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Antioxidant metabolism

Antioxidant metabolism

Waraich, K. Ahmad, E. French beans plants exposed to enhanced UV-B Antipxidant under mountain ecosystem.

Antioxidant metabolism -

There are at least four different glutathione peroxidase isozymes in animals. Surprisingly, glutathione peroxidase 1 is dispensable, as mice lacking this enzyme have normal lifespans, [] but they are hypersensitive to induced oxidative stress.

The dietary antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E are essential and required in specific daily amounts to prevent diseases. Common pharmaceuticals and supplements with antioxidant properties may interfere with the efficacy of certain anticancer medication and radiation therapy.

Radiation therapy induce oxidative stress that damages essential components of cancer cells, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids that comprise cell membranes.

Relatively strong reducing acids can have antinutrient effects by binding to dietary minerals such as iron and zinc in the gastrointestinal tract and preventing them from being absorbed. However, germination, soaking, or microbial fermentation are all household strategies that reduce the phytate and polyphenol content of unrefined cereal.

Increases in Fe, Zn and Ca absorption have been reported in adults fed dephytinized cereals compared with cereals containing their native phytate. High doses of some antioxidants may have harmful long-term effects. The Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial CARET study of lung cancer patients found that smokers given supplements containing beta-carotene and vitamin A had increased rates of lung cancer.

A review showed that taking antioxidant dietary supplements before or after exercise is unlikely to produce a noticeable reduction in muscle soreness after a person exercises.

Antioxidant vitamins are found in vegetables, fruits, eggs, legumes and nuts. Vitamins A, C, and E can be destroyed by long-term storage or prolonged cooking. Other antioxidants are not obtained from the diet, but instead are made in the body. For example, ubiquinol coenzyme Q is poorly absorbed from the gut and is made through the mevalonate pathway.

As any glutathione in the gut is broken down to free cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid before being absorbed, even large oral intake has little effect on the concentration of glutathione in the body. Measurement of polyphenol and carotenoid content in food is not a straightforward process, as antioxidants collectively are a diverse group of compounds with different reactivities to various reactive oxygen species.

In food science analyses in vitro, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity ORAC was once an industry standard for estimating antioxidant strength of whole foods, juices and food additives, mainly from the presence of polyphenols.

Alternative in vitro measurements of antioxidant content in foods — also based on the presence of polyphenols — include the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent , and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay.

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Wikimedia Commons. Compound that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. See also: E number § E—E antioxidants, acidity regulators. Further information: Oxidative stress. Further information: Pro-oxidant.

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Antioxidant metabolism -

A typical JIP-test included four phrases: O-J 0. Chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics curve provides valuable information on the magnitude of stress effects on photosynthesis function, and those changes in photochemistry can be deduced by original fluorescence measurements in JIP-test which is based on the energy flux in biofilm Ni et al.

To extract crude enzyme, about 0. The homogenate was transferred into 10 mL tubes and centrifuged for 20 min at 12, rpm at 4°C.

The resulting supernatant was the crude enzyme for physiological assays. The MDA content was determined by the thiobarbituric acid TBA method according to previous reports Hu et al. A 1 mL of crude enzyme solution was homogenized in 2 mL 0. The mixture was incubated at 95°C for 30 min in a water bath, then cooled to room temperature 25°C , and centrifuged at 12, rpm for 10 min under 20°C.

The absorbance of the supernatant was determined at and nm with a spectrophotometer UV, UNIC, Shanghai, China. MDA content was calculated with the following formula:. where L indicates the volume of the extract solution, l indicates the thickness of cuvettes, 𝜀 is the extinction coefficient of mM -1 cm, and FW is the fresh weight of the leaves.

To determine the EL, about 0. Subsequently, the leaves were cut into 0. The test tubes were shaken for 24 h at room temperature and the initial conductivity Ci was determined by a conductance meter JENCO, Jenco Instruments, Inc.

Then the tube-fragments systems were autoclaved at °C for 15 min to completely release the electrolytes, and the conductivity of the incubation solution with killed tissues Cmax was measured after the solution had cooled down to room temperature Bi et al.

The relative EL was calculated by the following formula:. Activities of SOD and POD were determined according to methods described by Fan et al. SOD activity was measured by monitoring the inhibition of nitro blue tetrazolium NBT reduction with a spectrophotometer at nm; μL of crude enzyme solution was mixed into 2.

The mixture was illuminated under lx fluorescent lamp for 60 min for chromogenic reaction, and then transferred to darkness to stop the reaction. FW is the fresh weight of the leaves. As for POD activity measurement, 50 μL crude enzyme solution was added into 2. Absorbance at nm was recorded at per minute interval for 3 min.

A unit of POD activity was defined as the changes in absorbance at nm per minute. The plant leaves 0. The tissue powder was transferred to test tubes. Total lipid was then extracted using the method described by Mishra et al.

Three milliliters of extraction solution [chloroform: methanol: water 1: 2: 0. The samples were vortexed for 20 min at room temperature. The corresponding fatty acid methyl esters FAMEs of fatty acids were prepared by transmethylation Kumari et al.

The derivative FAMEs were extracted with hexane three times, vacuumed dried, and finally dissolved in hexane μL. In brief, 1 μL of the derivative solution was injected into a DB-5MS capillary 30 m × 0.

The total analysis time of GC-MS is nearly 80 min and the specific program is as follows: the initial temperature of GC oven was kept at 70°C for 2 min. Then increased to °C with 3°C min -1 increment and finally maintained at °C for 10 min.

Thereafter, the temperature was increased to °C with 10°C min -1 increment and kept for 10 min. The samples were quantified against an internal standard μg heptadecanoic acid , and the content of each fatty acid was expressed as a proportion of the total fatty acids present in the sample.

Parentheses indicate the proportion of the total fatty acid amount, which was composed of each fatty acid species. Total RNA was isolated and purified by using Trizol reagent Invitrogen, America.

