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Morphological training adaptations

Morphological training adaptations

Adaptatkons Anim Sci ; Morphological training adaptations Mofphological CAS Google Scholar Bourke DL, Wylie SR, Theon A, et al. Frontiers in Physiology, 9 Published : 09 January Cartilage recovery in runners with and without knee osteoarthritis: A pilot study. Antonio J, Gonyea WJ. FIGURE 4.

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ANIMALS ADAPTATION - How Adaptation In Animals Work? - The Dr Binocs Show - Peekaboo Kidz Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Morphological training adaptations, 35 7pp. View at Morphologiccal. Davids, Fatigue and lack of focus, Raastad, Motphological, James, L, Gajanand, T, Smith, E, Connick, M, McGorm, H, Keating, Morphological training adaptations, Coombes, JS, Peake, Morpnological, and Roberts, Morphological training adaptations. Similar morphological and functional training adaptations occur between continuous and intermittent blood flow restriction. J Strength Cond Res 35 7 : —, —The aim of the study was to compare skeletal muscle morphological and functional outcomes after low-load resistance training using 2 differing blood flow restriction BFR protocols. Recreationally active men and women n 5 42 [f 5 21], Muscle mass was assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography before and after training.

High-resistance strength training Rraining is one of the most widely practiced forms of physical activity, which is used to enhance athletic performance, augment musculo-skeletal Modphological and alter body aesthetics.

Chronic exposure to this wdaptations of aeaptations produces marked traaining in muscular strength, which are afaptations to a range of neurological adaptationw morphological adaptations. This review assesses the evidence for these Morphologiical, their interplay and contribution Morpholigical enhanced strength and the methodologies employed.

The primary morphological yraining involve an increase in the cross-sectional area of the whole muscle and individual muscle fibres, Morphological training adaptations is due to an increase in adaptaations size and number. Satellite cells are activated in the very early stages of training; their proliferation and later fusion with existing fibres appears to Nutritional Recovery for Swimmers intimately Antiviral home remedies in the hypertrophy response.

Other Mrophological morphological yraining include hyperplasia, changes in fibre type, Morphologicwl architecture, myofilament density and the structure High-fat foods connective tissue and tendons.

Mophological evidence for neurological adaptations, which encompasses learning and coordination, comes from adaptatkons specificity of the training adaptation, transfer of unilateral training to the contralateral limb Morpholoogical imagined oMrphological.

The apparent rise in whole-muscle specific tension has been primarily used as evidence for neurological adaptations; however, morphological factors e. preferential hypertrophy of type 2 fibres, increased angle of fibre pennation, increase in adaptationd density are also likely to contribute afaptations this phenomenon.

Changes in inter-muscular coordination appear Nutritional Recovery for Swimmers. Adaptations in agonist muscle activation, Morpgological assessed by electromyography, tetanic stimulation and Onion slicing machines twitch Morphlogical technique, suggest small, Calming herbal extracts significant increases.

Morphological training adaptations firing frequency Cholesterol level lifestyle spinal reflexes Morphological training adaptations likely Morphological training adaptations this improvement, although there is contrary evidence adapyations no change in cortical or adapttaions excitability.

Adaptatiosn gains in strength with HRST are Nutritional Recovery for Swimmers due adaptatilns a wide combination of neurological and morphological factors.

Whilst the neurological factors may make their greatest contribution during the early stages adapttations a traijing programme, hypertrophic processes also commence at the onset of training. Brain-boosting lifestyle habits is a preview of subscription content, trxining in via an institution to Nutritional Recovery for Swimmers access.

Rent this article via DeepDyve. Institutional subscriptions. Morganti Adaptattions, Nelson ME, Leafy green grocery MA, et Morphlogical. Strength improvements with 1 yr of progressive resistance training in older women.

Med Sci Sports Exerc ; — PubMed CAS Google Scholar. Paavolainen L, Paavolainen L, Hakkinen K, et al. Explosive strength training improves 5-km running time by improving running economy and muscle power.

J Appl Physiol ; — Garfinkel S, Cafarelli E. Relative changes in maximal force, emg, and muscle cross-sectional area after isometric training. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; —7. Housh DJ, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, et al. Hypertrophic response to unilateral concentric isokinetic resistance training.

J Appl Physiol ; 65— Tracy B, Ivey F, Hurlbut D, et al. Muscle quality: II. Effects of strength training in to yr-old men and women.

Abe T, DeHoyos D, Pollock M, et al. Time course for strength and muscle thickness changes following upper and lower body resistance training in men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol ; — Engstrom CM, Loeb GE, Reid JG, et al. Morphometry of the human thigh muscles: a comparison between anatomical sections and computer tomographic and magnetic-resonance images.

