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Glutamine and stress reduction

Glutamine and stress reduction

Hippocampal synaptic activity was assessed with field potential recording Glutamine and stress reduction wnd CA3-CA1 synaptic qnd. Article CAS Quercetin and aging prevention Scholar Moriguchi S. Psychiatry 32— Feduction approval anv consent to participate All animal procedures were approved by the Rutgers University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee protocol 06— Significantly lower plasma glutamine level has also been reported in breast cancer patients and in male gastrointestinal cancer patients [ 51 ]. Glutamine Gln or Q is the most abundant free amino acid in the human blood stream. Google Scholar.

Glutamine and stress reduction -

Malnutrition occurs in these patients during the disease due to decreased appetite. Some studies have shown that people with malnutrition experience more severe symptoms of COVID As a result, it can be expected that the relationship between malnutrition and COVID is a two-way relationship and a vicious cycle Anker et al.

Malnutrition also exacerbates infection and increases mortality in COVID by weakening the immune system. In some animal studies, it has been shown that infection reduces appetite, and eventually, the animal loses weight Li et al.

Possible mechanisms of malnutrition in infectious patients include increased inflammatory factors such as elevated serum CRP levels Derouiche and inflammatory interleukins such as IL1, IL6, and α-TNF. Numerous studies show that serum inflammatory factors interleukins such as IL6, IL1β, and TNF-α are elevated in these patients Robinson et al.

IL1β strongly promotes anorexia, increased energy expenditure, muscle protein loss, and leptin release Rao et al. Oxidative stress also exacerbates malnutrition in these patients through changes in metabolism and energy Hsieh et al.

It has been reported that nutritional support can improve nutritional status and anthropometric factors in patients with respiratory infections Baumgartner et al.

On the other hand, it has been shown that glutamine can regulate appetite by affecting the secretion of Glucagon-like peptide 1 from the gastrointestinal tract Andersson et al.

Glucagon-like peptide 1 is a physiological regulator of energy intake and appetite Adams et al. Glutamine is also involved in the formation of glutamate and GABA Qureshi et al. Glutamate and GABA can stimulate appetite Varela et al.

Glutamine has the effect of reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and may play a role in reducing mortality by controlling the infection de Urbina et al. Only one study Cengiz et al.

Based on the COVID treatment importance and reduction in mortality and morbidity, this case-control study aimed to assess and compare serum levels of some inflammatory factors, oxidative stress, and appetite in COVID patients with respiratory infections that receive glutamine treatment with a control group.

Before the written consent, all patients were given complete information about the study protocol. A total of COVID patients were screened and patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients who applied to the COVID outpatient clinics of the Hospital between Jan 28 and Mar 10, those who had lower respiratory tract involvement in computed thorax tomography thorax CT , and positive real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR test in the oro-nasopharyngeal swab, were included in the study.

In this study, patients who consented to use glutamine were considered as the case group and other patients who did not use glutamine were considered as the control group. were excluded from the study.

The Sequential Organ Failure Assessment SOFA scoring was performed on all patients for evaluating the severity of the disease before the beginning of the study. When a patient had malnutrition or was at risk of malnutrition at the beginning or in the following period of the hospital stay, we planned a nutritional care plan and excluded them from the study.

The patients whose clinical courses and laboratory parameters worsened through all given treatments were classified as severe sepsis according to the criteria of SOFA and excluded from the study. SOFA measures individual or aggregate organ dysfunction in six organ systems respiratory, coagulatory, liver, cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic in the ICU and mostly predict hospital mortality.

Thorax CT screenings of all patients were taken at the time of hospital admission. As stated in the guidelines, and the oropharyngeal sample was first taken with a swab, then a nasal sample was taken using the same swab, and placed in the same transport medium for diagnosis.

Samples were tested by RT-PCR assay developed from the virus sequence. Before giving the supplement, 2 cc blood samples were taken from both groups. At the end of glutamine consumption, blood samples were taken again to assess serum levels of IL1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity, then all data were analyzed.

COVID patients with certain diseases, such as heart and liver disease, and those who were unwilling to cooperate were excluded from the study. To measure this cytokine, the sandwich ELISA method was used using the human ELISA kit manufactured by Diaclone Company with serial number The basis of this measurement is based on the incubation of a special substrate with peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide and the production of a radical substrate cation that produces a stable green-blue color that can be measured at a wavelength of nm.

To measure hs-CRP protein, Pars test diagnostic kit was used by immunoturbidimetric. According to the kit brochure, first 20 μl of serum with μl of reagent 1 was placed at 37 °C for 5 min, then μl of reagent 2 containing mouse monoclonal and goat polyclonal antibodies against human CRP antibody was added.

