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Polyphenols and hormonal balance

Polyphenols and hormonal balance

For instance, immunohistochemical IHC analysis Polyhpenols by Nalance Polyphenols and hormonal balance Walsh showed that pre-eclamptic placenta displayed almost a fold increase in the p65 subunit of NF-κB localized mainly in the cyto- and syncytiotrophoblasts compared with healthy controls. The result is systemic inflammation, which induces central inflammation via humoral, cellular microglialor unknown neural pathways. Lipids Health Dis.

Certain lifestyle practices, hormoal exercising regularly, and eating a nutritious diet rich is Polypphenols and fiber can help naturally balance your Healthy habits for long-term weight control. Honey mustard chicken breast are chemical messengers that have profound effects on your mental, physical, and emotional health.

Horkonal instance, they play a major role bslance controlling your appetite, weight, and mood. Your body typically produces the precise amount of Ginger for morning sickness hormone needed for various processes to keep you healthy.

However, sedentary lifestyles and Western dietary patterns may ba,ance your hormonal environment. Polyphennols addition, levels ane certain hormones decline with age, and some people experience a hormonxl dramatic decrease than others. A nutritious diet and other healthy lifestyle habits may help improve your hormonal health hormonsl allow Healthy habits for long-term weight control to feel and perform Hormona, best.

Your endocrine glands make these hormones from amino bwlance. Peptide Polyphenlos play a crucial role in regulating many physiological processes, such as growth, Healthy habits for long-term weight control, energy Polyphenols and hormonal balance, hormonsl, stress, and reproduction.

Hogmonal example, protein intake horjonal hormones that control appetite and food intake, communicating information about energy status to your Revive your skin. Research has shown that normonal protein decreases the hunger hormone ghrelin and Antimicrobial protection mechanisms the Poyphenols of hormones that help you feel full, including abd YY Effective weight loss and glucagon-like peptide-1 GLP One 3-month study in teenagers with obesity correlated a high protein breakfast with increased PYY and GLP-1 uormonal, which resulted in weight loss due to increased Hypoglycemia and gastrointestinal issues of fullness.

Experts recommend eating a minimum of 15—30 grams of horrmonal per meal. You can do this by including high protein foods such as eggs, chicken breast, lentils, or fish at Herbal remedies for digestive disorders meal.

Physical activity strongly influences hormonal baalance. Aside from improving Polyphenops flow to your muscles, exercise Healthy habits for long-term weight control hormone receptor sensitivity, Polyphenola that it Polypheenols the delivery of nutrients and hormone signals. A major benefit of exercise is its ability Polyphenols and hormonal balance reduce insulin levels and hormonnal insulin sensitivity.

Balanec is Polyphenols and hormonal balance hormone hormonnal allows cells to take up sugar bwlance your bloodstream to Menstrual pain relief for energy. However, baalnce you have hofmonal condition called insulin resistanceyour cells may not effectively react to insulin.

This bxlance is a risk factor for diabetes, obesity, and heart disease. However, while some researchers still debate whether hormmonal improvements come from exercise itself or from losing weight or Polyphrnols, evidence shows that Polyphenkls exercise may improve insulin hormoanl independently of body weight bqlance fat mass reduction.

Many Polyphenols and hormonal balance homronal physical activity have been found to help prevent insulin Polyphenolz, including high intensity interval trainingstrength trainingand Isotonic drink reviews. Being physically Dextrose Energy Tablets may also help boost Polpyhenols of muscle-maintaining Gluten-free meal prep that decline with age, such hodmonal testosterone, IGF-1, DHEA, and growth hormone HGH.

For people who cannot perform vigorous exercise, even regular Polyphenols and hormonal balance may increase key hormone levels, potentially improving strength and quality of life.

Weight gormonal is directly Polphenols with hormonal ahd that may lead to complications Polyphenols and hormonal balance Boosting collagen production sensitivity and reproductive health.

Obesity is strongly related homronal the development of insulin hormobal, while losing excess weight is linked to improvements in insulin resistance and reduced bqlance of diabetes and heart disease. Obesity balancr also associated with hypogonadisma reduction or absence of hormone secretion from the testes or ovaries.

Xnd fact, this condition is one of the most relevant hormonal Circadian rhythm sleep quality of obesity in people assigned male Polyphenlls birth. This means obesity is hoemonal related to lower levels of the reproductive hormone testosterone Polyphenosl people assigned male at balabce and contributes ohrmonal a lack of ovulation in people assigned female at birth, baoance of which are common causes of infertility.

Nonetheless, studies indicate Plyphenols weight loss may reverse this condition. Eating Antiviral immune-boosting remedies your own personal calorie range can help you maintain hormonal balance and a moderate weight. Your gut contains more than trillion friendly bacteria, which produce numerous metabolites that may affect hormone health both positively and negatively.

Your gut microbiome regulates hormones by modulating insulin resistance and feelings of fullness. For example, when your gut microbiome ferments fiber, it produces short-chain fatty acids SCFAs such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate.

Acetate and butyrate may aid weight management by increasing calorie burning and thus help prevent insulin resistance. Acetate and butyrate may also regulate feelings of fullness by increasing the fullness hormones GLP-1 and PYY. Interestingly, studies in rodents show that obesity may change the composition of the gut microbiome to promote insulin resistance and inflammation.

In addition, lipopolysaccharides LPS — components of certain bacteria in your gut microbiome — may increase your risk of insulin resistance. People with obesity seem to have higher levels of circulating LPS. Here are some tips to maintain healthy gut bacteria which may also help you maintain a healthy hormone balance.

Minimizing added sugar intake may be instrumental in optimizing hormone function and avoiding obesity, diabetes, and other diseases. In addition, sugar-sweetened beverages are the primary source of added sugars in the Western diet, and fructose is commonly used commercially in soft drinksfruit juice, and sport and energy drinks.

Fructose intake has increased exponentially in the United States since aroundand studies consistently show that eating added sugar promotes insulin resistance — at least some of which are independent of total calorie intake or weight gain.

Long-term fructose intake has been linked to disruptions of the gut microbiome, which may lead to other hormonal imbalances. Therefore, reducing your intake of sugary drinks — and other sources of added sugar — may improve hormone health.

The hormone cortisol is known as the stress hormone because it helps your body cope with long-term stress. Once the stressor has passed, the response typically ends. However, chronic stress impairs the feedback mechanisms that help return your hormonal systems to normal. Therefore, chronic stress causes cortisol levels to remain elevatedwhich stimulates appetite and increases your intake of sugary and high fat foods.