J Anat ; — Narici M, Hoppeler H, Kayser B, et al. Human quadriceps cross sectional area, torque and neural activation during 6 months strength training. Acta Physiol Scand ; — Alway SE, Grurillt WH, Stray-Gundersen J, et al. Effects of resistance training on elbow flexors of highly competitive body builders.

J Appl PhysioI ; — CAS Google Scholar. Tracy B, Ivey F, Metter JE, et al. A more efficient magnetic resonance imaging-based strategy for measuring quadriceps muscle volume. PubMed Google Scholar. Aagaard P, Andersen J, Dyhre-Poulsen P, et al. A mechanism for increased contractile strength of human pennate muscle in response to strength training: changes in muscle architecture.

J Physiol ; — Fukunaga T, Roy RR, Shellock FG, et al. Specific tension of human plantar flexors and dorsiflexors. Roman WJ, Aeckenstein J, Straygundersen J, et al. Adaptations in the elbow flexors of elderly males after heavy-resistance training. J Appl Physiol ; —4. Keen DA, Yue GH, Enoka RM.

Training-related enhancement in the control of motor output in elderly humans. Aagaard P, Simonsen E, Andersen J, et al. Neural inhibition during maximal eccentric and concentric quadriceps contraction: effects of resistance training.

Bamman MM, Newcomer BR, Larson-Meyer DE, et al. Evaluation of the strength-size relationship in vivo using various muscle size indices. Fukunaga T, Miyatani M, Tachi M, et al. Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans.

Maganaris CN, Baltzopoulos V, Sargeant AI. Changes in Achilles tendon moment arm from rest to maximum isometric plant arflexion: in vivo observations in man. Maganaris CN, Baltzopoulos V. Predictability of in vivo changes in pennation angle of human tibialis anterior musclefrom rest to maximum isometric dorsiflexion.

Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol ; —7. Narici MY, Binzoni T, Hiltbrand E, et al. In vivo human gastrocnemius architecture with changing joint angle at rest and during graded isometric contraction.

Wilmore JD. Alterations in strength, body corrposition and anthropometric measurements consequent to a week weight training-program. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 6: —8. Cureton KJ, Collins MA, Hill DW, et al. Muscle hypertrophy in men and women.

Welle S, Tottennan S, Thornton C. Effect of age on muscle hypertrophy induced by resistance training. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; M—5.

Google Scholar. Kadi F, Bonnerud P, Eriksson A, et al. The expression of androgen receptors in human neck and limb muscles: effects of training and self-administration of androgenic-anabolic steroids.

Histochem Cell Biol ; 9. Edwards RH, Young A, Hosking GP, et al. Human skeletal muscle function: description of tests and normal values. Clin Sci Mol Med ; — Schantz P, Randall-Fox E, Hutchison W, et al.

Muscle fibre type distribution, muscle cross-sectional area and maximal voluntary strength in humans. Neder JA, Nery LE, Silva AC, et al. Maximal aerobic power and leg muscle mass and strength related to age in non-athlethic males and females.

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In: Larsson L, editor. Fitness, health and work capacity: international standards for assessment.

: Morphological training adaptations

Muscle morphological and strength adaptations to endurance vs. resistance training

This review assesses the evidence for these adaptations, their interplay and contribution to enhanced strength and the methodologies employed.

The primary morphological adaptations involve an increase in the cross-sectional area of the whole muscle and individual muscle fibres, which is due to an increase in myofibrillar size and number.

Satellite cells are activated in the very early stages of training; their proliferation and later fusion with existing fibres appears to be intimately involved in the hypertrophy response. Other possible morphological adaptations include hyperplasia, changes in fibre type, muscle architecture, myofilament density and the structure of connective tissue and tendons.

Indirect evidence for neurological adaptations, which encompasses learning and coordination, comes from the specificity of the training adaptation, transfer of unilateral training to the contralateral limb and imagined contractions.

Repository Staff Only: item control page. QUT Home Contact. Home Browse About. Description Davids, CJ, Raastad, T, James, L, Gajanand, T, Smith, E, Connick, M, McGorm, H, Keating, S, Coombes, JS, Peake, JM, and Roberts, LA. Impact and interest: 3 citations in Scopus.

Notify us of incorrect data How to use citation counts More information. Full-text downloads: 53 since deposited on 19 Mar More statistics Export: EndNote Dublin Core BibTeX Repository Staff Only: item control page. CORE COnnecting REpositories.

Home Browse research About. TEQSA Provider ID: PRV Australian University CRICOS No. Accepted Version PDF kB Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial 4. Contribution to Journal Journal Article.

Therefore, the use of mfMRI as a tool for predicting the potential hypertrophic effects of a given strengthening exercise should be questioned. We encourage future research to consider the physiological basis on which this method relies to correctly interpret mfMRI data from different exercises.