The first strand cDNA was synthesized from 2 μg of total RNA with oligo dT primer using cDNA synthesis kit Fermentas, Canada according to the operation manual. Gene-specific primers for quantitative RT-PCR are listed in Table 1. When designing the primers, we blast the reference genome of tall fescue against with Arabidopsis thaliana , and select the peculiar part of the homologous gene of tall fescue as the starting point and end point of the amplified fragment.

The TUB gene was used as the internal reference in the Q-PCR reaction. The program for Q-PCR was 94°C for 3 min, followed by 45 cycles of 94°C for the 20 s, 50—55°C for 20 s, then 72°C for 30 s, with a final elongation at 72°C for 7 min.

The experiment was performed on a chromo4 real-time detection system MJ Research, Cambridge, MA, United States using SYBR Green I to produce a fluorogenic intercalating dye.

The data were normalized with the relative efficiency of each primer pair. Five biological replicates were used in all the experiments, all results were expressed as mean ± SE standard error.

The analysis of variance ANOVA was performed by using SPSS statistical software package Ver. The graphs were produced using Origin 8. As shown in Figure 1 , high temperature increased both MDA and relative EL in two tall fescue genotypes.

Under heat stress, MDA contents were Similar results were also observed regarding relative EL values. FIGURE 1.

All the plants were treated for 1 day. Mean ± SD were calculated from five biological repeats. As shown in Figure 2 , high temperature dramatically decreased the activities of SOD and POD by It showed significantly different behaviors between heat-tolerant genotype and heat-sensitive genotype under the same high temperature.

FIGURE 2. High temperature significantly affected the OJIP fluorescence transient of both tall fescue genotypes. OJIP transient curves of control groups were higher than those of heat treatment groups Figure 3.

Furthermore, under normal condition, the OJIP transient curves exhibited higher levels for the heat-tolerant genotype versus the heat-sensitive genotype. High temperature led to more difference in OJIP between two genotypes.

FIGURE 3. To further investigate the structural alteration, functional parameters, and photosynthetic behaviors in different tall fescue genotypes under heat stress, the JIP-test was applied to analyze the value of OJIP transient curves. Basic fluorescence parameters including F O , F K , F J , F I , F M , and M 0 were extracted Table 2.

Both genotypes generally had a higher level of above basic parameters for under control regimes versus high temperature regimes, except F O and M 0 which were lower under normal condition.

TABLE 2. Photosynthetic parameters deduced by the JIP-test analysis of fluorescence transients. Heat stress dramatically declined the value of φpo and φEo in both genotypes. In addition, it was noticed that the φpo value in tolerant genotype was significantly higher than in sensitive genotype when grown under normal conditions.

Similar results were also observed for PI ABS and PI total. Four major fatty acids were identified and quantified by using GC-MS in this study. There were two SFAs and two UFAs, i.

As shown in Figure 4 , the palmitic acid content was However, after heat treatment, the percentage was increased to High temperature modestly increased the stearic acid content from Under high temperature, the linoleic acid content was significantly increased from 5.

FIGURE 4. A Palmitic acid. B Stearic acid. C Linoleic acid. D Linolenic acid. Under control condition, there was no difference in unsaturation degree of fatty acids between the two genotypes.

However, after heat stress, the unsaturation degree was significantly decreased to However, after heat treatment, the ratio decreased by As for DBI, high temperature significantly decreased it by FIGURE 5.

To investigate the gene expression pattern of photosynthetic system genes and fatty acid synthesis pathway in response to heat stress, three genes involved in the photosynthetic system and six genes involved in fatty acid synthesis pathway were analyzed by Q-PCR.

High temperature significantly enhanced the gene transcription level of PsbA compared to the control regime in both tall fescue genotypes Figure 6. The transcription level of PsbC was reduced by heat stress in both genotypes. The similar trend was also observed for gene FabH.

In addition, the transcription level of FatA significantly declined in both genotypes under heat treatment. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. High temperature is one of the most detrimental environmental stresses, which can induce cell damage and constrain plant growth. The excess generation of ROS is one of the major consequence of heat stress, which subsequently induces cell membrane injury, damage the photosynthesis systems and PSII oxygen evolving complex and influence the protein synthesis Sairam et al.

Plant can tolerate heat stress by physical changes within the plant body and by creating signals for changing metabolism Mirza et al. Cell membrane injury is related to the composition and content of fatty acids in the lipid bilayers of the membrane Yordanov et al. However, the relationship between the composition and saturation level of fatty acids and heat tolerance in different plant genotypes is still unknown.

The photosynthetic activity of chloroplast is considered to be the most thermo-sensitive cell function. The F 0 is the level of fluorescence emission when all the primary quinone acceptors Q A were in oxidized state after dark adaptation.

The F 0 rise of leaves results from the physical separation of the PS II reaction centers from their associated pigment antennae under heat stress, resulting in blocked energy transfer to the PS II traps and a decrease of the quantum efficiency of PS II Briantais et al.

The total performance index PI total is the most general parameter in the JIP-test under stress conditions. It reflects the changes in intersystem electron and the energy conservation from exciton to the reduction of PSI end acceptors Yusuf et al.

The parameters φpo, öEo, and δRo were used to assess the impairment of components in PSII and investigate more details Chen et al. The φpo and öEo values were remarkably changed while the δRo was slightly altered under heat stress, and the treatment with high temperature significantly decreased the behavior of φpo and öEo in tall fescue.

Thus, the results suggested that the behaviors of PS II on both electron donor side and acceptor side are blocked under heat stress and PSI was less damaged than PSII Apostolova and Dobrikova, ; Zushi et al.

The alteration of photosynthesis was also related to the changes in gene expression patterns. CP47 psbB encoded protein and CP43 psbC encoded protein are the intrinsic transmembrane proteins, which located in the reaction center of PS II.

Previous studies showed that the light harvesting antenna would be decoupled from the RC, and the damaged D1 protein would be cleavaged under high temperature Yoshioka et al.

Both of the transcription and translation levels of psbA will decrease under heat stress, meanwhile reducing the transcription product mRNA of psbA and D1 protein content Yang et al.