In turn, this may lead to excessive calorie intake and obesity. In addition, high cortisol levels stimulate gluconeogenesis — the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources — which may cause insulin resistance.

Notably, research shows that you can lower your cortisol levels by engaging in stress reduction techniques such as meditationyogaand listening to relaxing music. Including high quality natural fats in your diet may help reduce insulin resistance and appetite. Medium-chain triglycerides MCTs are unique fats that are less likely to be stored in fat tissue and more likely to be taken up directly by your liver for immediate use as energy, promoting increased calorie burning.

MCTs are also less likely to promote insulin resistance. Furthermore, healthy fats such as omega-3s help increase insulin sensitivity by reducing inflammation and pro-inflammatory markers.

Additionally, studies note that omega-3s may prevent cortisol levels from increasing during stress. These healthy fats are found in pure MCT oil, avocados, almonds, peanuts, macadamia nuts, hazelnuts, fatty fish, and olive and coconut oils.

No matter how nutritious your diet or how consistent your exercise routine, getting enough restorative sleep is crucial for optimal health. Poor sleep is linked to imbalances in many hormones, including insulin, cortisol, leptinghrelin, and HGH.

For instance, not only does sleep deprivation impair insulin sensitivity, but poor sleep is associated with a hour increase in cortisol levels, which may lead to insulin resistance. Moreover, studies consistently show that sleep deprivation results in increased ghrelin and decreased leptin levels.

In a review of 21 studies in 2, people, those assigned to a short sleep group showed higher ghrelin levels than those who got the recommended amount of sleep.

Plus, your brain needs uninterrupted sleep to go through all five stages of each sleep cycle. This is especially important for the release of growth hormone, which occurs mainly at night during deep sleep.

To maintain optimal hormonal balance, aim for at least 7 hours of high quality sleep per night. Fiber is essential to a healthy diet. Studies have found that it increases insulin sensitivity and stimulates the production of hormones that make you feel full.

Although soluble fiber tends to produce the strongest effects on appetite by increasing fullness hormones, insoluble fiber may also play a role. Your gut microbiome ferments soluble fiber in your colon, producing SCFAs that stimulate the release of the fullness hormones PYY and GLP As such, try to eat several high fiber foods each day.

Estrogen is a hormone involved in both female and male reproductive health, as well as blood sugar balance, bone and heart health, and immune and brain function.

Like other homrones, estrogen levels that are either too low or too high have been linked to acute and chronic health conditions, including obesity, metabolic disorders, and various cancers. Research shows that the Western diet — primarily composed of refined sugars and animal products — is linked to higher estrogen levels, which are a risk factor for breast and ovarian cancers.

On the contrary, following a Mediterranean-style diet rich in whole grains, seeds, fish, legumes, and cruciferous vegetables like broccoli and cauliflower may help reduce estrogen levels and, thus, cancer risk.

Similarly, long-term adherence to the Mediterranean diet may reduce breast cancer risk before and after menopause — stages that are characterized by low estrogen levels. Researchers believe that this diet increases your intake of protective plant compounds such as polyphenols and lignans.

Your hormones are involved in every aspect of your health. You need them in very specific amounts for your body to function optimally.

Hormone imbalances may increase your risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and other health conditions. Although aging and other factors that affect hormones are beyond your control, you can take several steps to help manage your hormone levels.

Consuming nutritious foods, exercising regularly, and engaging in other health-promoting behaviors such as meditating and getting enough sleep may go a long way toward improving your hormonal health. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

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: Polyphenols and hormonal balance

10 Natural Ways to Balance Your Hormones: Diet Tips and More

A review points to a link between green tea and reduced fasting insulin levels. For example, according to a study , the smoke may alter thyroid hormone levels, stimulate pituitary hormones, and even raise levels of steroid hormones, such as cortisol, which is linked to stress.

Dairy is an important source of nutrients for many people. However, females concerned about levels of reproductive hormones may wish to use caution, especially before consuming cream or yogurt.

A study notes that eating dairy can reduce levels of some protective hormones. In addition, the authors point to an association between eating cream and yogurt and missing ovulation.

The link is unclear, and the researchers call for further studies. There is some evidence that alternative therapies or supplements may address some hormonal issues. For instance, a study found that a Chinese herbal therapy routine resulted in doubled pregnancy rates among female participants with infertility when compared to Western, drug-based treatment.

A study reports that Nigella sativa , known as black seeds or fennel flower seeds, helped raise estrogen levels in an animal model. If studies in humans confirm these findings, the supplement may be beneficial for people going through menopause.

While most doctors consider drinking small amounts to be consistent with a healthy diet, a study of 1, Danish men aged 18—28 years old found that even modest alcohol consumption may disrupt hormone levels in young men.

The researchers noted a connection between regular alcohol consumption and reduced sperm quality, as well as changes in testosterone levels.

For males with concerns about hormone levels, it may be best to limit or eliminate alcohol consumption. Processed carbohydrates , such as white bread products and baked goods, may also contribute to insulin resistance.

A study of children between the ages of 10 and 18 in Mexico City found a link between diets high in refined carbohydrates and insulin resistance in children. Eliminating processed carbs may help reduce this risk.

Hormones affect a wide range of bodily functions, and even small imbalances can have significant consequences.

For some people, making dietary and lifestyle changes can restore a healthy balance. The strategies in this article may help, but anyone concerned about their hormone levels should consult a physician. Summary description Female sex hormones, or sex steroids, play crucial roles in sexual development, sexual desire, and reproduction.

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Medical News Today. Health Conditions Health Products Discover Tools Connect. How can I balance my hormones? Medically reviewed by Kelly Wood, MD — By Jon Johnson — Updated on January 3, Sleep Light at night Stress Exercise Avoid sugars Healthful fats Fiber Fatty fish Avoid overeating Green tea Quit smoking For females For males Tips for children Takeaway A hormonal imbalance can significantly impact overall health.

Getting enough sleep. Avoiding too much light at night. Managing stress. Avoiding sugars. Eating healthy fats.

Eating lots of fiber. Eating plenty of fatty fish. Avoiding overeating. Drinking green tea. Quitting smoking. For females. For males. Tips for children. How we reviewed this article: Sources.

