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Muscle mass preservation

Muscle mass preservation

Article CAS Google Scholar Muscle mass preservation DK, Muscls E, Baum JI, Preservatin Muscle mass preservation, Erickson DJ, Boileau RA: Dietary protein and exercise have Fiber optic internet provider effects on body composition during weight loss in adult women. Sign up now and get a FREE copy of the Best Diets for Cognitive Fitness. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: Report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Cole AJ, Kuchnia AJ, Beckman LM, et al. Muscle mass preservation

Muscle mass preservation -

In particular, the improved heterogeneity in the subgroup analysis for the proportion of men showed a sex influence on HGS change, which requires further investigation of sex-specific data. Second, meta-analyses of strength measurements other than HGS were not possible, although weight-bearing muscles such as the back, pelvis, and lower extremities may reveal distinct outcomes.

HGS was the most commonly used assessment tool in our systematic review of research assessing strength after bariatric metabolic surgery. Alternative methods were used infrequently, making it difficult to conduct their pooled analysis.

Moreover, HGS is a valid surrogate for strength in other body parts, and the EWGSOP diagnostic algorithm for sarcopenia recommends it as an initial work-up [ 9 , 10 , 11 ].

The HGS appears to be the most pragmatic and generalizable tool for quantifying muscle strength after undergoing bariatric metabolic surgery; however, additional research is required to determine the most reliable measure.

Third, the results might have been influenced by the exclusion of certain data owing to insufficient information, such as the HGS value in the study by Stegen et al.

Fourth, the change in LM, which we used as a proxy for muscle mass, only partially reflected the change in muscle mass as LM comprises organ and water content as well as muscle [ 3 ].

Finally, the studies included in the analysis were limited to non-Hispanic white or Hispanic populations, compromising the generalizability to any ethnicity. Despite these limitations, we demonstrated that HGS was preserved while BMI, LM, and FM were reduced after bariatric metabolic surgery, thus refuting traditional doubts about postoperative sarcopenia.

As muscle strength is recommended as the primary test to diagnose sarcopenia, generalization of perioperative strength measurements should be considered. Specifically, HGS is affordable, accessible, and has the most cumulative evidence in patients who have undergone bariatric metabolic surgery.

Future research on the long-term effects of bariatric metabolic surgery on strength, muscle quality, and metabolic benefits associated with strength maintenance would facilitate the standardized assessment of perioperative strength in clinical practice.

Muscle strength, as represented by HGS, was unaffected by bariatric metabolic surgery, which lowered LM and other body composition indices. Nowadays, strength is considered more clinically significant than muscular mass; however, there is a lack of sufficient data on changes in strength following bariatric metabolic surgery.

In this context, our results underscore the safety of bariatric metabolic surgery in preserving muscle function.

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Functional evaluation in obese patients before and after sleeve gastrectomy. Gallart-Aragón T, Fernández-Lao C, Castro-Martín E, Cantarero-Villanueva I, Cózar-Ibáñez A, Arroyo-Morales M. Health-related fitness improvements in morbid obese patients after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a cohort study.

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Continued loss in visceral and intermuscular adipose tissue in weight-stable women following bariatric surgery. Kern PA, Simsolo RB, Fournier M. Effect of weight loss on muscle fiber type, fiber size, capillarity, and succinate dehydrogenase activity in humans.

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Download references. The authors thank the Asan Medical Library University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea for providing the search terms for the systematic review and Editage www.

kr for the English language review. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, 22, Gwanpyeong-Ro Beon-Gil, Dongan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, , Republic of Korea.

Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-Ro Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, , Republic of Korea. Asan Diabetes Center, Asan Medical Center, 88, Olympic-Ro Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, , Republic of Korea. Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-Ro Gil, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, , Republic of Korea.

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et al. Preserved Muscle Strength Despite Muscle Mass Loss After Bariatric Metabolic Surgery: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. OBES SURG 33 , — Download citation. Received : 15 May Revised : 16 August Accepted : 18 August Published : 20 September Issue Date : November Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

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Download PDF. Abstract Background Contrary to the previously known concept of muscle mass decrease following bariatric metabolic surgery, changes in muscle strength have been poorly investigated in systematic reviews. Methods A systematic literature review using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases was conducted in November Results Three randomized controlled trials and seven prospective cohort studies involving patients were included.