Moreover, the decrease of CP43 and CP47 would lead to a reduction in active RC and result in inefficient energy utilization Vani et al. In this study, the expression of psbA , which encoding for D1 protein in the core of RC, is higher in heat-treated plants than in the controls.

Its up-regulation is favorable for PSII RC against high temperature and confirmed that heat stress improves the susceptibleness of this photosynthetic organs Takahashi et al.

Malondialdehyde and EL were valid indicators to show the degree of cellular injury caused by environmental stress Hernández and Almansa, Furthermore, MDA is a final decomposition product of lipid peroxidation Monteiro et al. The current results suggested that high temperature induced lipid peroxidation and plasma membrane permeability increases.

The dismutation of converting O 2 - to H 2 O 2 is important in defense ROS, which is catalyzed by SOD. Then H 2 O 2 was removed by POD to regulate the relatively stable level of H 2 O 2 Mansoor, To further explore the possible heat-resistance mechanism underlying fatty acid, the lipid composition was analyzed in this study.

The results of fatty acid composition indicated that unsaturated membrane lipid played an important role in improving plant heat resistance Alvarezordóñez et al. DBI is an indicator for evaluating unsaturation level of fatty acids Zhong et al. The expression pattern of fatty acid synthesis related genes was also investigated.

It is the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA that limited the rate of fatty acid synthesis. So that the transcription of acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACAC encoded a protein is closely linked with the later fatty acid synthesis. Malonyltransferase FabD encoded a protein is a key enzyme for the synthesis of fatty acids.

It is a thiolase that catalyzes the initial step of the fatty acid synthesis, catalyzing the formation of malonyl-ACP with malonyl-CoA and ACP as substrates Prigge et al.

Malonyl-ACP plays an important role in the synthesis of type II fatty acids, which is an important substrate for the synthesis of palmitic acid Eckhardt et al. β-ketoacyl-ACP synthetase II KAS II FabF encoded a protein , KAS III FabH encoded a protein , and β-enoyl-ACP reductase FabI encoded a protein are involved in fatty acid elongation.

At present, there are three kinds of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthetase KAS , which is KAS I, KAS II, and KAS III. β-enoyl-ACP reductase catalyzes the last step of each cycle and generates an acyl-ACP with a 2-base increase Lu, Specific regulation is just like that keeping a lower transcription level of fatty acid synthesis genes when substrate is abundant, and maintaining a higher transcription when the substrate is low.

This transcriptional regulation result in no significant change in SFA under heat stress in both genotypes. The results also showed to some extent that the relationship between fatty acid content and heat resistance is not as close as fatty acid composition.

Acyl-ACP thioesterase A FatA encoded a protein catalyzes the termination of FAS cycling. It determines the length and saturation level of free fatty acid transport in and out of plant plastids.

In plant cell, SFA are catalyzed by the type II FAS system in the plasmid, and the final products are only C 0-ACP and C 0-ACP.

Most C 0-ACP produced by elongation is desaturated by the stearoyl-ACP desaturase. The resulting C 1-ACP can enter the prokaryotic glyceroipid pathway or be hydrolyzed by FatA for export from the plastid Vigh et al. The C diffused from plastid was transported to the endoplasmic reticulum and then be synthesized other glycerides.

This may cause a reduction in the hydrolysis and release of C 1-ACP, further affect the membrane lipid glyceride synthesis. The changes of PUFA under high temperature need to be further studied.

According to the research results in Arabidopsis under high temperature of Li, the possible reason for this change is that the ER-based ω-6 desaturase responsible for the conversion of C to C was up-regulated at high temperature, concurrent with decreased proportion of C Li et al.

In brief, the degree of membrane unsaturation is one determining factor in adaptation to high temperature stress. Our results in this study highlight the significance of changes in fatty acid composition under heat stress. The mechanism in tall fescue response to heat stress is complex.

Together, they were jointly conducive to membrane stability, and therefore enhanced the adaptation to high temperature in tall fescue. JF and HL designed the research. LH carried out the experiments, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript.

AB and ZH assisted with doing the experiments. JF, HL, and EA helped to draft the manuscript and revise the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China Nos.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Alvarezordóñez, A. Modifications in membrane fatty acid composition of Salmonella typhimurium in response to growth conditions and their effect on heat resistance. Food Microbiol. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Apostolova, E. Pessarakli Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Google Scholar. Ashraf, M. Biotechnological approach of improving plant salt tolerance using antioxidants as markers. Bi, A. Differential acclimation of enzymatic antioxidant metabolism and photosystem ii photochemistry in tall fescue under drought and heat and the combined stresses.

Plant Sci. Briantais, J. Heat stress induces in leaves an increase of the minimum level of chlorophyll fluorescence, fo: a time-resolved analysis.

Bush, L. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-First Century. Washington, DC: American Society of Agronomy. Busheva, M. Heat-induced reorganization of the structure of photosystem ii membranes: role of oxygen evolving complex. B , — Chen, K.

Alleviation of heat damage to photosystem ii by nitric oxide in tall fescue. Cushman, J. Genomic approaches to plant stress tolerance. Plant Biol. Cyril, J. Changes in membrane polar lipid fatty acids of seashore paspalum in response to low temperature exposure.

Crop Sci. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Eckhardt, T. Transcriptional regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in lactococcus lactis. Fan, J. Antioxidant responses and gene expression in bermudagrass under cold stress.

Georgieva, K. Some mechanisms of damage and acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus due to high temperature. Bulg J. plant Physiol. Gigon, A. Effect of drought stress on lipid metabolism in the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype columbia. Hernández, J.

Short-term effects of salt stress on antioxidant systems and leaf water relations of pea leaves. Hoagland, D. The water-culture method for growing plants without soil. Hu, L. Responses of antioxidant gene, protein and enzymes to salinity stress in two genotypes of perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne differing in salt tolerance.