Interleukins β 1 were measured by ELISA using Bender Med Systems kits Vienna, Austria. After discharging the patients before 5 days before the hospitalization period, according to the present project, the necessary recommendations regarding the use of supplements and placebo were provided to the parents and the patients were followed up to control them in terms of taking supplements.

The nutrition status as considering the first level of this screening was evaluated by the variables; Body Mass Index BMI , weight loss in the last 3 months, and decreased food intake in the last week.

The severity degrees of disease as considering the second level of NRS was defined as absent, mild, moderate, or severe that was converted to a numeric score between 1 and 3 according to recommendations.

A total score under 3 suggested no nutritional risk. To obtain all information a data collection sheet was used. All given meals for this study patients were prepared based on the appropriate guidelines in COVID and consisted of equal protein and calorie contents.

The case group consumed 10 g of glutamine powder three times per day for 5 days. In this study, a subjective index and an objective index for appetite measurement were considered. To measure the food greasiness degree, food greasiness was added to the VAS.

The scale 0—10 was adopted to evaluate the sensation before or after eating, and the higher the scale indicated the stronger the sensation. Based on their experience, the subjects were free to calibrate on each line that best matched how they were.

The normal distribution of the data was tested using the one-sample Kolmogorov—Smirnov test. Continuous variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation. Categorical variables are presented as counts. The statistical comparisons were performed using the one-way ANOVA and SIDAK test.

Categorical variables were compared using the Chi-square test or Fisher exact test for small samples. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Demographic characteristics of the study participants are given in Table 1.

Symptoms, medications for COVID, and physical examination findings of the study groups are given in Table 2. There was no significant difference in all of the symptoms, medications, and physical examination findings between the study groups.

Necessity of intensive care unit, duration of hospitalization, and the number of mortality of the groups of study are given in Table 3. Duration of hospitalization was found as There was a significant difference in mortality rates between the groups, 38 3.

Laboratory and physical examination findings before and after the study are given in Table 4. This study is the first study that evaluated the effect of glutamine on serum antioxidants, TNF-α, CRP, MDA, interleukin-β 1 , and the level of appetite in COVID patients admitted to the intensive care unit.

Decreased appetite has been reported in COVID patients Høier et al. Therefore, improving the appetite level in COVID patients is a very important issue and it is recommended to use glutamine to improve the appetite of these patients.

Decreased appetite leads to a low intake of nutrients that are effective in immunity such as vitamin C, zinc, selenium, and protein, so the complications of this disease increase.

The results of the present study showed that the amount of appetite during the 5 days of glutamine supplementation was significantly increased compared to the control group. Also in this present study results showed that the mean serum interleukin-1 β and tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly reduced by taking a five-day glutamine supplement.

Increased levels of oxidative stress have been observed in patients with COVID Chernyak et al. Oxidative stress is responsible for the deterioration of these patients and cell damage Laforge et al.

Proper and healthy nutrition that is rich in antioxidants has a very important role in these patients , recovery Iddir et al. Glutamine is a supplement that is used as an antioxidant in some intensive care units of hospitals for critically ill patients, especially those with respiratory infections Cruzat et al.

Skeletal muscle is the main reservoir of glutamine, and during infection the release of glutamine from the muscle doubles, so its serum level remains normal Levitt and Levitt Cytokines and glucocorticoids increase the absorption of glutamine by the liver in infectious conditions Cruzat et al.

On the other hand, Cytokines regulate bowel movements and alter various brain signals involved in appetite Vázquez-Frias et al. IL1β strongly promotes anorexia, increased energy expenditure, muscle protein loss, and leptin secretion Peixoto da Silva et al.

It has been shown that glutamine administration may play a role in improving the immune system Cetinbas et al. Consistent with the results of this study, a study by Fan et al. Inconsistent with our result, the findings of the study by Delgado et al.

showed that glutamine supplementation for 8 weeks did not affect inflammatory factors in the pulmonary sputum of cystic fibrosis patients that had a respiratory infection Delgado This different result may be related to the different types of studies sample.

The results of the present study showed that the serum level of hs-CRP was significantly reduced with five days of glutamine supplementation. Glutamine is a dietary supplement that has antioxidant properties Yuan et al. In COVID patients, the level of hs-CRP in the blood increases Li et al.

Animal studies have shown that glutamine can improve the antioxidant capacity of the body by increasing glutathione stores Yeh et al. Consistent with the findings of our study, Faghihzadeh et al. Faghihzadeh et al. in smokers Bo et al. The possible effect of glutamine in reducing serum hs-CRP may be due to its antioxidant properties, which can increase the activity of serum antioxidant enzymes Tanha et al.