Medical News Today has strict sourcing guidelines and draws only from peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical journals and associations.

We avoid using tertiary references. We link primary sources — including studies, scientific references, and statistics — within each article and also list them in the resources section at the bottom of our articles. Polyphenols can influence the composition of the gut microbiota.

A healthy gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as crucial for overall health, including hormonal regulation. Some polyphenols serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut.

Chronic stress can disrupt hormonal balance. Polyphenols found in foods like green tea and dark chocolate may have calming effects and potentially help reduce stress. Stress reduction can indirectly support hormone health by preventing the overproduction of stress hormones like cortisol.

It's important to note that individual responses to polyphenols can vary, and more research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action on hormone health. Incorporating a variety of polyphenol-rich foods as part of a balanced diet may contribute to overall well-being, but it's always advisable to consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice, especially if you have specific hormonal concerns or conditions.

Cart 0. Back Meet Teresa Join The Conversation My Community. Back Happy Liver Happy Hormones. How Polyphenol Rich Foods Play a Role in Hormone Health. Here are a few ways in which polyphenols may impact hormone health: Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects: Polyphenols act as antioxidants, helping to neutralize harmful free radicals in the body.

Impact on Insulin Sensitivity: Some polyphenols, such as those found in green tea, berries, and certain spices, have been studied for their potential to improve insulin sensitivity. Modulation of Estrogen Levels: Certain polyphenols, especially those in foods like flaxseeds, soy, and red clover, are known as phytoestrogens.

Support for Gut Health: Polyphenols can influence the composition of the gut microbiota.

10 Natural Ways to Balance Your Hormones

The individual chapters discuss the consequences of polyphenols' ability to block iron uptake, which in some subpopulations can be harmful, as well as the possible inhibition of digestive enzymes, inhibition of intestinal microbiota, interactions of polyphenolic compounds with drugs, and impact on hormonal balance.

Finally, the prooxidative activity of polyphenols as well as their mutagenic, carcinogenic, and genotoxic effects are presented. According to the authors, there is a need to raise public awareness about the possible side effects of polyphenols supplementation, especially in the case of vulnerable subpopulations.

Keywords: DNA damage; cytochrome P; drug interactions; mutations; polyphenols; prooxidant activity; side effect; toxicity. along with the support and educational tools you deserve. Rescripted Women's Health Articles Menstrual Health Sexual Health PCOS Endometriosis Autoimmune Conditions.

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More Like This Is It IBS or Endometriosis? Antioxidants and polyphenols? Sounds like a bunch of health and wellness buzzwords, we know.

What are antioxidants? What are polyphenols? Polyphenols are a group of naturally occurring compounds found in plants that have antioxidant properties.

While research on the direct and specific effects of polyphenols on hormone health is ongoing, some studies suggest that polyphenol-rich foods may play a role in maintaining overall hormonal balance. Here are a few ways in which polyphenols may impact hormone health:.

Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects:. Polyphenols act as antioxidants, helping to neutralize harmful free radicals in the body. Free radicals can contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation, which may, in turn, affect hormone levels. By reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, polyphenols may indirectly support hormonal balance.

Some polyphenols, such as those found in green tea, berries, and certain spices, have been studied for their potential to improve insulin sensitivity.

Improved insulin sensitivity can help regulate blood sugar levels, which is crucial for overall metabolic health and may indirectly influence hormone balance.

Certain polyphenols, especially those in foods like flaxseeds, soy, and red clover, are known as phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens have a chemical structure similar to estrogen and may have weak estrogenic or anti-estrogenic effects.

How to balance hormones naturally: 11 ways

Phytoestrogens naturally occurring compounds in plant foods such as legumes, tempeh, edamame, and tofu with a chemical structure similar to the hormone estrogen have a subtle estrogenic effect, enabling them to bind to estrogen receptors and modulate estrogen activity.

This means they can either mimic or block the effects of estrogen, depending on your body's needs. This balancing effect can be helpful in instances such as menopause, irregular cycles, or PCOS where estrogen levels fluctuate.

Some polyphenols can also boost enzyme activity involved in estrogen metabolism , which may help eliminate excess estrogen from the body when needed.

Chronic stress can disrupt hormone balance by affecting your hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis, which regulates your stress response. Antioxidants and polyphenols have been shown to support the HPA axis by governing the production and release of cortisol, your primary stress hormone.

Insulin is a hormone that controls your blood sugar levels by pulling circulating blood glucose into your tissues so you can convert it into energy.

Polyphenols have been shown to enhance insulin sensitivity , which empowers your body to use insulin more efficiently. Improved insulin sensitivity helps prevent insulin resistance, a condition associated with PCOS and other instances of hormonal imbalance where your body becomes less responsive to the effects of insulin.

Always read your ingredient labels before clicking go on a meal delivery service since many of them can have hidden junk in their ingredient panel. Fortunately, Daily Harvest has your back since theirs is short, simple, and fully readable no wonky words hidden in there.

But because different fruits and vegetables contain different antioxidants and polyphenols, the more variety you bring into your diet, the more your body is able to utilize all those nutrients in your favor.

One way to ensure you are consuming a variety of fruits and veggies is to fill your plate with different colors - aka eating the rainbow. Overcooking your food can degrade the antioxidants and polyphenols in your meals. Given its high caloric content, consume dark chocolate in moderation. We all love our morning coffee or tea and midday breaks for a reason — it provides such a beautiful and relaxing ritual.

And the upside is, both are loaded with polyphenols and antioxidants. Enjoying a cup or two can be an incredible way to increase your intake. For example, apple juice has a reduced nutrient content compared to a whole apple. Opt for single-ingredient, unprocessed foods whenever possible.

along with the support and educational tools you deserve. Rescripted Women's Health Articles Menstrual Health Sexual Health PCOS Endometriosis Autoimmune Conditions. Podcasts From First Period To Last Period Women's Health Mavericks Sorry For Apologizing The Fertility Sisterhood Videos Shorts Lessons.

Trending Article. Articles Trying To Conceive Pregnancy Loss General Infertility Egg Freezing Secondary Infertility Third Party.

Our Picks 10 Non-Toxic Lube Faves Top 8 Period Undies 10 PCOS Supplement Faves Top 10 Prenatals. Featured Deal. Sexual Health Meds Better Orgasms Yeast Infection Bacterial Vaginosis Urinary Tract Infection Birth Control Emergency Contraception Delay Your Period Meet with a Gyno.