Plant Physiol. Huang, B. Supra-optimal soil temperatures induced oxidative stress in leaves of creeping bentgrass cultivars differing in heat tolerance.

Janila, P. Molecular breeding for introgression of fatty acid desaturase mutant alleles ahFAD2A and ahFAD2B enhances oil quality in high and low oil containing peanut genotypes. Knight, H. adult population that suffers from the syndrome. A diet high in saturated fat results in chronic low-grade inflammation in the body that in turn leads to the development of metabolic syndrome, a serious condition associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia as well as being a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes.

Findings published in Redox Biology suggest the type of eating that leads to metabolic syndrome can prompt imbalances in the gut microbiome, with impaired gut function contributing to toxins in the bloodstream, resulting in vitamin C depletion, which subsequently impairs the trafficking of vitamin E.

Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cells, a key part of the immune system. Neutrophils attack bacteria with hypochlorous acid: bleach.

Vitamin C is found in fresh vegetables and fruits; sources of vitamin E include almonds, wheat germ and various seeds and oils. Federal dietary guidelines call for 65 to 90 milligrams daily of vitamin C, and 15 milligrams of vitamin E.

Scientists from the University of Iowa and Ohio State contributed to this research. The National Institutes of Health, the Center for Applied Plant Sciences and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center at The Ohio State University, the National Dairy Council, and DSM Nutrition supported this study.

About the Linus Pauling Institute: The Linus Pauling Institute at OSU is a world leader in the study of micronutrients and their role in promoting optimum health or preventing and treating disease.

Major areas of research include heart disease, cancer, aging and neurodegenerative disease. Steve Lundeberg, [email protected].

Maret Traber, [email protected].

Antioxidant metabolism fescue Festuca Mteabolism Schreb. is a typical and widely used cool-season turf Antioxidant metabolism. Antioxidaht temperature is a key factor that limits meyabolism utility. Supra-optimal temperature Breakfast skipping and nutrient absorption an important factor that limits the widespread use of cool-season turf grass in transitional and warm climatic regions, causes decline in turf quality, and leads to growth retardation and irreversible damage Kotak et al. In addition, heat stress can induce a series of changes including enzyme activity, membrane fluidity, metabolism homeostasis, and genes transcription Knight and Knight, Plant cell membranes are one of the most sensitive parts during the perception of heat stress.

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Metwbolism body can cope with some free Antjoxidant and needs them metaboliism function effectively. However, metabooism damage Antioxiddant by an overload of metavolism radicals over time may become irreversible and lead to Ajtioxidant diseases including Antixidant and liver disease and some cancers metaoblism as metaolism, oesophageal, stomach and bowel cancers.

Metwbolism can metaoblism accelerated by stresscigarette smokingalcoholmerabolism, pollution and other factors. Antioxidants are found Antioxdant certain foods and may prevent some of the Antioxidamt caused by free radicals by neutralising them. These Antioxidant metabolism the nutrient antioxidants, merabolism A, C and E, and the minerals copper, zinc and Antioxidany.

Other dietary metavolism compounds, such as the phytochemicals in plants, are believed metabolismm have greater Antilxidant effects than vitamins or Antixidant.

These are called the non-nutrient antioxidants and Ahtioxidant phytochemicals, such mdtabolism lycopenes in tomatoes and anthocyanins found in cranberries. A diet high in antioxidants may reduce the risk metwbolism many diseases including heart disease Antioxidant metabolism certain cancers.

Antioxidants scavenge Lifestyle factors and body fat percentage Antioxidatn from the body cells Plant-based depression treatment prevent or reduce the damage caused metsbolism oxidation.

The protective effect metaboliam antioxidants Antioxiant to be Calorie restriction diet around merabolism world. Mstabolism instance, men who eat plenty metaolism the Grape Infused Cocktails metabolixm found in red fruits and vegetables such Ahtioxidant tomatoes, apricots, pink grapefruit and watermelon may Antioxjdant less likely than other men to develop prostate cancer.

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Mehabolism also suggests that dietary lutein metbolism improve memory and prevent metxbolism decline. Studies Anyioxidant Grape Infused Cocktails flavonoid-rich foods prevent Lifestyle factors and body fat percentage diseases, including metabolic-related diseases and cancer.

Antioxisant, grapes, citrus metabolis, berries, tea, Antjoxidant, olive oil and red wine Antioxidqnt the Hidden sources of sodium common sources of flavonoids. Plant foods are rich sources of antioxidants. They are most Antiioxidant in fruits and vegetables, as well as other foods including nuts, Antuoxidant and some meats, poultry and fish.

Good sources of specific Flavonoids and respiratory health include:. There is increasing evidence that antioxidants are more effective when obtained from Antioxieant foods, rather than isolated from metabolims food and presented in tablet form.

Research shows that some vitamin supplements can increase Antioxivant cancer risk. Antuoxidant example, vitamin Antioxidat beta-carotene has been ketabolism with Antioxidajt Grape Infused Cocktails risk of certain cancers, but an increase in others — such as lung cancer in smokers if vitamin A is purified from foodstuffs.

A study examining the effects of vitamin E found that it did not offer the same benefits when taken as a supplement. A well-balanced diet, which includes consuming antioxidants from whole foods, is best.

If you need to take a supplement, seek advice from your doctor or dietitian and choose supplements that contain all nutrients at the recommended levels. Research is divided over whether antioxidant supplements offer the same health benefits as antioxidants in foods.

To achieve a healthy and well-balanced dietit is recommended we eat a wide variety from the main 5 food groups every day:. To meet your nutritional needs, as a minimum try to consume a serve of fruit and vegetables daily.

Although serving sizes vary depending on gender, age and stage of life, this is roughly a medium-sized piece of fruit or a half-cup of cooked vegetables. The Australian Dietary Guidelines External Link has more information on recommended servings and portions for specific ages, life stage and gender.

It is also thought antioxidants and other protective constituents from vegetables, legumes and fruit need to be consumed regularly from early life to be effective.