Conclusion Despite the decreased body composition parameters, including muscle mass, strength was not impaired after bariatric metabolic surgery; this indicates that bariatric metabolic surgery is an effective weight management intervention that does not compromise strength.

Graphical Abstract. No Time to Lift? Designing Time-Efficient Training Programs for Strength and Hypertrophy: A Narrative Review Article Open access 14 June International Exercise Recommendations in Older Adults ICFSR : Expert Consensus Guidelines Article Open access 30 July Use our pre-submission checklist Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

Introduction Bariatric metabolic surgery is a well-established weight management method with robust evidence of safety and efficacy for profound reduction in weight and associated medical problems [ 1 , 2 ].

Methods Search Strategy and Study Selection The literature search approach was based on the population, intervention, comparison, and outcome protocol. Data Extraction and Quality Assessment The primary outcome was the difference in the HGS in kg before and after bariatric metabolic surgery.

Statistical Analysis Pooled estimates of the changes in HGS, BMI, LM, and FM after bariatric metabolic surgery were analyzed. Results Study Selection Of the citations obtained during the literature search, 10 studies involving patients who underwent bariatric metabolic surgery were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis Fig.

Study selection flowchart. HGS, handgrip strength. Full size image. Table 1 Summary of the studies included in the analysis Full size table. Discussion Despite BMI, LM, and FM decreases after bariatric metabolic surgery, HGS was unchanged in a meta-analysis of longitudinal data.

Conclusion Muscle strength, as represented by HGS, was unaffected by bariatric metabolic surgery, which lowered LM and other body composition indices. Data Availability All data analyzed during this study are included in this published article.

References Arterburn DE, Telem DA, Kushner RF, Courcoulas AP. Article PubMed Google Scholar Colquitt JL, Pickett K, Loveman E, Frampton GK. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Nuijten MAH, Eijsvogels TMH, Monpellier VM, Janssen IMC, Hazebroek EJ, Hopman MTE.

Article PubMed Google Scholar Haghighat N, Ashtary-Larky D, Bagheri R, et al. Glycolytic cells and tissues e. However, glycolysis in these tissues leads to the release of lactate that is returned to the liver and then reconverted into glucose the Cori cycle.

Energy for this process comes from the increased oxidation of fatty acids in the liver. Thus, glycolytic tissues indirectly also run on energy derived from the fat stores. The hormonal changes associated with a VLCARB include a reduction in the circulating levels of insulin along with increased levels of glucagon.

Insulin has many actions, the most well-known of which is stimulation of glucose and amino acid uptake from the blood to various tissues. This is coupled with stimulation of anabolic processes such as protein, glycogen and fat synthesis. Glucagon has opposing effects, causing the release of glucose from glycogen and stimulation of gluconeogenesis and fat mobilization.

Thus, the net stimulus would seem to be for increasing muscle protein breakdown. However, a number of studies indicate that a VLCARB results in body composition changes that favour loss of fat mass and preservation in muscle mass.

To my knowledge, Benoit et al. published the first systematic study of the effect of a VLCARB on composition of weight loss [ 2 ].

As pointed out by Grande [ 11 ], however, the energy value of tissue loss reported by Benoit et al. In a study by Yang and Van Itallie [ 20 ], effects of starvation, an kcal mixed diet and an kcal VLCARB on the composition of weight lost were determined in each of six obese subjects during three day periods.

The results indicated that composition of weight lost during the VLCARB and the mixed diet was water Thus, the authors concluded that, over a day period, the energy value of body constituents lost during adherence to an kcal is minimally affected by diet composition.

Because of metabolic adaptations to prolonged changes in diet composition, the results of such short-term studies cannot be applied to longer-term situations. Young et al. After nine weeks on the g, g and g carbohydrate diets, weight loss was Importantly, underwater weighing was used to determine body composition.

