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Self-care tools for effective diabetes control

Self-care tools for effective diabetes control

Health Psychol10 1 :1—8. Am J Prev Effetive19 1 :9— Results of subgroup analysis by intervention feature in relation to reductions in hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure.

Self-care tools for effective diabetes control -

Keep insulin away from extreme heat or cold. Don't store it in the freezer or in direct sunlight. Tell your healthcare professional about any medicine problems. If your diabetes medicines cause your blood sugar level to drop too low, the dosage or timing may need to be changed.

Your healthcare professional also might adjust your medicine if your blood sugar stays too high. Be cautious with new medicines. Talk with your healthcare team or pharmacist before you try new medicines.

That includes medicines sold without a prescription and those prescribed for other medical conditions. Ask how the new medicine might affect your blood sugar levels and any diabetes medicines you take.

Sometimes a different medicine may be used to prevent dangerous side effects. Or a different medicine might be used to prevent your current medicine from mixing poorly with a new one. With diabetes, it's important to be prepared for times of illness.

When you're sick, your body makes stress-related hormones that help fight the illness. But those hormones also can raise your blood sugar.

Changes in your appetite and usual activity also may affect your blood sugar level. Plan ahead. Work with your healthcare team to make a plan for sick days. Include instructions on what medicines to take and how to adjust your medicines if needed. Also note how often to measure your blood sugar.

Ask your healthcare professional if you need to measure levels of acids in the urine called ketones. Your plan also should include what foods and drinks to have, and what cold or flu medicines you can take.

Know when to call your healthcare professional too. For example, it's important to call if you run a fever over degrees Fahrenheit Keep taking your diabetes medicine. But call your healthcare professional if you can't eat because of an upset stomach or vomiting. In these situations, you may need to change your insulin dose.

If you take rapid-acting or short-acting insulin or other diabetes medicine, you may need to lower the dose or stop taking it for a time. These medicines need to be carefully balanced with food to prevent low blood sugar.

But if you use long-acting insulin, do not stop taking it. During times of illness, it's also important to check your blood sugar often. Stick to your diabetes meal plan if you can. Eating as usual helps you control your blood sugar. Keep a supply of foods that are easy on your stomach.

These include gelatin, crackers, soups, instant pudding and applesauce. Drink lots of water or other fluids that don't add calories, such as tea, to make sure you stay hydrated. If you take insulin, you may need to sip sugary drinks such as juice or sports drinks.

These drinks can help keep your blood sugar from dropping too low. It's risky for some people with diabetes to drink alcohol. Alcohol can lead to low blood sugar shortly after you drink it and for hours afterward. The liver usually releases stored sugar to offset falling blood sugar levels.

But if your liver is processing alcohol, it may not give your blood sugar the needed boost. Get your healthcare professional's OK to drink alcohol. With diabetes, drinking too much alcohol sometimes can lead to health conditions such as nerve damage.

But if your diabetes is under control and your healthcare professional agrees, an occasional alcoholic drink is fine.

Women should have no more than one drink a day. Men should have no more than two drinks a day. One drink equals a ounce beer, 5 ounces of wine or 1. Don't drink alcohol on an empty stomach. If you take insulin or other diabetes medicines, eat before you drink alcohol. This helps prevent low blood sugar.

Or drink alcohol with a meal. Choose your drinks carefully. Light beer and dry wines have fewer calories and carbohydrates than do other alcoholic drinks. If you prefer mixed drinks, sugar-free mixers won't raise your blood sugar. Some examples of sugar-free mixers are diet soda, diet tonic, club soda and seltzer.

Add up calories from alcohol. If you count calories, include the calories from any alcohol you drink in your daily count. Ask your healthcare professional or a registered dietitian how to make calories and carbohydrates from alcoholic drinks part of your diet plan.

Check your blood sugar level before bed. Alcohol can lower blood sugar levels long after you've had your last drink. So check your blood sugar level before you go to sleep.

The snack can counter a drop in your blood sugar. Changes in hormone levels the week before and during periods can lead to swings in blood sugar levels. Look for patterns. Keep careful track of your blood sugar readings from month to month. You may be able to predict blood sugar changes related to your menstrual cycle.