Muscle hypertrophy is initiated early and is progressive in response to RT, potentially contributing to initial strength gains. In this study, QUAD muscles increased 5. This represents the earliest onset of whole-muscle hypertrophy without the interference of acute muscle edema, documented to date.

The application of a robust RT stimulus in combination with a sensitive and precise evaluation tool such as 3D volumetry by MRI has been decisive for these findings. However, this method is at present much more time consuming than the assessment of single CSAs. Therefore, the level of sensitivity and precision needed, and the time available for assessment must be taken into consideration together to decide the best approach in each case Nordez et al.

Regional T2 shifts after the first assessment session were not found to be correlated with the relative increase in CSA after the training program. These results call into question the reliability of mfMRI as a tool for predicting the potential hypertrophic outcomes of a given exercise.

In this study, the number of volunteers could be regarded as a limitation on the interpretation of the results. However, it should be taken into account that the responses were very similar in all the participants after the training protocol.

Moreover, the sample size of the study was adjusted based on previous related research Seynnes et al. Finally, another limitation is the long time currently needed for the volumetric assessment of each muscle. As this precise analysis becomes more automatized with developing imaging technology, research will become easier in the future.

VI-D, GC, JP, and JC contributed to the conception and design of the study. VI-D organized the database. VI-D, GC, SN, JP, ML, XA, XP, and JC performed the experiments. VI-D, GC, SN, and JC wrote the first draft of the manuscript. VI-D, SN, GC, JP, XP, ML, RC, XA, and JC contributed to manuscript revision, and also read and approved the submitted version of the manuscript.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The excellent technical assistance from Ms. Elena Ferre Giménez Creu Blanca, Barcelona, Spain is warmly acknowledged. The authors would also like to thank Jurdan Mendiguchia for useful discussion on data interpretation. Finally, the authors thank very much the people who participated in this study.

RT, resistance training; CSA, cross-sectional area; QUAD, quadriceps femoris; CON, concentric; ECC, eccentric; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging; mfMRI, muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging; T2, transverse relaxation time; MVIC, maximal voluntary isometric contraction force; PRE, before the training intervention; IN, after 2 weeks of training intervention; POST, after 4 weeks of training intervention; ROI, region of interest; GM, gluteus maximus; RF, rectus femoris; VI, vastus intermedius; VM, vastus medialis; VL, vastus lateralis; AM, adductor magnus; GR, gracilis; BFL, biceps femoris long head; BFS, biceps femoris short head; ST, semitendinosus; SM, semimembranosus; ADD, adductors; HAMS, hamstrings.

Abe, T. Time course for strength and muscle thickness changes following upper and lower body resistance training in men and women. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Adams, G.

Magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography as indexes of muscle function. Baroni, B. Time course of neuromuscular adaptations to knee extensor eccentric training time course of neuromuscular adaptations to knee extensor eccentric training.

Sports Med. Bickel, C. Time course of molecular responses of human skeletal muscle to acute bouts of resistance exercise. Blazevich, A. Lack of human muscle architectural adaptation after short-term strength training. Muscle Nerve. Brook, M. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy adaptations predominate in the early stages of resistance exercise training, matching deuterium oxide-derived measures of muscle protein synthesis and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling.

FASEB J. Cagnie, B. Muscle functional mri as an imaging tool to evaluate muscle activity. Sport Phys. Carmona, G. Time course and association of functional and biochemical markers in severe semitendinosus damage following intensive eccentric leg curls: differences between and within subjects.

Caterisano, A. The effect of back squat depth on the EMG activity of 4 superficial hip and thigh muscles. Strength Cond.

PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Chronojump Chronojump Open Code Repository. Counts, B. Muscle growth: to infinity and beyond? Muscle Nerve 56, — Damas, F. Early resistance training-induced increases in muscle cross-sectional area are concomitant with edema-induced muscle swelling. Damon, B. Physiological Basis of Muscle Functional MRI.

Google Scholar. DeFreitas, J. An examination of the time course of training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

Egan, B. Exercise metabolism and the molecular regulation of skeletal muscle adaptation. Cell Metab. Fernandez-Gonzalo, R. Muscle damage responses and adaptations to eccentric-overload resistance exercise in men and women. Individual muscle use in hamstring exercises by soccer players assessed using functional MRI.

Figueiredo, V. Volume for muscle hypertrophy and health outcomes: the most effective variable in resistance training. Sport Med. Franchi, M. Muscle thickness correlates to muscle cross-sectional area in the assessment of strength training-induced hypertrophy.

Sport 28, — Skeletal muscle remodeling in response to eccentric vs. concentric loading: morphological, molecular, and metabolic adaptations.