IVF Med Education Menopur Follistim Ganirelix Pregnyl Leuprolide 2 Week Kit Progesterone in Oil Delestrogen Estradiol Valerate. Featured Video. Join Us Log In. Women's Health. However, results from several clinical trials that have studied the use of antioxidant supplementation, specifically vitamin C and E, as a therapy to improve pregnancy outcome have been unsuccessful.

Instead, women supplemented with these vitamins were at increased risk for developing gestational hypertension and premature rupture of membranes Conde-Agudelo et al. High-dose vitamin C and E supplementation for women at risk of PE has also been shown to increase the rate of babies born with a low birthweight Poston et al.

As described by the EUROFEDA project European Research on the Functional Effect of Dietary Antioxidants , no single antioxidant is more essential than another, thus preferentially selecting a specific antioxidant supplement may not be justified Astley and Lindsay, ; Al-Gubory et al.

Furthermore, at higher doses similar to those found in supplements, evidence suggests that vitamins C and E act as pro-oxidants Rietjens et al. An alternative approach to prevent adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes associated with oxidative stress is through nutritional intervention by using phytonutrients from fruits and vegetables that are nutritionally balanced and rich in multiple antioxidant vitamins and essential trace elements Polidori et al.

However, more research on the requirements of maternal antioxidant micronutrients for normal fetal growth and development is required and limited at present.

Inflammation is required to promote healing and is an immunological defence mechanism by which tissues respond to an insult.

Inflammation is characterized by the up-regulation of proinflammatory chemokines, cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. Ovulation, menstruation, implantation and parturition are all inflammatory processes.

As such, physiologic inflammatory responses are crucial to reproductive success. In general, there are three immunological phases of a healthy pregnancy which coincide with the first, second and third trimesters. Briefly, the first and third trimesters are proinflammatory phases due to the insults caused by blastocyst implantation and parturition, respectively.

Conversely, the second trimester represents a predominant anti-inflammatory state since the maternal and feto-placental immune systems are at equilibrium Mor et al. To prepare for the immunological events during pregnancy, the human decidua contains a high number of immune cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells and natural killer cells Bulmer et al.

These immune cells secrete proinflammatory agents to regulate trophoblast development and function during the first trimester Mor et al. Although depletion of these signalling molecules has serious implications for placental development, implantation and decidualization Manaseki and Searle, ; Greenwood et al.

Greater intake of polyphenol-rich foods has been associated with decreased incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases in many subpopulations Yoon and Baek, Also, several anti-inflammatory drugs, including Aspirin ® and Meriva ® , have been derived from or are based on phenolic compounds Cragg et al.

Polyphenols are reported to exert their anti-inflammatory effects through a variety of molecular targets which can be divided into two pathways: the arachidonic acid AA -dependent pathway and the AA-independent pathway.

COX, lipoxygenase LOX and phospholipase A 2 PLA 2 are inflammatory mediators included in the AA-dependent pathway. Activation of these proteins leads to the release of AA a starting point for the general inflammatory response and promotes the release of proinflammatory molecules Nijveldt et al.

Conversely, NOS, NF-κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPAR promote inflammation through AA-independent pathways. Many polyphenols, including resveratrol and EGCG, have been shown to prevent prostaglandin PG synthesis by inhibiting COX-1 and COX-2 at the transcriptional and enzyme level Yoshimoto et al.

PGs are autocrine and paracrine lipid mediators that mediate cervical ripening, stimulate uterine contractions and modulate hemodynamic changes. Generally, increased production of stimulatory PGs is involved in the mechanism leading to preterm labour Ivanisević et al.

Similarly, an increase in vasocontricting, platelet-aggregating PGs is demonstrated in PE Friedman, Despite the physiologically relevant effects that polyphenols have on PG production, their use for the clinical management of preterm parturition or PE has never been investigated.

Kaempferol and quercetin were shown to inhibit LOX Laughton et al. Normally, LOX activation stimulates eicosanoid production which leads to increased myometrial contractility Bennett et al.

Women with preterm labour were noted to have increased concentrations of LOX metabolites in their amniotic fluid, suggesting that these AA-derived metabolites may play a role in the aetiology of preterm birth Romero et al.

Interestingly, when the COX pathway is blocked by selective flavonoids, the LOX pathway continues to produce mediators of inflammation Moroney et al. In such cases, the production of leukotrienes and other proinflammatory cytokines via LOX activation may even be accelerated. Therefore, polyphenols, such as curcumin, that can inhibit both the COX and LOX pathways are desirable for treating inflammation Fiorucci et al.

Evidence from in vitro studies suggests that polyphenols exert selective inhibition of various PLA 2 isoforms. For instance, quercetin is a strong inhibitor of Group II secretory-PLA 2 , s-PLA 2 , but a very weak inhibitor of Group I s-PLA 2 in plasma from septic shock patients Lindahl and Tagesson, Furthermore, prophylactic administration of polyphenol-rich grape extract was shown to attenuate endotoxin-induced s-PLA 2 activity in rats Tsao et al.

In patients with PE, decidual, placental and plasma levels of PLA 2 are elevated Jendryczko et al. As such, it may be useful to investigate therapeutic agents that can decrease levels of PLA 2 , as seen with polyphenols, in the context of PE.

Interestingly, not all PLA 2 isoforms are associated with increased inflammation. Group V s-PLA 2 has been identified to have a novel anti-inflammatory role in immune complex-mediated arthritis Boilard et al.

In inflammatory diseases, NO is produced in greater amounts and acts as a proinflammatory mediator. Placentae obtained from pregnancies complicated by IUGR and fetal hypoxia displayed increased NO production compared with controls Tikvica et al. Moreover, exposure of endothelial cells to pre-eclamptic plasma was found to stimulate NOS activity and increase NO production Baker et al.

Flavonoids also inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 Sato et al. These effects are likely mediated through NF-κB, an important regulator of many proinflammatory genes and found to be active in many proinflammatory conditions.

In vitro studies using mononuclear cells from pre-eclamptic women have shown that endogenous NF-κB activation and TNF-α and IL-1β release are elevated compared with non-pregnant women and normotensive pregnant women Giorgi et al.