Your healthcare professional may recommend changes in your meal plan, activity level or diabetes medicines.

These changes can make up for blood sugar swings. Check blood sugar more often. If you're likely nearing menopause or if you're in menopause, talk with your healthcare professional.

Ask whether you need to check your blood sugar more often. Also, be aware that menopause and low blood sugar have some symptoms in common, such as sweating and mood changes. So whenever you can, check your blood sugar before you treat your symptoms.

That way you can confirm whether your blood sugar is low. Most types of birth control are safe to use when you have diabetes. But combination birth control pills may raise blood sugar levels in some people.

It's very important to take charge of stress when you have diabetes. The hormones your body makes in response to prolonged stress may cause your blood sugar to rise. It also may be harder to closely follow your usual routine to manage diabetes if you're under a lot of extra pressure.

Take control. Once you know how stress affects your blood sugar level, make healthy changes. Learn relaxation techniques, rank tasks in order of importance and set limits. Whenever you can, stay away from things that cause stress for you.

Exercise often to help relieve stress and lower your blood sugar. Get help. Learn new ways to manage stress. You may find that working with a psychologist or clinical social worker can help.

These professionals can help you notice stressors, solve stressful problems and learn coping skills. The more you know about factors that have an effect on your blood sugar level, the better you can prepare to manage diabetes.

If you have trouble keeping your blood sugar in your target range, ask your diabetes healthcare team for help. There is a problem with information submitted for this request.

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By Mayo Clinic Staff. Thank you for subscribing! Sorry something went wrong with your subscription Please, try again in a couple of minutes Retry. Show references Facilitating behavior change and well-being to improve health outcomes. Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes — Diabetes Care.

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Using insulin Diabetic Gastroparesis Diuretics Diuretics: A cause of low potassium? Diabetes self-care necessitates a high level of stress-coping skills as well as problem-solving ability.

Therefore, stress-coping behaviors are important for patients with type 2 diabetes. Even if stress management activity had a positive effect on diabetic self-care, over half of the patients in this study To enhance self-care behaviors and stress management, it is necessary to implement stress coping strategies and problem-solving skills.

The most common stress reduction measures used in this study were getting enough sleep, focusing on happy thoughts in bed, and relaxing daily after the activity. The adoption and implementation of different stress management approaches is a priority as stress management techniques improve self-care behaviors of diabetics [ 15 , 21 ].

In this current study, patients with good perceptions are more likely to practice diabetic self-care. One reason could be that when patients have good insight, it can help them understand their health status and avoid confusion when taking diabetes self-care measures.

In this study, patients with good family support were more likely to have self-management behavior. Diabetes self-management behavior can be significantly improved with increased family support.

Studies have shown that diabetes-specific supportive and family behaviors have a positive impact on individual self-management behaviors [ 31 , 32 , 33 ].

Therefore, to improve the health of adults with diabetes, it is important to support families who are committed to self-management of their diabetes. We need to build proper support and foster healthy relationships among all family members. The current study has some limitations, including the possibility that self-reported measures may be biased in response and overestimate behavioral performance.

This tool also needs more attention for accurate and reliable data. Practicing stress management and coping skills is the preferred strategy for improving diabetes management behavior.

This has been demonstrated in previous studies [ 15 , 21 , 22 , 24 ] and in this study. Since stress management behaviors and coping skills are associated with diabetes self-management, diabetes professionals should consider these aspects when discussing diabetes self-management. In addition, the results indicate that stress management programs may have significant clinical benefits for patients with type II diabetes.

Therefore, routine care and education programs should address diabetes self-care activities and coping skills that influence health-related behaviors and decision-making. In summary, the following key program areas attract the attention of policymakers and service providers; 1 As a routine therapeutic or therapeutic service, stress management strategies and coping skills should be integrated into existing systems.

The study results showed that stress management behavior significantly improved diabetes self-management behavior and had a positive association with it.

Patients with good stress management behaviors are more likely to engage in diabetes self-management activities. In addition, patients with good awareness and patients with family support were more likely to have diabetes self-care. All data generated in this study are included in the manuscript.