Gonzalez, A. Intramuscular anabolic signaling and endocrine response following resistance exercise: implications for muscle hypertrophy. Holloway, T. Temporal response of angiogenesis and hypertrophy to resistance training in young men. Sport Exerc. Krentz, J. Neural and morphological changes in response to a day intense eccentric training protocol.

Kubo, K. Time course of changes in muscle and tendon properties during strength training and detraining. Kubota, J. Non-uniform changes in magnetic resonance measurements of the semitendinosus muscle following intensive eccentric exercise.

Lang, F. Mechanisms and Significance of Cell Volume Regulation. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. LeBlanc, A. Muscle volume, MRI relaxation times T2 , and body composition after spaceflight. Lundberg, T. Aerobic exercise does not compromise muscle hypertrophy response to short-term resistance training.

Lüthi, J. Structural changes in skeletal muscle tissue with heavy-resistance exercise. Maroto-Izquierdo, S. Skeletal muscle functional and structural adaptations after eccentric overload flywheel resistance training: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sport 20, — Mendez-Villanueva, A. MRI-Based regional muscle use during hamstring strengthening exercises in elite soccer players. PLoS One. Miyamoto, N. Task-dependent inhomogeneous muscle activities within the Bi-articular human rectus femoris muscle.

PLoS One 7:e Moritani, T. Neural factors versus hypertrophy in the time course of muscle strength gain.

Narici, M. Changes in force, cross-sectional area and neural activation during strength training and detraining of the human quadriceps. Nordez, A. Comparison of methods to assess quadriceps muscle volume using magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging 30, — Norrbrand, L.

Quadriceps muscle use in the flywheel and barbell squat. Aviat Space Environ. Pareja-Blanco, F. Effects of velocity loss during resistance training on athletic performance, strength gains and muscle adaptations. Sport 27, — Paulsen, G. Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells: what role do they play in muscle damage and regeneration following eccentric exercise?

Reitelseder, S.

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In contrast, results for likely to be governed by the mechanics of each upper body training indicate there may be sex-medi- constituent muscle in relation to the training exer- ated differences in the response to HRST.

For example, the four constituents of the recent large-scale trial of women and men knee extensors quadriceps are each likely to have.

VL mary adaptation to long-term strength training and Percentage change in ACSA. Fibre 20 hypertrophy is thought to account for the increase in muscle CSA, facilitating the increase in the contrac- tile material number of cross-bridges arranged in 10 parallel and thus an increase in force production.

Changes in fibre CSA in humans can only be evalu- 0 ated by taking biopsy samples of skeletal muscle. Training the Fig. Selective hypertrophy of the quadriceps femoris muscle triceps brachii for 6 months resulted in type 1 and after 8 weeks of isokinetic high-resistance strength training.

Whilst the vast majority of stud- is. ies have found significant increases in fibre CSA, Narici et al. Such ferent contributions to torque production at any giv- variability may be accounted for by a number of en joint angle.

have found this to occur in proximal[46] or proximal The poor repeatability of fibre area measurements and distal[8] regions of the muscle, possibly due to with a single biopsy sample has been well docu- the differences in the exercises prescribed.

In fibre size within skeletal muscle, which may be experienced junior weightlifters average age of partially influenced by the depth of the biopsy Theoretically, muscle growth can be achieved either by an increase in the Preferential hypertrophy of type 2 fibres after CSA of muscle fibres fibre hypertrophy , an in- strength training is another commonly reported find- crease in the number of fibres fibre hyperplasia or ing.

they hypertrophy more rapidly during training and atrophy faster during detraining. Therefore, it is not 1.

fibre area of both type 1 and type 2 fibres. A three-fold increase in the number of trophy[45] and increases in strength. proportion of type 1 fibres. Furthermore, that is often observed for the whole muscle with labelling studies have indicated that newly formed training. However, there has been considerable de- proteins tend to be found around the periphery of bate about the specific tension of different fibre existing myofibrils.

A review by Fitts et al. In increase in fibre CSA two-fold more than my- contrast, more recent work suggests greater specific ofibrillar area suggests an additional adaptation. Studies that have related isometric specif- al. e proliferation after training. vivo have found contradictory findings.

During normal growth of mammalian mus- bination with their greater hypertrophy response, cle, myofibrillar number has been found to increase likely contributes to increases in whole-muscle spe- by as much as fold. tions on the growth of post-natal mice, Gold- spink[80,81] and Goldspink and Howells[82] proposed 1.

Discrep- MacDougall and colleagues[52] examined the my- ancy in the arrays formed at the A and I bands ofibrillar structure of six subjects before and after 6 causes the actin filaments to pull at a slightly oblique months of strength training.