In the present study, the serum level of TAC, in COVID patients with glutamine consumption, was significantly increased. Increased oxidative stress is seen in patients with COVID, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease.

The end product of lipid peroxidation is active aldehydes such as malondialdehyde MDA Tanha et al. Oxidative stress occurs when free radical production is more than antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant enzymes and a variety of antioxidant compounds are produced in the body to counteract oxidative stress Wang et al.

There is a significant change in the level of TAC and MDA after the use of glutamine in COVID with respiratory infection. Reducing the amount of TNF-α, hs-CRP, and IL B 1 can be useful to improve the inflammation in these patients. The duration of the intervention, the problems of preparing laboratory kits, and the low cooperation of the COVID patients , families were some of the limitations of this study.

It is suggested that future studies be performed with more COVID patients and with a longer intervention duration. Daily consumption of 10 g of glutamine three times per day in COVID patients with respiratory infection decreases the serum interleukin-β level, the level of alpha necrosis tumor factor, the serum hs-CRP level and increases the appetite of COVID patients, so using this supplement can prevent malnutrition of COVID patients with respiratory infectious diseases.

Adams JM, Pei H, Sandoval DA, Seeley RJ, Chang RB, Liberles SD, Olson DP Liraglutide modulates appetite and body weight through glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor-expressing glutamatergic neurons.

Diabetes 67 8 — CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Andersen AD, Nguyen DN, Langhorn L, Renes IB, van Elburg RM, Hartog A, Tims S, van de Looij Y, Sangild PT, Thymann T Synbiotics combined with glutamine stimulate brain development and the immune system in preterm pigs.

J Nutr 1 — PubMed Google Scholar. Andersson LE, Shcherbina L, Al-Majdoub M, Vishnu N, Arroyo CB, Carrara JA, Wollheim CB, Fex M, Mulder H, Wierup N Glutamine-elicited secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 is governed by activated glutamate dehydrogenase.

Diabetes 67 3 — CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Anker MS, Landmesser U, von Haehling S, Butler J, Coats AJ, Anker SD Weight loss, malnutrition, and cachexia in COVID facts and numbers. Wiley Online Library, Hoboken. Google Scholar.

Baumgartner A, Hasenboehler F, Cantone J, Hersberger L, Bargetzi A, Bargetzi L, Kaegi-Braun N, Tribolet P, Gomes F, Hoess C Effect of nutritional support in patients with lower respiratory tract infection: secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial.

Clin Nutr 40 4 — Berger MM Nutrition status affects COVID patient outcomes. J Parenter Enter Nutr 44 7 — CAS Google Scholar. Bo S, Ciccone G, Castiglione A, Gambino R, De Michieli F, Villois P, Durazzo M, Cavallo-Perin P, Cassader M Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of resveratrol in healthy smokers a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

Curr Med Chem 20 10 — Cengiz M, Uysal BB, Ikitimur H, Ozcan E, Islamoğlu MS, Aktepe E, Yavuzer H, Yavuzer S Effect of oral l -Glutamine supplementation on COVID treatment. Clin Nutr Exp — PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

Cetinbas F, Yelken B, Gulbas Z Role of glutamine administration on cellular immunity after total parenteral nutrition enriched with glutamine in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. J Crit Care 25 4 e— Chernyak B, Popova E, Prikhodko A, Grebenchikov O, Zinovkina L, Zinovkin R COVID and oxidative stress.

Biochem Mosc 85 12 — Cruzat V, Macedo Rogero M, Noel Keane K, Curi R, Newsholme P Glutamine: metabolism and immune function, supplementation, and clinical translation.

Nutrients 10 11 PubMed Central Google Scholar. Daniel J Education and the COVID pandemic. Prospects 49 1 — de Urbina JJO, San-Miguel B, Vidal-Casariego A, Crespo I, Sánchez DI, Mauriz JL, Culebras JM, González-Gallego J, Tuñón MJ Effects of oral glutamine on inflammatory and autophagy responses in cancer patients treated with abdominal radiotherapy: a pilot randomized trial.

Int J Med Sci 14 11 Delgado T Glutamate and GABA in appetite regulation [Review]. Front Endocrinol. Article Google Scholar. Derouiche S Oxidative stress associated with SARS-Cov-2 COVID increases the severity of the lung disease-a systematic review.

J Infect Dis Epidemiol 6 3 — Faghihzadeh F, Adibi P, Rafiei R, Hekmatdoost A Resveratrol supplementation improves inflammatory biomarkers in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nutr Res 34 10 — Fan J, Meng Q, Guo G, Xie Y, Xiu Y, Li T, Feng W, Ma L Effects of enteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine on intestinal mucosal immunity in burned mice.