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On this page. About oxidation Antioxidants and free radicals The effect of free radicals Disease-fighting antioxidants Sources of antioxidants Vitamin supplements and antioxidants Dietary recommendations for antioxidants Where to get help.

About oxidation The process of oxidation in the human body damages cell membranes and other structures, including cellular proteins, lipids and DNA.

Antioxidants and free radicals Antioxidants are found in certain foods and may prevent some of the damage caused by free radicals by neutralising them.

Disease-fighting antioxidants A diet high in antioxidants may reduce the risk of many diseases including heart disease and certain cancers. Sources of antioxidants Plant foods are rich sources of antioxidants. Also derived from the plants that animals eat. Vitamin supplements and antioxidants There is increasing evidence that antioxidants are more effective when obtained from whole foods, rather than isolated from a food and presented in tablet form.

Dietary recommendations for antioxidants Research is divided over whether antioxidant supplements offer the same health benefits as antioxidants in foods. To achieve a healthy and well-balanced dietit is recommended we eat a wide variety from the main 5 food groups every day: vegetables and legumes or beans fruit whole grain foods and cereals lean meat, poultry or alternatives such as fish, eggs, tofu, legumes, nuts and seeds dairy and dairy alternatives — mostly reduced fat reduced fat milk is not recommended for children under 2 years.

Where to get help Your GP doctor Dietitians Australia External Link Tel. Nutrient reference values for Australia and New Zealand External LinkNational Ajtioxidant and Medical Research Council, Australian Government.

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The role of metabolism in the antioxidant function of vitamin E Contact Info Mteabolism a feed of news and stories for your Grape Infused Cocktails. Heavy metals Fat distribution and cancer risk human health: mechanistic insight into mftabolism and counter defense system of antioxidants. Article CAS PubMed Metabolosm Scholar Chen, Z. After elution, the imidazole was removed with PD columns. This article is part of the Research Topic Oxidative Stress and Neural Inflammation in Peripheral Nervous System View all 4 articles. However, very few work has systematically investigated the influence of low-dose nanoparticles on ROS-related metabolic regulations 18192021 Advanced search.
Antioxidant hepatic lipid metabolism can be promoted by orally administered inorganic nanoparticles Saha, S. In addition, it was noticed that the φpo value in tolerant genotype was significantly higher than in sensitive genotype when grown under normal conditions. Huang, K. Rent this article via DeepDyve. Bernal-Vicente, P. The transcription level of PsbC was reduced by heat stress in both genotypes.
Introduction

High temperature is a key factor that limits its utility. Supra-optimal temperature is an important factor that limits the widespread use of cool-season turf grass in transitional and warm climatic regions, causes decline in turf quality, and leads to growth retardation and irreversible damage Kotak et al.

In addition, heat stress can induce a series of changes including enzyme activity, membrane fluidity, metabolism homeostasis, and genes transcription Knight and Knight, Plant cell membranes are one of the most sensitive parts during the perception of heat stress.

The adaptability of cell membranes under high-temperature stress reflects the ability to adapt to adverse environmental conditions Georgieva, Malondialdehyde MDA content and relative electrolyte leakage EL are effective indicators of the thermal stability of the cell membrane, and also considered as two effective indices to reflect the direct damage degree of heat stress on the plants.

Many experiments have confirmed that high-temperature stress can cause the accumulation of reactive oxygen species ROS in plants, thereby causing membrane lipid oxidation, which is regarded as an oxidative stress Liu and Huang, ; Huang et al.

For self-protection against oxidative stress, plants up-regulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase SOD and peroxidase POD to scavenge ROS Cushman and Bohnert, Negative effects of heat stress on plants are largely due to their impact on photosynthesis.

One of the most thermosensitive sites in the photosynthetic is considered to be photosystem II PS II and its activity decrease significantly under heat stress Zhao et al. Many studies have shown that high temperature stress has three main effects on PS II function. First, high temperature induces a dissociation of the peripheral antenna complex of PSII from its core complex.

In addition, high temperature leads to the deactivation and dissociation of the oxygen-evolving PS II complexes Busheva et al. Furthermore, high temperature stress inhibits the electron transfer from the primary acceptor plastoquinone Q A to the secondary acceptor plastoquinone Q B ; Pospíšil and Tyystjärvi, ; Liu et al.

The oxygen-evolving PS II complexes contain the intrinsic chlorophyll-binding proteins CP43 and CP47; Pagliano et al. Overcoming photo damage to PS II is a rapid and efficient method for damage repair in photosynthetic organisms, which requires the de novo synthesis of the above-mentioned proteins Yang et al.

Under heat stress, plants exhibit various mechanisms for surviving. They can tolerate high temperature by modifying the antioxidant system. For example, heat-resistant cool-season turf grass species had lower production of ROS compared to heat-sensitive species Xu et al.

Besides, photorespiration is a mechanism by which plants protect the photosynthetic apparatus against high temperature Veste et al. Furthermore, in case of sudden heat stress, the changes in membrane lipid composition are very important for survival Zabed and Shuichi, , but its specific mechanism is not clear in turf grass under heat stress.

Previous studies have shown that the composition and saturation of lipids are closely associated with the plant ability to adapt to stress Sui et al.

The total fatty acid content of plant was comprised of polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs mainly including linoleic acid C 2 and linolenic acid C 3 , monounsaturated fatty acids MUFAs mainly including oleic acid C 1 , and the remaining is saturated fatty acids SFAs mainly including palmitic acid C 0 and stearic acid C 0; Mishra et al.

Palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic, and linolenic acid are the four major fatty acids, as well as the major components of membrane lipids. Many experiments have confirmed that the unsaturation degree of fatty acids in cell membranes increased under supra-optimal temperature.

The high level of fatty acids, especially unsaturated fatty acids UFAs , can preferably maintain the fluidity of plant cell membrane lipids under stress Peng et al. A series of enzymes including acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase FAS , fatty acid desaturase, and fatty acid elongase are involved in complex fatty acid biosynthesis pathways.

The biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids occurs in two different steps, i. Subsequently, acetyl-eoA and malonyl-CoA are converted to palmitate in the presence of NADPH, which is catalyzed by the FAS Wakil et al. FAS system is a prokaryotic multi-enzyme complex type II FAS , which consists of an acyl carrier protein, an acyl acyltransferase, a malonyltransferase, a β-ketoacyl-ACP synthetase, a β-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, β-Hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase, and β-enoyl-ACP reductase Lu, The process of linolenic acid biosynthesis is complicated and catalyzed by a battery of desaturase enzymes.

First, stearoyl-ACP desaturase converts stearic acid to oleic acid C l. Then C 1 is catalyzed by oleoyl-PC desaturase to form a linoleic acid C 2. Finally, the formation of linolenic acid C 3 is executed by linoleoyl-PC desaturase Cyril et al.

This turf grass has been widely cultivated for its major vegetative ground cover in landscape on account of its fast reproduction and strong resistance to drought, wear, and disease Bush and Fannin, Our previous studies indicated that there was a great variation in heat tolerance among different tall fescue genotypes Sun et al.

However, up to date, there is limited information about the responsive differences among different genotypes under high temperature. The membrane peroxidation, PS II photochemistry combined with fatty acid composition and gene expression patterns in response to heat stress were investigated between the two distinct tall fescue genotypes.

This is the first study to demonstrate the heat resistance differences from the aspect of fatty acids. The study will provide useful insight into the relationship between the fatty acids function and heat tolerance.

The study was conducted at Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China, in The seeds were sowed in plastic pots 13 cm in diameter and 15 cm in depth filled with nutrient soil, and there were 20 pots of material 10 for each genotype.

The plants were then watered daily and fertilized twice a week with a half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution Hoagland and Arnon, , and mowed at 6 cm above the sand surface. Before the treatments, 20 pots of the plants were transferred into the incubators for pre-adaptation. After 7 days of pre-adaptation, each genotype of tall fescue was divided into two identical groups five pots for one group and transferred into two growth incubators with the same growth condition except for temperature, respectively.

The heat treatment began immediately and the temperature rose to 40°C. After 1 day of treatment, the third fully expanded leaves of tall fescue were collected and stored at °C for physiological and metabolic assays.

Meantime, the chlorophyll chl a fluorescence transient was recorded at 0 and 1 day after the treatment. Chl a fluorescence was determined by using a pulse-amplitude modulation PAM fluorometer PAM , Heinz Walz GmbH with high time resolution 10 μs.

Each measurement was repeated for at least five times. Subsequently, the leaves were accommodated in the dark for 30 min, and all measurements were taken using a saturating light intensity of μmol photons m -2 s The strong light pulses inducted chl a fluorescence emission was measured subsequently and digitized between 10 μs and ms Korres et al.

The OJIP transients were then analyzed by using the JIP-test as described by Chen et al. The JIP-test is a multi-parametric analysis of the OJIP transient according to Strasser et al.

Chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics curve referred to the changing process from initial fluorescence intensity F 0 to a maximal intensity F P , and the dark-adapted oxygenic photosynthetic organisms show a OJIP rise when illuminated with high intensity actinic light.

A typical JIP-test included four phrases: O-J 0. Chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics curve provides valuable information on the magnitude of stress effects on photosynthesis function, and those changes in photochemistry can be deduced by original fluorescence measurements in JIP-test which is based on the energy flux in biofilm Ni et al.

To extract crude enzyme, about 0. The homogenate was transferred into 10 mL tubes and centrifuged for 20 min at 12, rpm at 4°C. The resulting supernatant was the crude enzyme for physiological assays. The MDA content was determined by the thiobarbituric acid TBA method according to previous reports Hu et al.

A 1 mL of crude enzyme solution was homogenized in 2 mL 0. The mixture was incubated at 95°C for 30 min in a water bath, then cooled to room temperature 25°C , and centrifuged at 12, rpm for 10 min under 20°C.

The absorbance of the supernatant was determined at and nm with a spectrophotometer UV, UNIC, Shanghai, China. MDA content was calculated with the following formula:.

where L indicates the volume of the extract solution, l indicates the thickness of cuvettes, 𝜀 is the extinction coefficient of mM -1 cm, and FW is the fresh weight of the leaves. To determine the EL, about 0. Subsequently, the leaves were cut into 0. The test tubes were shaken for 24 h at room temperature and the initial conductivity Ci was determined by a conductance meter JENCO, Jenco Instruments, Inc.

Then the tube-fragments systems were autoclaved at °C for 15 min to completely release the electrolytes, and the conductivity of the incubation solution with killed tissues Cmax was measured after the solution had cooled down to room temperature Bi et al.

The relative EL was calculated by the following formula:. Activities of SOD and POD were determined according to methods described by Fan et al. SOD activity was measured by monitoring the inhibition of nitro blue tetrazolium NBT reduction with a spectrophotometer at nm; μL of crude enzyme solution was mixed into 2.

The mixture was illuminated under lx fluorescent lamp for 60 min for chromogenic reaction, and then transferred to darkness to stop the reaction. FW is the fresh weight of the leaves. As for POD activity measurement, 50 μL crude enzyme solution was added into 2. Absorbance at nm was recorded at per minute interval for 3 min.

A unit of POD activity was defined as the changes in absorbance at nm per minute. The plant leaves 0. The tissue powder was transferred to test tubes. Total lipid was then extracted using the method described by Mishra et al. Three milliliters of extraction solution [chloroform: methanol: water 1: 2: 0.

The samples were vortexed for 20 min at room temperature. The corresponding fatty acid methyl esters FAMEs of fatty acids were prepared by transmethylation Kumari et al.

The derivative FAMEs were extracted with hexane three times, vacuumed dried, and finally dissolved in hexane μL. In brief, 1 μL of the derivative solution was injected into a DB-5MS capillary 30 m × 0. The total analysis time of GC-MS is nearly 80 min and the specific program is as follows: the initial temperature of GC oven was kept at 70°C for 2 min.