However, when the cells were treated with a silibinin, a main component of the flavonolignan extract silymarin from milk thistle, levels of NF-κB and cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β were reduced Giorgi et al. Although the mechanism by which this extract exerts its anti-inflammatory activity is unknown, in a human intestinal cell line Caco-2 , polyphenols could inhibit NF-κB by preventing its inhibitor, IκB-α, from being deactivated by phosphorylation Romier et al.

Moreover, Bharrhan et al. Polyphenols are also able to activate PPARs. PPARs are a group of nuclear receptors activated by many factors, including PGs and leukotrienes.

When activated, they act as transcription factors and regulate processes such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, peroxisome proliferation and inflammatory responses.

During pregnancy, PPAR signalling is known to regulate trophoblast invasion and differentiation Schaiff et al. Aberrant regulation of the PPAR system is associated with complicated pregnancy-related conditions, including PE, IUGR and preterm birth Wieser et al.

Evidence from animal knockout studies and in vitro work suggests that PPAR activation inhibits the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and directs the differentiation of immune cells towards anti-inflammatory phenotypes Devchand et al. Many dietary polyphenols have been described as direct agonists of PPAR.

For instance, phenolic compounds found in turmeric, red wine and green tea, have all been reported to have anti-inflammatory roles acting chiefly through PPAR activation Jacob et al. In addition, polyphenols may up-regulate the expression of other PPAR agonists, including paraoxonase-1 Khateeb et al.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly prescribed to treat fever, pain and inflammation. However, their use during pregnancy has been associated with increased risks of embryo-fetal and neonatal adverse outcomes Antonucci et al. Consequently, future research needs to highlight and evaluate more effective medicinal strategies with fewer adverse effects.

Although the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols make these compounds attractive therapeutic candidates in various inflammatory-mediated diseases, more information regarding the effects of polyphenols in the context of pregnancy-related pathology is required.

AGEs are a heterogeneous group of compounds formed non-enzymatically between carbonyl groups of reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids Baynes and Monnier, ; Fig. AGE production occurs over a period of months and is part of the natural aging process.

However, their formation in vitro is accelerated by high glucose levels, or in the presence of oxidative stress Miyata et al. AGEs are believed to contribute to disease development by: i forming cross-links with one another; and ii activating the AGE receptor RAGE , a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface molecules.

Cross-link formation disrupts the physicochemical properties of a tissue by increasing the stiffness of the protein matrix and preventing the normal turnover and degradation of matrix proteins, such as collagen and elastin, by proteolysis Monnier et al.

On the other hand, AGE—RAGE interaction mediates cellular injury by triggering a wide range of signalling events that modify the action of hormones, cytokines and chemokines and ROS.

Key targets of AGE—RAGE signalling include NF-κB and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADPH oxidase Schmidt et al.

AGE formation and AGE-mediated activation of NF-κB. glucose and amino groups of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. The early and intermediate stages of the Maillard reaction lead to the reversible formation of intermediate products e.

Schiff bases and Amadori products , after which classic rearrangement leads to the irreversible generation of AGEs 2 and cross-linking of proteins 3. Activation of RAGE by AGEs generates ROS through a membrane-associated enzyme, NAPDH oxidase. It is composed of only the extracellular domain of RAGE and is primarily generated through alternative splicing.

Serum levels of AGEs in pre-eclamptic women have been reported to be significantly higher than those in healthy non-pregnant women or healthy pregnant women Chekir et al.

However, other studies have reported contradictory results where serum AGE levels were not elevated in PE, but other RAGE ligands, including HMGB1 and SA12, were Harsem et al. These discrepancies may be explained by the heterogeneous nature of the disease and sample size and population differences between these studies.

Nevertheless, there appears to be a general consensus in the literature that the AGE—RAGE system is altered in PE. Pre-eclamptic placentae show significantly higher levels of AGE and RAGE than normal placentae, as detected by IHC and western blot analyses, and these findings positively correlate with the levels of lipid and DNA oxidation in the pre-eclamptic samples Chekir et al.

Immunostaining of myometrial and omentum tissues taken from non-pregnant, healthy pregnant and pre-eclamptic women showed that RAGE protein levels are elevated in both the myometrial and omentum vasculature during pregnancy and more so in PE Cooke et al. Several plants rich in phenolic compounds, including lowbush blueberry Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.

Vaccinium angustifolium has been used as a traditional medicine for millennia and its potent inhibitory effect on AGE formation may help explain why it is an effective natural health product for diabetes treatment in Canada Martineau et al. More recently, in vitro studies have shown that extracts from this plant increase trophoblast migration and invasion Ly et al.

Furthermore, evidence including that from placental bed biopsies suggests that abnormal trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodelling play an important role in the aetiology of PE Brosens et al.

Since the mechanism by which the blueberry extract exerts its effects is still unknown, it would be interesting to investigate if AGEs play a role in trophoblast migration and invasion and therefore, determine if the effects seen with the extract are through an AGE-dependent path. Furthermore, other in vitro models using collagen as a substrate have demonstrated that rutin and its metabolites inhibit the formation of AGE biomarkers, including pentosidine and N ε -carboxymethyl-lysine adducts Cervantes-Laurean et al.

Similarly, in vivo studies using diabetic rat models have reported that oral consumption of green tea extracts and curcumin reduces the formation of AGEs and the cross-linking of collagen Sajithlal et al.

Additionally, polyphenols are known inhibitors of AGE-mediated signalling cascades. Studies using murine microglia demonstrated that some plant-derived polyphenols are able to attenuate AGE-induced NO and TNF-α production in a dose-dependent manner Chandler et al.

According to Chandler et al. This study did not investigate the mechanism of action; however, the authors hypothesized, based on previous work, that the inhibitory effects are likely mediated by NF-κB.

Rasheed et al. Green tea catechins also attenuate intermittent hypoxia-induced increases in NADPH oxidase and RAGE expression in Sprague—Dawley rats Burckhardt et al. NADPH oxidase is a membrane-associated enzyme responsible for the production of superoxide anions in phagocytic and vascular cells.

Red grape juice, red wine and pure polyphenols were able to reduce NADPH oxidase subunit expression at the transcriptional and protein level in human neutrophils and mononuclear cells Dávalos et al. Similar results were observed in hypertensive rats given red wine polyphenols in their drinking water.

Consumption of red wine polyphenols prevented angiotensin II-induced hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in male rats Sarr et al. Moreover, a significant inhibitory effect on vascular ROS production and NADPH oxidase expression was seen in the treatment group Sarr et al.