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Behav Sci , 7 3. Download references. We would like to extend our sincere gratitude to the research team members who contributed to the completion of this study. Finally, we would want to express our heartfelt gratitude to all participants, data collectors, and supervisors for their time and effort.

There are no specific grants for this research from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or non-profit sectors. Department of Public Health, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia.

School of Medicine, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia. School of Public Health, the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

Conceptualization and formal analysis: Akine Eshete; Investigation and Methodology: Akine Eshete, Sadat Mohammed, Tilahun Deress, Tewodros Kifleyohans, Yibeltal Assefa. All authors contributed to the writing of the manuscript and approved the submitted version of the manuscript.

Correspondence to Akine Eshete. Ethical approval was obtained from the Asrat Woldeyes Health Science Campus, Debre Berhan University, and Institutional Review Board Approval No. All study methods were performed in accordance with Asrat Woldeyes Health Science Campus, Debre Berhan University, Institutional Review Board guidelines and regulations.

Necessary permission was secured from all concerned administrators. Written informed consent was obtained from each respondent before actual data collection. Issues of confidentiality were maintained by removing any identifiers from the questionnaire. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.

While diiabetes is no cure Embrace positivity daily diabetes, with treatment and self-management strategies, a person can Self-care tools for effective diabetes control a long and effecrive life. Self-care tips Self-care tools for effective diabetes control meal planning for nutrition, getting enough Slf-care exercise or physical activity, avoiding smoking, and more. Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects millions of people around the world. In the United States, 1. Diabetes also affects children and adolescents. Approximatelypeople younger than 20 in the country have diagnosed diabetes. The American Diabetes Association ADA note in guidelines that self-management and education are crucial aspects of diabetes care.

Self-care tools for effective diabetes control -

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Diabetes Care , 18 3 — Download references. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava. SRS wrote the first draft of the article and performed intensive review of literature.

PSS edited the article continuously. JR read and approved the final manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Reprints and permissions. Shrivastava, S. Role of self-care in management of diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Metab Disord 12 , 14 Download citation. Received : 22 January Accepted : 28 February Published : 05 March Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Download PDF. Abstract Diabetes mellitus DM is a chronic progressive metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia mainly due to absolute Type 1 DM or relative Type 2 DM deficiency of insulin hormone.

Self-Management in Diabetes Chapter © Healthy Lifestyles for the Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes Chapter © Use our pre-submission checklist Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript. Introduction Diabetes mellitus DM is a chronic progressive metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia mainly due to absolute Type 1 DM or relative Type 2 DM deficiency of insulin hormone[ 1 ].

Addressing needs of diabetic patients One of the biggest challenges for health care providers today is addressing the continued needs and demands of individuals with chronic illnesses like diabetes[ 12 ].

Self-care in diabetes Self-care in diabetes has been defined as an evolutionary process of development of knowledge or awareness by learning to survive with the complex nature of the diabetes in a social context[ 20 , 21 ].

Diabetes self management education Though genetics play an important role in the development of diabetes, monozygotic twin studies have certainly shown the importance of environmental influences[ 34 ]. Diabetes self-care activities Diabetes education is important but it must be transferred to action or self-care activities to fully benefit the patient.

Compliance to self-care activities Treatment adherence in diabetes is an area of interest and concern to health professionals and clinical researchers even though a great deal of prior research has been done in the area.

The criteria were the SDSCA scales of self-care and the clinical outcomes BMI and HbA 1c. Patient characteristics such as sex, age, diabetes type, diabetes duration, type of medical therapy, and number of late complications were included in the analyses to examine possible associations in case of the dichotomous variables sex, diabetes type, and use of insulin point-biserial correlations were estimated.

Additionally, known groups validity was assessed by assorting the patients into three groups according to the HbA 1c value, which were then examined regarding self-care activities as assessed by the DSMQ. Patients with HbA 1c values up to 7. Between-groups differences were analysed using One-way Analyses of Variance.

If feasible according to the sample sizes , the explained analyses were additionally performed on the basis of the diabetes type 1 and 2 subsamples in order to test the applicability of the questionnaire in both diabetes types.

In order to perform the item selection, patients were assessed with the preliminary set of 37 items. The mean HbA 1c was 8. The relevant items assessed dealing with hypoglycaemic episodes, calculation of carbohydrates, alcohol consumption, carriage of needed therapy devices, and weight control.