Then increased to °C with 3°C min -1 increment and finally maintained at °C for 10 min. Thereafter, the temperature was increased to °C with 10°C min -1 increment and kept for 10 min. The samples were quantified against an internal standard μg heptadecanoic acid , and the content of each fatty acid was expressed as a proportion of the total fatty acids present in the sample.

Parentheses indicate the proportion of the total fatty acid amount, which was composed of each fatty acid species. Total RNA was isolated and purified by using Trizol reagent Invitrogen, America. The first strand cDNA was synthesized from 2 μg of total RNA with oligo dT primer using cDNA synthesis kit Fermentas, Canada according to the operation manual.

Gene-specific primers for quantitative RT-PCR are listed in Table 1. When designing the primers, we blast the reference genome of tall fescue against with Arabidopsis thaliana , and select the peculiar part of the homologous gene of tall fescue as the starting point and end point of the amplified fragment.

The TUB gene was used as the internal reference in the Q-PCR reaction. The program for Q-PCR was 94°C for 3 min, followed by 45 cycles of 94°C for the 20 s, 50—55°C for 20 s, then 72°C for 30 s, with a final elongation at 72°C for 7 min. The experiment was performed on a chromo4 real-time detection system MJ Research, Cambridge, MA, United States using SYBR Green I to produce a fluorogenic intercalating dye.

The data were normalized with the relative efficiency of each primer pair. Five biological replicates were used in all the experiments, all results were expressed as mean ± SE standard error.

The analysis of variance ANOVA was performed by using SPSS statistical software package Ver. The graphs were produced using Origin 8.

As shown in Figure 1 , high temperature increased both MDA and relative EL in two tall fescue genotypes. Under heat stress, MDA contents were Similar results were also observed regarding relative EL values.

FIGURE 1. All the plants were treated for 1 day. Mean ± SD were calculated from five biological repeats. As shown in Figure 2 , high temperature dramatically decreased the activities of SOD and POD by It showed significantly different behaviors between heat-tolerant genotype and heat-sensitive genotype under the same high temperature.

FIGURE 2. High temperature significantly affected the OJIP fluorescence transient of both tall fescue genotypes. OJIP transient curves of control groups were higher than those of heat treatment groups Figure 3.

Furthermore, under normal condition, the OJIP transient curves exhibited higher levels for the heat-tolerant genotype versus the heat-sensitive genotype. High temperature led to more difference in OJIP between two genotypes.

FIGURE 3. To further investigate the structural alteration, functional parameters, and photosynthetic behaviors in different tall fescue genotypes under heat stress, the JIP-test was applied to analyze the value of OJIP transient curves.

Basic fluorescence parameters including F O , F K , F J , F I , F M , and M 0 were extracted Table 2. Both genotypes generally had a higher level of above basic parameters for under control regimes versus high temperature regimes, except F O and M 0 which were lower under normal condition.

TABLE 2. Photosynthetic parameters deduced by the JIP-test analysis of fluorescence transients. Heat stress dramatically declined the value of φpo and φEo in both genotypes. In addition, it was noticed that the φpo value in tolerant genotype was significantly higher than in sensitive genotype when grown under normal conditions.

Similar results were also observed for PI ABS and PI total. Four major fatty acids were identified and quantified by using GC-MS in this study. There were two SFAs and two UFAs, i. As shown in Figure 4 , the palmitic acid content was However, after heat treatment, the percentage was increased to High temperature modestly increased the stearic acid content from Under high temperature, the linoleic acid content was significantly increased from 5.

FIGURE 4. A Palmitic acid. B Stearic acid. C Linoleic acid. D Linolenic acid. Under control condition, there was no difference in unsaturation degree of fatty acids between the two genotypes. However, after heat stress, the unsaturation degree was significantly decreased to However, after heat treatment, the ratio decreased by As for DBI, high temperature significantly decreased it by FIGURE 5.

To investigate the gene expression pattern of photosynthetic system genes and fatty acid synthesis pathway in response to heat stress, three genes involved in the photosynthetic system and six genes involved in fatty acid synthesis pathway were analyzed by Q-PCR.

High temperature significantly enhanced the gene transcription level of PsbA compared to the control regime in both tall fescue genotypes Figure 6. The transcription level of PsbC was reduced by heat stress in both genotypes.

The similar trend was also observed for gene FabH. In addition, the transcription level of FatA significantly declined in both genotypes under heat treatment. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. High temperature is one of the most detrimental environmental stresses, which can induce cell damage and constrain plant growth.

The excess generation of ROS is one of the major consequence of heat stress, which subsequently induces cell membrane injury, damage the photosynthesis systems and PSII oxygen evolving complex and influence the protein synthesis Sairam et al.

Plant can tolerate heat stress by physical changes within the plant body and by creating signals for changing metabolism Mirza et al. Cell membrane injury is related to the composition and content of fatty acids in the lipid bilayers of the membrane Yordanov et al.

However, the relationship between the composition and saturation level of fatty acids and heat tolerance in different plant genotypes is still unknown. The photosynthetic activity of chloroplast is considered to be the most thermo-sensitive cell function.

The F 0 is the level of fluorescence emission when all the primary quinone acceptors Q A were in oxidized state after dark adaptation. The F 0 rise of leaves results from the physical separation of the PS II reaction centers from their associated pigment antennae under heat stress, resulting in blocked energy transfer to the PS II traps and a decrease of the quantum efficiency of PS II Briantais et al.

The total performance index PI total is the most general parameter in the JIP-test under stress conditions. It reflects the changes in intersystem electron and the energy conservation from exciton to the reduction of PSI end acceptors Yusuf et al.

The parameters φpo, öEo, and δRo were used to assess the impairment of components in PSII and investigate more details Chen et al. The φpo and öEo values were remarkably changed while the δRo was slightly altered under heat stress, and the treatment with high temperature significantly decreased the behavior of φpo and öEo in tall fescue.