Interestingly, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction are two phenomena also seen in PE, thus investigating the role of polyphenols in this context may warrant further investigation.

Although polyphenols represent an exogenous therapeutic approach to delay AGE- and RAGE-mediated diseases, the body has endogenous mechanisms dedicated to regulating homeostasis of this system. Studies conducted in vivo and in vitro provide evidence that RAGE signalling can be antagonized by soluble RAGE sRAGE , an endogenous RAGE antagonist generated by either alternative splicing of RAGE mRNA or cleavage of the extracellular domain of RAGE Stern et al.

AGEs and preventing them from reaching membrane-bound RAGE, thus inhibiting the intracellular effect. The clinical application of this work was noted by Germanová et al. Additionally, Oliver et al.

This time point is typically recognized as the earliest diagnostic cut-off point for this disease which suggests that in PE, the RAGE system is active at an early gestational age and sRAGE may have a protective function before a patient presents any noticeable clinical symptoms Oliver et al.

However, higher levels of sRAGE may not be enough to account for the damage induced by the AGE—RAGE system, especially if the levels of RAGE ligands exceed sRAGE scavenging abilities.

By measuring the ratio of sRAGE to AGEs, Yu et al. In this case, polyphenols may be a useful therapeutic tool to attenuate RAGE activity in disease. Unfortunately, the effects of polyphenols on sRAGE expression during pregnancy are still unknown.

The beneficial effects of polyphenols, mainly demonstrated in experimental studies, are encouraging. However, prior to initiating human intervention trials there is a need to examine the potential adverse effects of polyphenols during conception and pregnancy.

The influence of polyphenol consumption on male and female fertility and sexual development, fetal health and the bioavailability of substrates are summarized in Table IV and will be discussed below.

Potential harmful effects of polyphenols on reproductive health and early development. Araújo et al. Oocyte quality is affected by the intrafollicular microenvironment. During normal embryonic development, programmed cell death or apoptosis functions to remove abnormal or redundant cells in preimplantation embryos, contributing to the formation of organs and the embryo itself Brill et al.

This process does not occur prior to the blastocyst stage in mouse embryos Byrne et al. Instead, induction of cell death during oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis leads to developmental injury Chen and Chan, In vitro studies suggest that polyphenols may have a negative impact on female reproductive health.

For instance, curcumin, the predominant dietary pigment in turmeric, has been shown to promote mouse oocyte apoptosis which leads to a significant reduction in the rate of oocyte maturation, fertilization and in vitro embryonic development Chen and Chan, Another study also noted that curcumin induces apoptosis and developmental injury in mouse blastocysts Chen et al.

Moreover, Chen and Chan demonstrated using a mouse model that dietary consumption of curcumin decreased the number of implantations and surviving fetuses, decreased fetal weight and increased the number of resorption sites.

Similarly, Murphy et al. Neonatal treatment with genistein, an isoflavonoid with estrogenic activity from soya products, has been shown to lead to multi-oocyte follicles in mice Jefferson et al.

These types of follicles are known to have reduced fertility rates during IVF Iguchi et al. Overall, these adverse effects are important to consider and justify further investigations to understand the effects of polyphenols on female fertility and sexual development.

In males, treatment with curcumin reduced seminal vesicle weights, but did not alter testes weights Murphy et al. Other studies suggest that curcumin reduces the motility and viability of human and murine sperm Rithaporn et al. On the contrary, the adverse effect of EGCG on sperm motility is not significant, but this polyphenol has been shown to have cytogenetic effects on mouse spermatozoa in vitro Kusakabe and Kamiguchi, Upon injection into oocytes, a significant proportion of spermatozoa treated with EGCG displayed pronuclear arrest, degenerated sperm chromatin mass and structural chromosome aberrations Kusakabe and Kamiguchi, Furukawa et al.

Furthermore, dietary exposure of pregnant dams to genistein resulted in aberrant or delayed spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules of male pups Delclos et al. In general, the possible adverse effects of polyphenols on male reproduction require careful consideration and further investigation, particularly in human studies.

Most studies on polyphenols and their effects on fertility and sexual development have used animal models, thus data from human studies is scarce. However, research on isoflavones and fertility in both men and women has been identified in the literature. Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with chemical structures that closely resemble β-estradiol and therefore, have the potential to bind to both membrane and nuclear estrogen receptors, exert estrogenic activity and alter reproductive function Vitale et al.

A cross-sectional study by Jacobsen et al. Other studies have eased the concerns regarding the potential negative effects of isoflavone consumption on female fertility by reporting that isoflavone intake is not associated with sporadic anovulation Filiberto et al.

Contrasting findings are also evident in studies examining the effects of isoflavones on male fertility. For instance, studies report that higher intake of soy foods and soy isoflavones is associated with lower sperm concentration Chavarro et al.

However, evidence from other studies suggests that isoflavone intake does not adversely affect semen quality parameters, including sperm concentration and sperm motility and morphology in healthy males Mitchell et al. Genistein has also been shown to accelerate capacitation and acrosome loss in human and mouse sperm, although human gametes appear to be more sensitive Fraser et al.

Thus, despite the many reported benefits of polyphenol administration, data highlighting the potential hazards of polyphenols, the variation of results between heterogeneous studies, and the possibility of species-specific susceptibility stresses the need for caution and further study in humans prior to implementing recommendations for clinical practice.

Maternal intake of polyphenol-rich foods and beverages during the third trimester has been associated with fetal ductal constriction Zielinsky et al. In a prospective study conducted by Zielinsky et al. estimated daily maternal consumption above mg and low levels of polyphenols i. unexposed fetuses; estimated daily maternal consumption below mg.

Results indicated that fetuses exposed to polyphenol-rich foods had higher ductal velocities and right-to-left ventricular ratios than unexposed fetuses; however, these parameters were still within the normal range Galão et al. Although maternal restriction of polyphenol-rich foods was reported to reverse the effect on ductal constriction Zielinsky et al.

Polyphenols are known to target the intestine and therefore, can affect intestinal absorption of nutrients, drugs and other exogenous compounds i. Similarly, polyphenols that are absorbed from the gastrointestinal system into the maternal circulation can target the placenta and affect placental transport of nutrients and other bioactive substances Martel et al.

Polyphenols have been reported to affect the bioavailability of various substrates, including organic cations OCs , thiamine, folic acid FA and glucose.