Nutrition 25 2 — Høier ATZB, Chaaban N, Andersen BV Possibilities for maintaining appetite in recovering COVID patients. Foods 10 2 Hsieh M-J, Yang T-M, Tsai Y-H Nutritional supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Formos Med Assoc 8 — Iddir M, Brito A, Dingeo G, Fernandez Del Campo SS, Samouda H, La Frano MR, Bohn T Strengthening the immune system and reducing inflammation and oxidative stress through diet and nutrition: considerations during the COVID crisis.

Nutrients 12 6 CAS PubMed Central Google Scholar. Laforge M, Elbim C, Frère C, Hémadi M, Massaad C, Nuss P, Benoliel J-J, Becker C Tissue damage from neutrophil-induced oxidative stress in COVID Nat Rev Immunol 20 9 — Levitt DG, Levitt MD A model of blood-ammonia homeostasis based on a quantitative analysis of nitrogen metabolism in the multiple organs involved in the production, catabolism, and excretion of ammonia in humans.

Clin Exp Gastroenterol Li Q, Ding X, Xia G, Chen H-G, Chen F, Geng Z, Xu L, Lei S, Pan A, Wang L a Eosinopenia and elevated C-reactive protein facilitate triage of COVID patients in fever clinic: a retrospective case-control study. Eclin Med Li T, Zhang Y, Gong C, Wang J, Liu B, Shi L, Duan J b Prevalence of malnutrition and analysis of related factors in elderly patients with COVID in Wuhan, China.

Eur J Clin Nutr 74 6 — Liu N, Huang R, Baldacchino T, Sud A, Sud K, Khadra M, Kim J Telehealth for noncritical patients with chronic diseases during the COVID Pandemic. As research continues to uncover the various benefits of this incredible nutrient, more and more people are turning to L-Glutamine supplementation to support their health and well-being.

In this article, we'll explore the numerous advantages of L-Glutamine, including its ability to promote gut health, support the immune system, aid in muscle recovery, and more. One of the most well-known benefits of L-Glutamine is its role in maintaining gut health. This amino acid serves as the primary fuel source for the cells that line your intestines, helping to repair and maintain their integrity.

By doing so, L-Glutamine prevents harmful bacteria and toxins from passing through the gut lining and entering the bloodstream, which can lead to inflammation and other health issues. Supplementing with L-Glutamine has been shown to help alleviate symptoms of various digestive disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome IBS and leaky gut syndrome.

A strong immune system is essential for optimal health, and L-Glutamine plays a crucial role in maintaining it. This amino acid is needed for the production of white blood cells and antibodies, which protect the body against infections and illnesses. L-Glutamine is also involved in the synthesis of glutathione, a powerful antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals and supports the immune system.

When the body is under stress or recovering from illness, L-Glutamine stores may become depleted, making supplementation especially beneficial.

L-Glutamine is a popular supplement among athletes and fitness enthusiasts, and for good reason. This amino acid helps to reduce muscle soreness and promote faster recovery after intense workouts.

L-Glutamine works by decreasing muscle protein breakdown and increasing muscle protein synthesis, which in turn, helps to prevent muscle loss and promote muscle growth. Additionally, L-Glutamine has been shown to improve endurance and performance during exercise.

L-Glutamine isn't just beneficial for your body — it also has powerful effects on the brain. This amino acid is a precursor to the neurotransmitter glutamate, which plays a vital role in brain function, including learning, memory, and cognition.

Glutamine Performance Enhancing Foods the most reductiom amino acid building block of reductoin in the body. The body can Glutamine and stress reduction srtess glutamine for its wtress needs. But during times of extreme stress Glutamine and stress reduction kind you redution after heavy exercise or an injuryyour body may need more glutamine than it can make. Most glutamine is stored in muscles, followed by the lungs where much of the glutamine is made. Glutamine is important for removing excess ammonia a common waste product in the body. It also helps your immune system function and may be needed for normal brain function and digestion.

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You May NEVER Have Bloating Again after Watching This Glytamine experts Glutamine and stress reduction monitor the health and wellness space, and Immunity boosting shakes update our articles Fiber optic communication new information became Glutajine. However, it is important to note that ztress information reducton is Glutamine and stress reduction intended as professional advice in any specific field or area. The content of this blog is for general educational and informational purposes only. Book consultation. The content should not be interpreted as endorsement, recommendation, or guarantee of any product, service, or information mentioned. Readers are solely responsible for the decisions and actions they take based on the information provided in this blog. Glutamine and stress reduction

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