Despite wide variations angle at the Z-disks. The methodology ure 3. Goldspink[80,81] proposed that if this were of this study was extremely thorough and their find- developed sufficiently in two half sarcomeres, it ings reinforced some earlier work of this group.

The pack- entire myofibril has divided longitudinally. Z-disk Oblique pull of model. These authors reported significantly less hy- peripheral actin pertrophy following prior irradiation of the muscle, filaments which prevents the division of satellite cells.

They concluded that satellite-cell proliferation is a prereq- Rupture of Z-disk uisite for hypertrophy following synergist ablation. In humans, Kadi et al. Myofibrillar splitting due to the oblique pull of the peripheral actin filaments redrawn from Goldspink,[83] with permission.

Longitudinal studies of HRST have demon- found in growing avian and fish muscle. myonuclear number and the nuclear to cytoplasm ratio has been more controversial. In response to 10 1. in animals;[86,87] and in humans[88,89]. In human They concluded that additional myonuclei appeared muscle, Landing and colleagues[90] found a direct to be required to support the enlargement of skeletal correlation between the number of myonuclei and muscle fibres following even short-term resistance fibre diameter.

Hence, it seems that a single my- training. Hikida et al. However, Kadi et al. onuclei inside the fibre, satellite cells, situated be- 4 neath the basal lamina that surround each fibre, can undergo mitosis and typically one of the daughter 3 cells then becomes a true myonucleus.

The increase in fibre area during the early stages 10 weeks of high-resistance strength training are matched by an in- the increase in fibre volume. Rosenblatt and associ- crease in myonuclei number from proliferating satellite cells data ates[] studied changes in adult mammalian skele- from Kadi and Thornell,[] with kind permission of Springer and tal muscle in response to loading with an ablation Business Media.

onucleus after 90 days of HRST. The degree of hyperplasia also derived from satellite cells are required. seems to be dependent upon the experimental proto- In order for hypertrophy to occur, additional con- col that is used to induce the overload, with stretch tractile proteins must be manufactured and function- causing more hyperplasia and small or no increase ally integrated into the existing fibres and my- in fibre number with exercise or compensatory hy- ofibrils.

This net accretion of muscle proteins clear- pertrophy. Increased protein synthesis is reliant 1. The sessing the number of fibres in whole human mus- regulation of protein synthesis is reviewed by cles in vivo, make the investigation of hyperplasia in Sartorelli and Fulco.

Even in cadaver studies, there are large inter-individual differences that con- 1. In response to HRST, Kadi and contribute to increased whole-muscle CSA and Thornell[] discovered myotubes as well as small strength gains in response to HRST.

However, the muscle fibres expressing embryonic and neonatal phenomenon of hyperplasia remains controversial. myosin heavy-chain isoforms. However, Appell[] 1. A cadaver study by Sjostrom et al. Even in parallel fibred changes. muscles, all the fibres may not run from origin to The comparison of mean fibre size of resistance- insertion.

Consequently, a number of studies have trained subjects and controls has been used to infer used nitric acid digestion to dissociate and count the or refute possible changes in muscle fibre number total number of fibres.

Using total fibre counting with HRST. They found no evidence for numbers, this may produce erroneous conclusions.

hyperplasia and attributed muscle enlargement en- Somewhat more valid is the determination of fibre tirely to hypertrophy of existing fibres. However, this relies upon extra- in cats. not be that reliable for fibre area measurement.

Using this technique, Alway et al. The quantitative contribution of hyperplasia to 1. triceps surae after 18 weeks of strength training in elderly women. This measure of density involves much larger sections of muscle tissue than the pack- 1.

fat and connective tissue. In Heavy-Chain Composition? rats, the discrepancy in fibre and whole-muscle size Most of the research on muscular adaptations to increases with overload has been taken to suggest strength training provides evidence against substan- that fibres develop at the expense of the extra- tial fibre type changes.

In animals, a number of cellular compartment. Several studies have found a sig- training. Schiaffino et al. isoform that is indicative of functional and metabol- ic properties, and generally corresponds to other 1.

There is strong evidence for an increase in tive tissue matrix. The arrangement of connective tendon stiffness, probably due to a range of structur- tissue, in relation to individual muscle fibres, could al changes, and tendon hypertrophy also seems influence force production.

For example, if connec- probable given a sufficient training period. tive tissue attachments were made between the ten- dons and intermediate parts of muscle fibres, then 1. Whether this occurs is unknown, but HRST.

As the angle of fibre pennation AoP in- in theory, it could be tested, as it would cause creases, there is increased packing of muscle fibres substantial effects on the muscle mechanics. within the same ACSA essentially the effective Tendinous stiffness has been found to increase PCSA increases , but less force from each fibre is in animals in response to loading[,] and in resolved to the tendon due to their increasingly oblique angle of pull.