In a second step, two items which were found to decrease the internal consistency of this item selection were removed. For the remaining 25 items an α coefficient of 0. In a third step, a principal component factor analysis was performed.

Varimax-rotated factor loadings were evaluated, and six items which did not show a loading of 0. In a fourth step, the factors were interpreted and the matching of items was rated. It was removed consequently. Secondly, one item which asks for the recording of blood glucose levels showed indeed a loading of 0.

Despite its bidimensionality and with a view to its correlation with HbA 1c of 0. In the final step, the remaining 18 items were analysed for contentual redundancy.

In each case, the item with the lower correlation with HbA 1c was removed. The psychometric properties of the final 16 item version of the DSMQ were assessed in patients.

The SDSCA served as comparison to assess the quality of our scale. The sample characteristics are presented in Table 2. Despite the slightly different proportions of diabetes types, rates of specific treatments, mean diabetes durations, and late complication statuses were highly similar as can be seen in Table 2.

Item analyses revealed a mean item difficulty of However, the indices of items 3, 4, and 7 were located in the peripheral zones of the distribution.

The mean inter-item-correlation or homogeneity was 0. The mean item-subscale-correlations were 0. Two items 14, 15 , however, showed item-total-correlations lower than 0.

Still, those were highly correlated with their corresponding subscales. With the exception of the items 8 and 15, both on physical activity, all correlations with HbA 1c were significant. A detailed overview of the above item characteristics is displayed in Table 3. If item and scale properties were assessed in the diabetes type subsamples separately, the analyses collectively revealed comparable results.

In type 1 diabetes patients, the mean inter-item-correlation was 0. The DSMQ subscales showed α coefficients of averagely 0. In type 2 patients, the mean inter-item-correlation was 0. However, in five cases items 8, 9, 11, 14, and 15 the correlations were insignificant.

This result was supported by the scree test. The varimax rotation converged in 6 iterations. Item 6, which asks for the recording of blood glucose levels, again as in the first study revealed a bidimensional structure with its additional loading on the diet factor.

The factor loadings are presented in Table 4. To test the observed factor structure, all items except item 16 were aggregated to four correlated factors as suggested by the EFA using CFA. These results indicate a very appropriate fit of the four factor model.

To evaluate the feasibility of integrating all items to a total scale, an additional single factor model all 16 items aggregated on one factor was tested. All results are shown in Table 5. If convergent correlations were assessed separately by diabetes type, the analyses of both subsamples revealed results which were highly comparable to those presented above.

The comparison between the DSMQ scales and their equivalent SDSCA scales regarding the correlations with HbA 1c and for the physical activity scales with BMI revealed the following results:. When these correlational analyses were performed separately by diabetes type, the results were in total clearly consistent with the ones described above.

Therefore, the finding of a higher association between the DSMQ subscale and HbA 1c — as observed in the total sample — could not be replicated. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the development of the DSMQ study 1 and evaluate its psychometric properties study 2.

The questionnaire was developed on a broad theoretical and empirical basis, and its evaluation indicates very good psychometric properties with adequate item characteristics, satisfactory reliability, and good validity.

According to the generally satisfactory item properties and good item validity coefficients regarding HbA 1c the overall item selection appears very satisfying. Since the items assess a number of different aspects of self-care, the total scale is rather heterogeneous, which is reflected by the mean inter-item-correlation of 0.

Against this background and with a view to the rather low number of items on each content, the internal consistency can be appraised as good based on the standard by Nunnally and Bernstein [ 59 ].

For a polydimensional construct a higher alpha coefficient might even be unfavourable, for it suggests high item redundancy in the scale, as pointed out by Streiner [ 60 ]. The slightly lower item-total-correlations in two cases should be interpreted with a view to this aspect as well.

The additional analyses of the subsamples revealed slightly better item properties and consistency in type 1 patients which can be partly attributed to the difference in sample size.

In sum, all coefficients were in the acceptable range and suggest general applicability. The EFA revealed a simple structure of four factors with high loadings of all items thereon. The factors were well interpretable and their contents clearly confirmed the designed scales.