Although these results should be interpreted cautiously given the low number of subjects, this study strongly suggests that a VLCARB promotes fat loss while preserving muscle mass, supporting the notion that "a calorie is not a calorie" [ 23 — 25 ].

Phinney et al. reported that subjects lost 0. Thus, they observed a reduction in glycogen stores, but excellent preservation of muscle protein. More recently, Willi et al.

examined the efficacy and metabolic impact of a VLCARB in the treatment of morbidly obese adolescents [ 4 ]. Six adolescents weighing an average of The results indicated that the weight loss with VLCARB is rapid, consistent, and almost exclusively from body fat stores.

Changes in lean body mass, as estimated from DEXA and urinary creatinine, were not significant over the term of treatment.

Bioelectrical impedance measurements reflected a greater loss of lean body mass, but changes in total body fluid and electrolyte content, as a result of dietary ketosis, may complicate these measurements.

Volek et al. investigated the effects of a six-week VLCARB on body composition in healthy normal-weight men [ 5 ]. Although subjects were encouraged to consume adequate dietary energy to maintain body mass during the intervention, the results revealed that fat mass was significantly decreased There were no significant changes in composition in the control group.

The authors concluded that a VLCARB resulted in a significant reduction in fat mass and an accompanying increase in lean body mass in normal-weight men. In other words, the entire loss in bodyweight was from body fat.

A subsequent study by Volek et al. Vazquez and Adibi reported that proteolysis, as measured by leucine turnover rate and urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine, was not significantly different between isocaloric VLCARB and non-ketogenic diet [ 17 ]. However, this study is not relevant to "normal" weight loss diets, because their subjects consumed only kcal and 8 g of nitrogen per day.

Such a semi-starvation diet will lead to increased muscle protein catabolism no matter what the subjects eat. The perception that the VLCARB leads to progressive loss of muscle protein apparently comes from the poorly controlled "Turkey Study" published in the New England Journal of Medicine in [ 12 ].

The authors of this study reported that the protein-only diet subjects were losing nitrogen yet gaining potassium. As pointed out by Phinney [ 13 , 14 ], however, potassium and nitrogen losses are closely related, as they are both contained in lean tissue.

This anomaly occurred because the authors assumed the potassium intake of their subjects was based upon handbook values for raw turkey, but half of this potassium was being discarded in the unconsumed broth.

Deprived of potassium, these subjects were unable to benefit from dietary protein and thus lost muscle mass [ 14 ]. The increase in adrenaline may be involved.

Low blood sugar is a potent stimulus to adrenaline secretion and it is now clear that skeletal muscle protein mass is also regulated by adrenergic influences.

For example, Kadowaki et al. demonstrated that adrenaline directly inhibits proteolysis of skeletal muscle [ 6 ]. As noted above, the liver produces ketone bodies during a VLCARB and they flow from the liver to extra-hepatic tissues e.

In addition, ketone bodies exert a restraining influence on muscle protein breakdown. If the muscle is plentifully supplied with other substrates for oxidation such as fatty acids and ketone bodies, in this case , then the oxidation of muscle protein-derived amino acids is suppressed.

Nair et al. reported that beta-hydroxybutyrate beta-OHB, a major ketone body decreases leucine oxidation and promotes protein synthesis in humans [ 7 ]. GH has a major role in regulating growth and development. GH is a protein anabolic hormone and it stimulates muscle protein synthesis.

As low blood sugar increases GH secretions, one could speculate that a VLCARB increases GH levels. However, Harber et al. Interestingly, they also observed that skeletal muscle expression of IGF-I mRNA increased about 2-fold.

A plausible explanation for the increased expression of IGF-I in muscle is the increased availability of dietary protein. A VLCARB is almost always relatively high in protein. There is evidence that high protein intake increases protein synthesis by increasing systemic amino acid availability [ 21 ], which is a potent stimulus of muscle protein synthesis [ 22 ].