Therefore, the effect of AoP humans after isometric[] and isotonic on strength is a trade-off of these two factors pack- HRST. Tendon stiffness affects the time tional to the sine of twice the angle of pennation.

required to stretch the series elastic component and According to this relationship, the optimum angle of will therefore affect both the electromechanical de- pennation is 45°. Whilst most muscles have fibres lay and the rate of force development,[] thus en- that are pennate to the overall line of action, few hancing the rapid application of force.

Increased muscles are pennate to this degree and therefore any stiffness also reduces tendon elongation and is likely increase in the angle of pennation would be ex- to change the length-tension characteristics of a pected to increase force, even if there were no trained muscle, although this has not been formally increase in the anatomical CSA.

A recent cross-sectional study found A number of studies have found a relationship greater tendon thickness in athletes involved in between various muscle-size indicies and the angle high-force activity compared with controls.

An early report[] found no change in have failed to find any evidence for this,[,] the angle of pennation in the vastus lateralis VL perhaps because this is too short a period.

Alterna- after 12 weeks of training, although these authors tively, a biphasic response with an initial atrophy conceded that the sensitivity of their ultrasound followed by hypertrophy has been observed in pig measurement technique may have been insufficient tendons in response to endurance exercise.

Intra-tendon structural changes in response to HRST Aagaard et al. HRST of the triceps brachii. has been found to increase the angle of fibre penna- strength training, has been taken to indicate an in- tion after 10 weeks Reeves et al.

Whilst some investigators, notably Aag- These recent studies provide strong evidence that aard et al. estimate the cumulative effects of these necessary corrections. Neurological Adaptations 2.

In contrast with the tition maximum is disproportionately greater than morphological adaptations, considerable debate ex- the increase in isometric strength.

Until recently, much learning that is specific to the training task. Some of the evidence on neurological adaptation came proportion of this task specificity is attributable to from somewhat indirect evidence that could be postural activity associated with the task. As the questioned methodologically or neurophysiological- human body is a linked mechanical system, it is ly, and there remain extensive methodological con- necessary to orientate the body segments and set the siderations with many of the techniques used to base of support prior to forceful muscle activity.

Recent work has more Strength and power improvements after training are precisely delineated the specific neural mechanisms specific to the postures employed[] and the role of contributing to the training-induced increase in fixator muscles and their sequence of contraction, maximal-muscle strength.

which may be different for apparently similar exer- Sale et al. Neural adapta- straight-forward single-joint actions e. knee ex- tions are essentially changes in coordination and tension.

This evidence reinforces the fact that ap- learning that facilitate improved recruitment and parently simple actions undoubtedly require a de- activation of the involved muscles during a specific gree of skill in order for optimal expression of strength task. This supports.

the hypothesis of a central adaptation in the response idea to the elbow flexor muscles, finding imagined to training. Whilst further research is clearly required, maximal voluntary contraction MVC.

Mecha- strength in the untrained limb. nistically, it supports the role of central-cortical The earliest phase of strength training may in- adaptations in response to regular HRST. volve learning the right pattern of intermuscular coordination i. stabilisers, synergists and antago- 2.

nists ,[] and perhaps, once learned, this could be applied, for example, on the contralateral side. There is recent evi- nist muscle activation could increase through en- dence that cross-over effects may extend beyond hanced motor unit recruitment, or firing frequency, general learning and coordination and include assuming these variables are sub-maximal prior to changes in agonist activation.

Using the interpolated training. twitch technique ITT , Shima et al. have been used by many investigators in an attempt to measure the changes in agonist muscle activation.

More re- ing and 8 weeks of detraining figure 5. In contrast, cently, Zijdewind et al. responsible for the rapid increase in strength at the These authors found substantially greater strength onset of a training programme, Holtermann et al. In contrast, Herbert et al.

Changes in the isometric force and surface electromyograph with 16 weeks of training and 8 weeks detraining redrawn from 2. unilateral, single-joint isometric exercises. The controversy surrounding Supramaximal tetanic stimulation appears to be the SEMG findings may be explained by a number of most comprehensive method of evaluating the level issues with SEMG measurement and interpretation.

of voluntary muscle activation, although a lack of The technical difficulties of SEMG measurements activation of synergists and stabilisers does question are well recognised, and whilst electrode technology the validity of this approach.

As a result of the and signal processing of EMG recordings continues associated difficulties and discomfort, relatively few to improve, the reproducibility of EMG measure- studies have been completed.

The force from an ments remains questionable. Problems with relocat- isometric MVC has been found to match the force ing electrodes, variable impedance of the skin and produced by tetanic stimulation in untrained sub- subcutaneous tissue, as well as changes in muscle jects,[] although the measurement sensitivity of morphology, tend to confound the ability to reliably these early investigations is dubious.