Thus, the results suggested that the behaviors of PS II on both electron donor side and acceptor side are blocked under heat stress and PSI was less damaged than PSII Apostolova and Dobrikova, ; Zushi et al. The alteration of photosynthesis was also related to the changes in gene expression patterns.

CP47 psbB encoded protein and CP43 psbC encoded protein are the intrinsic transmembrane proteins, which located in the reaction center of PS II. Previous studies showed that the light harvesting antenna would be decoupled from the RC, and the damaged D1 protein would be cleavaged under high temperature Yoshioka et al.

Both of the transcription and translation levels of psbA will decrease under heat stress, meanwhile reducing the transcription product mRNA of psbA and D1 protein content Yang et al.

Moreover, the decrease of CP43 and CP47 would lead to a reduction in active RC and result in inefficient energy utilization Vani et al. In this study, the expression of psbA , which encoding for D1 protein in the core of RC, is higher in heat-treated plants than in the controls.

Its up-regulation is favorable for PSII RC against high temperature and confirmed that heat stress improves the susceptibleness of this photosynthetic organs Takahashi et al. Malondialdehyde and EL were valid indicators to show the degree of cellular injury caused by environmental stress Hernández and Almansa, Furthermore, MDA is a final decomposition product of lipid peroxidation Monteiro et al.

The current results suggested that high temperature induced lipid peroxidation and plasma membrane permeability increases. The dismutation of converting O 2 - to H 2 O 2 is important in defense ROS, which is catalyzed by SOD. Then H 2 O 2 was removed by POD to regulate the relatively stable level of H 2 O 2 Mansoor, To further explore the possible heat-resistance mechanism underlying fatty acid, the lipid composition was analyzed in this study.

The results of fatty acid composition indicated that unsaturated membrane lipid played an important role in improving plant heat resistance Alvarezordóñez et al. DBI is an indicator for evaluating unsaturation level of fatty acids Zhong et al.

The expression pattern of fatty acid synthesis related genes was also investigated. It is the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA that limited the rate of fatty acid synthesis.

So that the transcription of acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACAC encoded a protein is closely linked with the later fatty acid synthesis. Malonyltransferase FabD encoded a protein is a key enzyme for the synthesis of fatty acids. It is a thiolase that catalyzes the initial step of the fatty acid synthesis, catalyzing the formation of malonyl-ACP with malonyl-CoA and ACP as substrates Prigge et al.

Malonyl-ACP plays an important role in the synthesis of type II fatty acids, which is an important substrate for the synthesis of palmitic acid Eckhardt et al. β-ketoacyl-ACP synthetase II KAS II FabF encoded a protein , KAS III FabH encoded a protein , and β-enoyl-ACP reductase FabI encoded a protein are involved in fatty acid elongation.

At present, there are three kinds of β-ketoacyl-ACP synthetase KAS , which is KAS I, KAS II, and KAS III. β-enoyl-ACP reductase catalyzes the last step of each cycle and generates an acyl-ACP with a 2-base increase Lu, Specific regulation is just like that keeping a lower transcription level of fatty acid synthesis genes when substrate is abundant, and maintaining a higher transcription when the substrate is low.

This transcriptional regulation result in no significant change in SFA under heat stress in both genotypes. The results also showed to some extent that the relationship between fatty acid content and heat resistance is not as close as fatty acid composition. Acyl-ACP thioesterase A FatA encoded a protein catalyzes the termination of FAS cycling.

It determines the length and saturation level of free fatty acid transport in and out of plant plastids. In plant cell, SFA are catalyzed by the type II FAS system in the plasmid, and the final products are only C 0-ACP and C 0-ACP. Most C 0-ACP produced by elongation is desaturated by the stearoyl-ACP desaturase.

The resulting C 1-ACP can enter the prokaryotic glyceroipid pathway or be hydrolyzed by FatA for export from the plastid Vigh et al. The C diffused from plastid was transported to the endoplasmic reticulum and then be synthesized other glycerides.

This may cause a reduction in the hydrolysis and release of C 1-ACP, further affect the membrane lipid glyceride synthesis. The changes of PUFA under high temperature need to be further studied. According to the research results in Arabidopsis under high temperature of Li, the possible reason for this change is that the ER-based ω-6 desaturase responsible for the conversion of C to C was up-regulated at high temperature, concurrent with decreased proportion of C Li et al.

In brief, the degree of membrane unsaturation is one determining factor in adaptation to high temperature stress. Our results in this study highlight the significance of changes in fatty acid composition under heat stress.

The mechanism in tall fescue response to heat stress is complex. Together, they were jointly conducive to membrane stability, and therefore enhanced the adaptation to high temperature in tall fescue.

JF and HL designed the research. LH carried out the experiments, analyzed the data, and wrote the manuscript. AB and ZH assisted with doing the experiments. JF, HL, and EA helped to draft the manuscript and revise the manuscript.

Findings published in Redox Biology suggest the type of eating that leads to metabolic syndrome can prompt imbalances in the gut microbiome, with impaired gut function contributing to toxins in the bloodstream, resulting in vitamin C depletion, which subsequently impairs the trafficking of vitamin E.

Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cells, a key part of the immune system. Neutrophils attack bacteria with hypochlorous acid: bleach.

Vitamin C is found in fresh vegetables and fruits; sources of vitamin E include almonds, wheat germ and various seeds and oils. Federal dietary guidelines call for 65 to 90 milligrams daily of vitamin C, and 15 milligrams of vitamin E.

Scientists from the University of Iowa and Ohio State contributed to this research. The National Institutes of Health, the Center for Applied Plant Sciences and Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center at The Ohio State University, the National Dairy Council, and DSM Nutrition supported this study.

About the Linus Pauling Institute: The Linus Pauling Institute at OSU is a world leader in the study of micronutrients and their role in promoting optimum health or preventing and treating disease. Major areas of research include heart disease, cancer, aging and neurodegenerative disease.

Steve Lundeberg, [email protected]. Maret Traber, [email protected]. Click photos to see a full-size version. Right click and save image to download.

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