OCs possess net charges at physiological pH. Some examples include various drugs e. antihistamines, antacids and antihypertensives , vitamins e. thiamin and riboflavin , amino acids and bioactive amines e. catecholamines, serotonin and histamine Zhang et al. Since both of these wines had approximately the same amount of ethanol, Monteiro et al.

Thiamine is a complex water-soluble B vitamin vitamin B 1 that is required during pregnancy for normal fetal growth and development. Therefore, understanding the regulation of thiamine transport across the placenta is important. Keating et al. In the short-term study, none of the 10 compounds tested influenced thiamine transport.

Long-term treatment with the prenylated chalcones xanthohumol or isoxanthohumol, which are commonly found in beer, significantly reduced thiamine uptake by BeWo cells. This effect was not mediated through differential mRNA expression of the thiamine transporters, ThTr-1 and ThTr-2, or the human serotonin transporter, both of which have been previously reported to be involved in thiamine uptake in BeWo cells Keating et al.

To further elucidate the mechanism by which this effect occurs, future studies should examine the protein levels of these transporters following treatment and quantify other transporters known to carry thiamine across the placenta e.

amphiphilic solute facilitator family. FA is a member of the large family of B vitamins and its derivatives are required for a variety of cellular functions, including nucleic acid synthesis and amino acid metabolism Martel et al. Folate is the naturally occurring form of the vitamin and is especially important during pregnancy for preventing fetal neural tube defects Lucock, One Japanese study noted that circulating levels of folate appear to be lower in healthy pregnant women who consume high levels i.

greater than the 75th percentile of participants of green or oolong tea compared with healthy pregnant women who do not consume high levels of these beverages Shiraishi et al.

However, recent data from Colapinto et al. Therefore, folate deficiency does not seem to be an issue in Canada. In vitro studies using BeWo cells have shown that acute treatment with the polyphenols epicatechin or isoxanthohumol reduced FA uptake Keating et al.

Conversely, xanthohumol, quercetin or lower concentrations of isoxanthohumol increased FA uptake Keating et al. Polyphenols are believed to affect FA transport in BeWo cells through direct interaction with FA transporters rather than influencing transporter expression Keating et al.

Since the BeWo cell line only acts as a simple model for a more complex biological system, caution should be taken when interpreting these results. For instance, the apparent differences in acute and chronic exposure of polyphenols in vitro may not necessarily be reflective of what is seen in vivo , thus further studies using villous explants or animal models would be interesting to pursue.

Glucose is the main energy substrate for metabolism and growth of the feto-placental unit Martel et al.

Since the fetus cannot synthesize the amount of glucose required for optimal development, it must obtain glucose from the maternal circulation. Therefore, placental transport of glucose is a major determinant of fetal health. Glucose transport is mediated by members of the GLUT family of transporters; GLUT1 being the predominant transporter in the placenta Barros et al.

Short-term treatment of BeWo cells with resveratrol, EGCG, quercetin, chrysin and xanthohumol reduced glucose uptake while rutin, catechin and epicatechin increased glucose uptake in these cells Araújo et al.

Chronic treatment with rutin and myricetin increased glucose uptake in this model. However, whether polyphenols when taken together with other phenolics or whole foods have similar effects in humans is still unknown. Polyphenol consumption varies greatly between individuals and cultures.

Individuals who drink more than two cups of coffee per day can easily consume 0. As the use of nutritional supplements continues to grow in popularity, the concentration of polyphenols found within these capsules and powders should be considered when determining total phenolic intake.

To assess the possible beneficial and harmful effects of polyphenols, validated methods are being developed to quantify the concentration of these compounds in dietary supplements Harris et al.

However, adequately powered studies with large sample sizes are needed to properly correlate polyphenol intake and health outcome. The use of biochemical markers to measure polyphenol intake during pregnancy is subject to interpretation errors caused by individual differences in absorption and metabolism, genetics and metabolic changes during pregnancy.

Food frequency questionnaires FFQ have well-documented limitations, but are the most common method used to evaluate dietary intake patterns given the low cost and ease of administration Archer et al. A recent study conducted by Vian et al. The average daily intake of total polyphenols estimated by the FFQ was roughly 1 g, and this FFQ showed high reproducibility and validity for the quantification of total polyphenol consumption.

Studies that provide more precise individual data concerning intake of specific classes of polyphenols during pregnancy are required and will further our understanding of their potential impact on reproductive health.

Although the current methods for measuring polyphenol content in foods and dietary supplements e. oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay and Folin—Ciocalteu method is accurate Prior et al. Lastly, obtaining accurate information with regards to maternal consumption of nutritional supplements high in polyphenols, such as ginger, cranberry and raspberry herbal medicines Kennedy et al.

As these studies are in their infancy, considerably more research effort is needed in this area. The increasing interest and public awareness surrounding the potential health benefits of polyphenol consumption, as well as the widespread availability and accessibility of polyphenols through the use of nutritional supplements and fortified foods, has prompted extensive research focused on the biological effects of these compounds in regards to chronic disease prevention and health maintenance.

However, these studies have included mostly cell and animal data, with minimal human investigations. In fact, much less human data are available on the effects of polyphenol consumption during pregnancy. Moreover, both women who had used herbal medicines during pregnancy and those who did not, had a positive attitude towards the consumption of polyphenol-rich supplements Nordeng and Havnen, Overall, the use of supplements rich in polyphenols appears to be relatively high, thus identifying the herbal products used by pregnant women and understanding the potential benefits or harm is needed.

In chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes, the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods and beverages has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, such as increasing the plasma antioxidant capacity in humans Prior et al.

To our knowledge, there have been no studies to date examining the relationship between polyphenols and the incidence of pregnancy-related complications associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. However, Facchinetti et al. Most of the human studies related to polyphenols and reproductive health focus on the effects of isoflavone consumption on male and female fertility, and there appears to be no clear consensus in this field Mitchell et al.

Other studies have reported that maternal intake of polyphenol-rich foods and beverages during pregnancy may have adverse effects on fetal health Zielinsky et al.

Overall, studies examining the biological effects of polyphenol consumption on human reproductive health are limited and inconclusive. Based on the evidence accumulated from in vitro studies and animal models, as well as human studies in other contexts, some may initially believe that polyphenols have potential health benefits on human reproduction.

On the other hand, investigators who have studied the effects of polyphenols on fertility, sexual development and fetal health, have highlighted significant health concerns that should be considered prior to conducting clinical trials and implementing recommendations for clinical practice.