After a period detect longitudinal changes in SEMG. of training, comparison of changes in voluntary and The interpretation of increased SEMG reflecting electrically evoked force have also been used to an increased neural drive is also considered a simpli- elucidate the importance of the voluntary drive to fication.

Firstly, SEMG is modified by changes in strength gain. However, the evidence is equivocal, excitation-contraction coupling, specifically altera- with reports that voluntary training increases[,] tion of single-fibre action potential.

A third strategy in this that are likely to alter single-fibre action potential regard has been to compare the effect of training and SEMG, including: fibre type; fibre size; mem- with electrical muscle stimulation EMS to that of brane potential;[] intramuscular ionic concentra- voluntary efforts.

A number of studies have em- tions; and sodium-potassium pump content. The confounding influence of these factors, and vous system involvement. Increased tensively employed to measure the level of muscle EMG, whilst the M-wave remained constant has activation.

The maximality of neurological activation appears to be muscle spe- cific,[] with, for example, the elbow flexors 70 more completely activated than the quadriceps femoris. and evidence for inhibition of neural drive during maxi- b type of muscle action redrawn from Babault et al. ly abolished after 14 weeks of HRST.

Studies em- ploying superimposed stimuli have tended to dis- exist for voluntary contraction of elite power-trained miss this suggestion. als leads to considerably greater increases in eccen- During eccentric contractions, there is considera- tric-specific strength and EMG, than concentric ble evidence of a sub-maximal neural drive in un- training upon concentric strength and EMG.

The eccentric portion of the in vivo Taken together, this evidence strongly indicates a force-velocity relationship for untrained individuals failure in muscle activation during maximal eccen- shows a marked difference in comparison with the tric efforts of untrained subjects either due to poor in vitro relationship.

Specifically, force is no greater supraspinal activation or perhaps more likely spinal during lengthening eccentric activity than isomet- inhibition from a range of afferents e. group Ib ric actions.

III muscle-spindle afferents, and Renshaw cells , untary stimulation the force-frequency relationship although the precise mechanism remains un- observed for motor units in human muscle suggests known.

The magni- for increases, perhaps up to 2-fold, in MUFF during tude of this central reserve, and hence the capacity maximum voluntary contractions, contributing to for improvement with training is likely to depend increased strength after training.

However, it is upon the muscle group s under consideration, the thought that phenomena such as the catch-like type of muscle contraction, the muscle lengths and properties of motor units[] and twitch potentia- joint positions involved, as well as the complexity tion[] may facilitate greater force production at and familiarity of the movement task i.

bilateral lower frequencies than expected. An initial, brief, or multi-joint activity. high-frequency burst of 2—4 pulses at the start of a contraction augments subsequent force production 2.

firing frequency. During a slow ramped contraction During maximum force generation, MUFF has from rest, the contribution of these two factors to been found to be higher in trained elderly weight increased activation is highly dependent upon the lifters than age-matched controls Unfortunately, this is beyond tractions after training.

Whilst these adaptations are the capability of current techniques. strength at the instant of maximum force generation 2. Using a large grid electrode, Holtermann and Patten et al.

In this study, frequency after 9 training session of the dorsiflex- the largest changes in strength and MUFF ap- ors. ment 5th finger abduction , low subject numbers or Intra-muscular EMG recording techniques offer the the short duration of the training. potential to accurately investigate motor unit firing frequency MUFF of humans in vivo.

The MUFF 2. The the instant of maximum force generation motor units of strength athletes appear to exhibit 20—30Hz[,,,].

It is curious that with invol- greater synchronisation than untrained individuals. and HRST appears to increase synchronisa- imal contractions. The increase in V-wave amplitude indicates enhanced neural drive from the spinal motoneurons, 2.

The muscle activity has been demonstrated using enhanced H-reflex after training further suggests neuroimaging techniques and transcranial magnetic that the increase in motoneuron output was caused, stimulation to induce changes in the primary motor in part, by a rise in motoneuron excitability, al- cortex, such as organisation of movement represen- though the greater increase in V-wave compared tations and increased cortical or corticospinal excit- with H-reflex indicates enhanced supraspinal activa- ability for specific muscles and movements.

However, more specific studies this evidence is clearly contrary to the surprising employing transcranial stimulation techniques in re- decrease in corticospinal excitability that has been sponse to strength training found an unexpected observed after training. given exercise depends on a wide range of factors, including the velocity and range of motion.