During weight loss, higher protein intake reduces loss of muscle mass and increases loss of body fat [ 9 ]. It has been proposed that the branched-chain amino acid leucine interacts with the insulin signaling pathway to stimulate downstream control of protein synthesis, resulting in maintenance of muscle mass during periods of restricted energy intake [ 10 ].

A recent study by Harber et al. Although more long-term studies are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn, it appears, from most literature studied, that a VLCARB is, if anything, protective against muscle protein catabolism during energy restriction, provided that it contains adequate amounts of protein.

Nutr Metab Lond. Article Google Scholar. Benoit FL, Martin RL, Watten RH: Changes in body composition during weight reduction in obesity.

Balance studies comparing effects of fasting and a ketogenic diet. Ann Intern Med. Article CAS Google Scholar. Young CM, Scanlan SS, Im HS, Lutwak L: Effect of body composition and other parameters in obese young men of carbohydrate level of reduction diet.

Am J Clin Nutr. CAS Google Scholar. Willi SM, Oexmann MJ, Wright NM, Collop NA, Key LL: The effects of a high-protein, low-fat, ketogenic diet on adolescents with morbid obesity: body composition, blood chemistries, and sleep abnormalities.

Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Love DM, Avery NG, Gomez AL, Scheett TP, Kraemer WJ: Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet. Kadowaki M, Kamata T, Noguchi T: Acute effect of epinephrine on muscle proteolysis in perfused rat hindquarters. Am J Physiol.

Nair KS, Welle SL, Halliday D, Cambell RG: Effect of β-hydroxybutyrate on whole-body leucine kinetics and fractional mixed skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humans. J Clin Invest. Harber MP, Schenk S, Barkan AL, Horowitz JF: Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction with high protein intake on protein metabolism and the somatotropic axis.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Layman DK, Evans E, Baum JI, Seyler J, Erickson DJ, Boileau RA: Dietary protein and exercise have additive effects on body composition during weight loss in adult women.

J Nutr. Layman DK, Walker DA: Potential importance of leucine in treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Grande F: Energy balance and body composition changes. A critical study of the three recent publications. DeHaven J, Sherwin R, Hendler R, Felig P: Nitrogen and sodium balance and sympathetic nervous system activity in obese subjects treated with a low-calorie or mixed diet.

New Engl J Med. Phinney SD: Low-calorie protein versus mixed diet.

Thank you for visiting nature. You are ppreservation a Mudcle Muscle mass preservation with limited support for CSS. To obtain uMscle best Safflower oil benefits, we recommend you use a Muscle mass preservation up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Dietary-induced weight loss is generally accompanied by a decline in skeletal muscle mass. The loss of muscle mass leads to a decline in muscle strength and impairs physical performance. Weight loss is the cornerstone Muscle mass preservation therapy Musvle people with obesity Peppermint shampoo it can Muscle mass preservation ,ass completely mxss the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary Mkscle disease, and obesity-associated preserbation. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight Preswrvation are thought to Muwcle compromised by the weight-loss-associated loss of lean body mass, which Muscle mass preservation increase the ;reservation of sarcopenia Glucose control muscle mass preservahion impaired muscle function. Muscle mass preservation objective of this review Muscle mass preservation to preservatio an overview of what is Mucsle about weight-loss-induced preervation loss and its implications for overall physical function e. The currently available data in the literature show the following: 1 compared with persons with normal weight, those with obesity have more muscle mass but poor muscle quality; 2 diet-induced weight loss reduces muscle mass without adversely affecting muscle strength; 3 weight loss improves global physical function, most likely because of reduced fat mass; 4 high protein intake helps preserve lean body and muscle mass during weight loss but does not improve muscle strength and could have adverse effects on metabolic function; 5 both endurance- and resistance-type exercise help preserve muscle mass during weight loss, and resistance-type exercise also improves muscle strength. We therefore conclude that weight-loss therapy, including a hypocaloric diet with adequate but not excessive protein intake and increased physical activity particularly resistance-type exerciseshould be promoted to maintain muscle mass and improve muscle strength and physical function in persons with obesity. Keywords: dynapenia; lifestyle therapy; muscle quality; sarcopenia; weight loss.

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