexia nervosa. Anorexia symptoms include the increasing chance of getting osteoporosis. Thinning of the hair as well as dry hair and skin are also very common.

The muscles of the heart will also start to change if no treatment is inflicted on the patient. This causes the heart to have an abnormally slow heart rate along with low blood pressure. Heart failure becomes a major consideration when this begins to occur.

This will cause the individual to begin feeling faint, drowsy, and weak. Along with these symptoms, the body will begin to grow a layer of hair called lanugo.

The human body does this in response to the lack of heat and insulation due to the low percentage of body fat. Bulimia symptoms include heart problems like an irregular heartbeat that can lead to heart failure and death may occur. This occurs because of the electrolyte imbalance that is a result of the constant binge and purge process.

The probability of a gastric rupture increases. A gastric rupture is when there is a sudden rupture of the stomach lining that can be fatal.

The acids that are contained in the vomit can cause a rupture in the esophagus as well as tooth decay. As a result, to laxative abuse, irregular bowel movements may occur along with constipation. Sores along the lining of the stomach called peptic ulcers begin to appear and the chance of developing pancreatitis increases.

Binge eating symptoms include high blood pressure, which can cause heart disease if it is not treated. Many patients recognize an increase in the levels of cholesterol.

The chance of being diagnosed with gallbladder disease increases, which affects an individual's digestive tract. Eating disorders result in about 7, deaths a year as of , making them the mental illnesses with the highest mortality rate. The mortality rate for those with anorexia is 5.

Roughly 1. A person who is or had been in an inpatient setting had a rate of 4. Of individuals with bulimia about 2 persons per persons die per year and among those with EDNOS about 3. In the developed world , binge eating disorder affects about 1. In the United States, twenty million women and ten million men have an eating disorder at least once in their lifetime.

Rates of anorexia in the general population among women aged 11 to 65 ranges from 0 to 2. Bulimia affects females 9 times more often than males. Reported rates vary from 1.

Evolutionary psychiatry as an emerging scientific discipline has been studying mental disorders from an evolutionary perspective. If eating disorders have evolutionary functions or if they are new modern "lifestyle" problems is still debated.

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Mental illness characterized by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect health. Medical condition. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th ed.

Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. ISBN Archived from the original on 23 May Retrieved 24 May Retrieved 9 June October Annals of Neurosciences.

doi : PMC PMID European Eating Disorders Review.

Home » All Types of eating disorders of Eating Eatijg Explained [Updated for Fo. Eating is a complicated part of life. This is Thpes we see so many different types of eating disorders! Each type has unique risk factors, consequences, and treatments. It can cause mental health symptoms such as depression or anxiety and physical health problems such as decreased bone density, heart failure, and potential death. There Typew several types of eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia didorders, and Custom herbal beverage Types of eating disorders. Fo eating disorders — and disordered eating — come Types of eating disorders many forms. If disoreers are concerned you might have an eating disorder, consider taking one of these short questionnaires. By checking things out early, you can get a better idea if something is going on for you, and take steps to prevent the development of more serious problems. If you are an adult, we suggest the NEDA Online Eating Disorder Screening Questionnaire. Types of eating disorders

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