Cross-sec- supraspinal drive to the muscle. The significant decrease in antagonistic activation that Hoffman reflex or H-reflex is an artificially elicit- Peak-to-peak amplitude normalised to Mmax.

ed reflex that is used to test the efficacy of transmis- 0. It is thought to give an approximate measure 0. responses after training, reporting both no potentia- Fig. V-wave and H-reflex amplitude expressed relative to maxi- mal compound muscle action potential [Mmax] measured during tion[] and a significant increase.

mostly occurred in the first week of an isometric antagonists and synergists. The rapid rise in strength knee-extensor training programme.

Hakkinen and at the start of a training programme, within the first colleagues[] found reduced hamstring coactiva- 2 weeks, which is primarily due to neurological tion of older, but not middle-aged, participants after adaptations, significantly increases the loading and 6 months of knee-extensor HRST.

However, other training stimulus to which the muscle is then ex- studies have found no change in antagonist activa- posed. This helps to maximise further strength tion after 9 dorsiflexor training sessions[] or 14 gains, particularly morphological adaptations, weeks of knee-extension training with older which occur as training continues.

task-specific factors. In addition, whilst controver- sial, the weight of SEMG measurements indicates 3. Conclusion an increase in agonist activation after training. Stud- A wide range of morphological and neurological ies employing transcranial stimulation have found factors are known to contribute to increased strength no evidence for cortical or corticospinal adaptation following HRST.

An increase in the size of the and are at odds with investigations of spinal reflexes exercised muscles is typically regarded as the major that indicate an increased supraspinal drive, moto- long-term adaptation, although this is highly varia- neuron excitability and a likely increase in MUFF ble between the muscles exposed to the training and after training.

along their length. Whole-muscle hypertrophy ap- pears to proceed in a linear fashion during the first 6 Acknowledgements months of training and is ascribed to hypertrophy of No sources of funding were used to assist in the prepara- individual fibres by the processes of myofibrillar tion of this review.

The authors have no conflicts of interest growth and proliferation, although hyperplasia may that are directly relevant to the content of this review. play a minor role. Whilst there may be an increase in the myonuclei to cytoplasm ratio by an upregulation References of transcription or translation, satellite cells are acti- 1.

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J Appl Physiol ; —9. Download references. No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.

School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Ashby Road, Loughborough, LE11 3TU, UK. Institute for Biophysical and Clinical Research into Human Movement, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.

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Abstract High-resistance strength training HRST is one of the most widely practiced forms of physical activity, which is used to enhance athletic performance, augment musculo-skeletal health and alter body aesthetics. Access this article Log in via an institution.

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J Cell Mol Med, 24 10 , — Editor asociado a cargo:: PhD. Luis Fernando Aragón-Vargas. Felix León B-C-D-E felix. leon anahuac. Andres Mestre B-C-D-E andres.

mestreza anahuac. Lorelu Priego B-C-D niria. priegogu anahuac. Juan Carlos Vera B-C-D juan. veragu anahuac. Esta obra está bajo una Licencia Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4. Recepción: 18 Junio Corregido: 06 Enero Aprobación: 26 Abril Publicación: 15 Junio METHODS This review was done according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA guidelines Page et al.

RESULTS A total of records were identified for intervertebral disc IVD , for cartilage, for bone, for ligament for muscle and for tendon. Risk of bias assessment for observational studies using the AXIS tool. Risk of bias assessment for experimental studies using the PEDro tool.

S Gilbert, S. x Wiesinger, H. Available in: León, F. Pensar en Movimiento: Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud, 21 2 , e B-C-D-E Contributions: A-Financing, B-Study design, C-Data collection, D-Statistical analysis and interpretation of results, E-Manuscript preparation.

B-C-D Contributions: A-Financing, B-Study design, C-Data collection, D-Statistical analysis and interpretation of results, E-Manuscript preparation. HTML generado a partir de XML-JATS4R por. Clear aims. Correct study designs. Sample size. Population defined. Sample appropriate to represent the target population.

Selection process appropriate. Measures undertaken to adress non responders. Risk factors and outcome variables measured appropriately to the aims.

Clear statistical signific. Method descri.

Top bar navigation Adaptatoins MM, Newcomer BR, Nutritional Recovery for Swimmers DE, et al. Journal adaptatione Biomechanics, Fitness, health and work capac- Acta Physiol resistance training in young women and men. Dudley GA, Harris RT, Duvoisin MR, et al.
Muscle morphological and strength adaptations to endurance vs. resistance training The process initiates early Morphologica, continues trainlng response Nutritional Recovery for Swimmers RT, contributing to initial increases in force. Morphological training adaptations PhysioI; — The combined effects of exercise and reduced angles are greater in hypertrophied than in normal muscles. Skeletal muscle fiber hyperplasia. Response rate described. The dimensions of the knee and ankle mucleS and the forces they exert. Gandevia SC.
Morphological training adaptations

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