But apart from that, the overall content structure is remarkably clear and indicates a good factorial validity. The EFA revealed a very good fit of the suggested four factor model, which also confirms the designed scales.

The criterion-related correlations between the DSMQ scales and the SDSCA scales indicate a good convergence between parallel measures suggesting validity. According to these results, higher sum scores as well as subscale scores of the DSMQ allow to infer better self-care activities in view of glycaemic control.

Notably, the DSMQ and SDSCA are equivalent in the way that both questionnaires assess self-care activities, which in most cases are clearly related, as reflected by the correlations between the parallel scales.

However, in spite of this commonality, self-care as assessed by the DSMQ is more strongly associated with glycated haemoglobin, which can be explained by the differently conceptualized functions [19; p.

In the course of the item selection only self-care activities which showed relevant associations with glycaemic control were kept. For this reason, several specific self-care activities which may be of interest in regards of diabetes care are not covered by the DSMQ.

The main limitation of the studies is based on the composition of the samples. Both samples were drawn from in-patients at a tertiary referral centre for diabetes, where patients are usually hospitalized because of relevant problems of diabetes treatment and glycaemic control reflected by the average HbA 1c values of 8.

Therefore, the study participants cannot be rated as representative of the general diabetic population, which limits the generalizability of results [ 61 ]. Furthermore, the majority of patients was treated with insulin, whereas only a small percentage used non-insulin medical treatments.

Thus, the pattern of correlations between the DSMQ scales and HbA 1c might differ when assessed in patients not treated with insulin or antidiabetic medication for example, dietary aspects and physical activity then might have a larger impact on glycaemic control.

Due to the generally short length of stay at the GDCM, the investigation was carried out cross-sectionally. In these regards additional analyses are needed. Nevertheless, the present results may be judged as promising. The strengths of this investigation, on the other hand, lie in the theoretical and empirical basis of the questionnaire contents on recent results from self-care research, which facilitates the integration of our findings and supports face validity.

The questionnaire development was performed through a highly formal process of item and test analysis study 1 , and its initial validation study 2 was based on a very appropriate sample size. Furthermore a high accuracy of HbA 1c analysis was achieved due to standardised analysis in a central laboratory , and the coincidence of blood sampling and psychometric assessment as well as the standardized data assessment ensure the internal validity of results.

Regarding its associations with HbA 1c, the DSMQ showed significant superiority to the German version of the SDSCA. In sum, in this initial study the DSMQ demonstrated very good psychometric properties.

The questionnaire presents itself as an efficient instrument which provides reliable and valid information on diabetes self-care, and assesses four well-defined specific self-care activities associated with glycaemic control. It was designed especially to enable scientific studies of psychosocial barriers to self-care and glycaemic control.

However, since good metabolic control can be regarded as the most important goal of diabetes treatment, the questionnaire appears also valuable for the clinical use as a screener or as diagnostic instrument to assess barriers of glycaemic control in individuals.

Thus, the DSMQ should benefit future research and also be of value in clinical settings. Spellman CW: Achieving glycemic control: cornerstone in the treatment of patients with multiple metabolic risk factors.

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Health Conditions Chevron. Self-care tools for effective diabetes control Health Chevron. Type 2 Diabetes Chevron. Contdol includes all the things you do to keep diabetss blood sugar levels as balanced as possible, which can play a vital role in your overall health and happiness. This term refers to the unique challenges and emotions that people with diabetes may experience, from the rigorous treatment regimen, to dealing with a complex medical system, to the daunting financial burden. Published on 4. Conyrol of this article:. Department of Effsctive and Selt-care Self-care tools for effective diabetes control Engineering, Antifungal essential oils of Hong Kong, Effectjve Kong, Hong Kong. Background: Mobile app-assisted self-care interventions are emerging promising tools to support self-care of patients with chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension. The effectiveness of such interventions requires further exploration for more supporting evidence. Methods: We followed the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines and searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and CINAHL Plus for relevant studies published between January and January

Author: Sagor

4 thoughts on “Self-care tools for effective diabetes control

  1. Ich bin endlich, ich tue Abbitte, aber es kommt mir nicht ganz heran. Kann, es gibt noch die Varianten?

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