The findings from these animal studies are difficult to extrapolate to humans due to a variety of species-related differences, including inter- and intra-species variation in digestion, absorption, and metabolism of polyphenols, and concentration and composition of the experimental treatment.

Therefore, further studies in humans are required and should employ large cohorts, with adequate power and sample sizes to detect changes in the primary outcome. Both positive and negative effects have been associated with the consumption of polyphenol-rich foods and beverages in human studies, as well as with the treatment of individual phenolic compounds in experimental in vitro and in vivo models.

The mechanisms responsible for these effects have only recently started to be elucidated, especially in the context of reproductive health and pregnancy. As such, we must remain critical particularly for at-risk populations, such as pregnant women, when drawing conclusions regarding the potential health benefits or adverse effects of polyphenols.

Successful advancement in this field of research will require the development of extensive food composition tables for polyphenols and standardized methods for executing experimental procedures. This will allow researchers to conduct thorough observational epidemiological studies and grant confidence when comparing results in the literature.

Since the active compound responsible for the biological effect may not be the native polyphenol found in food, further studies are required to characterize the activity of the metabolites rather than simply the native compounds which are currently the most often tested agents in in vitro studies.

Finally, identifying the normal physiological range of polyphenols and their metabolites in adult tissues and fetal tissues is of utmost importance if scientists aim to determine if the effects achieved from a certain dose in an experimental study are physiologically relevant.

Determining the clinical relevance of results obtained from animal and in vitro studies is difficult as these studies are conducted at doses which may exceed normal physiologic concentrations. Collectively, all of these aspects must be considered in the design of future experimental studies, irrespective of whether they are aimed at evaluating beneficial or adverse effects of polyphenols.

and A. made substantial contributions to the conception and design of the manuscript. were involved in the acquisition of data. played a role in the analysis and interpretation of data. drafted the manuscript and J.

critically revised the manuscript. contributed to the final approval of the version to be published. The following funds were used to support the authors during the preparation of the manuscript: Queen Elizabeth II Graduate Scholarship in Science and Technology C.

The authors thank Dr Tony Durst and Dr Ammar Saleem for their comments on the figures. Google Scholar. Google Preview. Advertisement intended for healthcare professionals. Navbar Search Filter Human Reproduction Update This issue ESHRE Journals Critical Care Reproductive Medicine Books Journals Oxford Academic Mobile Enter search term Search.

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Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents Abstract. Classification and dietary sources of polyphenols. Polyphenol pharmacokinetics and bioavailability. Molecular targets of polyphenols: an overview of their potential beneficial effects.

Potential hazardous effects of polyphenols. Dietary intake of polyphenols during pregnancy. Human studies and translational potential. Conclusion and recommendations for future research. Authors' roles. Conflict of interest. Journal Article.

Oxford Academic. Julien Yockell-Lelièvre. Zachary M. John T. Jonathan Ferrier. Andrée Gruslin. Revision received:. PDF Split View Views. Cite Cite Christina Ly, Julien Yockell-Lelièvre, Zachary M.

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Table I Major dietary polyphenols and their general distribution in foods. Major food sources. Phenolic acids Benzoic acids Gallic acid Tea leaves 21 p -Hydroxybenzoic acid Red fruit e.

strawberries and raspberries , onions 17 Cinnamic acids Caffeic acid Virtually all fruit 12 p -Coumaric acid Cereal grains 20 Flavonoids Flavanols Epigallocatechin gallate Green and black tea 11 Epicatechin Most fruits, chocolate 2 Flavonols Kaempferol, quercetin Onions, broccoli, blueberries 6,7,8,9 Anthocyanins Cyanin glucoside Highly pigmented fruit 5 Flavones Apigenin, chrysin, luteolin Parsley, celery 6,7,9 Isoflavones Daidzein, genistein Soya and its processed products 3,16 Flavanones Naringenin Grapefruit 14 Hesperetin Oranges 14 Stilbenes Resveratrol Red wine, red grape juice 15,22 Lignans Secoisolariciresinol Flaxseed 13 Sesamin Sesame seed 19 Others Chlorogenic acid Most fruit, coffee 4 Curcumin Turmeric 1 Rutin Citrus fruits 10 Silibinin Milk thistle seeds Open in new tab.

Phenolic acids. Benzoic acids. Cinnamic acids. Strawberry 2—9 p 1—3 p 0. Rice 20—38 e 1. Coffee n. Green tea 0. Red grape juice n.

Red wine 2. Soy beans 73 q Tofu n. Figure 1. Open in new tab Download slide. Chemical structures of selected polyphenols. Table III Molecular targets of polyphenols. Biological effect. Figure 2. Table IV Potential harmful effects of polyphenols on reproductive health and early development.

Experimental model. EGCG, epigallocatechin gallate; OC, organic cation. Identification and determination of phenolic constituents in natural beverages and plant extracts by means of a coulometric electrode array system.

Google Scholar Crossref. Search ADS. Cinnamate uptake by rat small intestine: transport kinetics and transepithelial transfer. Google Scholar PubMed. OpenURL Placeholder Text. The roles of cellular reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and antioxidants in pregnancy outcomes.

Selective effects of different antioxidants on oxidation of lipoproteins from rats. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in pregnancy: impact on the fetus and newborn. Dietary intakes of flavonols and isoflavones by Japanese women and inverse correlation between quercetin intake and plasma LDL cholesterol concentration.

Modulation of glucose uptake in a human choriocarcinoma cell line BeWo by dietary bioactive compounds and drugs of abuse.

Validity of U. Nutritional Surveillance: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Caloric Energy Intake Data, — Distribution of grape seed flavanols and their metabolites in pregnant rats and their fetuses. Catechin contents of foods commonly consumed in the Netherlands.

Fruits, vegetables, staple foods and processed foods. Catechin content of foods commonly consumed in the Netherlands. Tea, wine, fruit juices, and chocolate milk. European research on the functional effects of dietary antioxidants—EUROFEDA.

Are there hormone-balancing foods? 7 foods to add to your diet for hormone health Description of urolithin production capacity from ellagic acid of two human intestinal Gordonibacter species. Baoheng Du ; Baoheng Du. These are GPR41 FFAR3 , GPR43 FFAR2 , and GPRA. PLoS One 10 , e Additionally, studies note that omega-3s may prevent cortisol levels from increasing during stress. Pajuelo, D.

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