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Carbohydrate metabolism and insulin resistance

Carbohydrate metabolism and insulin resistance

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Carbohydrate metabolism and insulin resistance -

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Molecular and metabolic mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction in diabetes. Life Sci. Download references. VO, SN, OE, CA and FZ conducted a review of the literature and contributed to conception and design and wrote the first draft the review; CS contributed to conception and design of the article and critically reviewed the drafts of the manuscript.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. This study was supported by Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico FONDECYT , Lions Medical Research Foundation Australia , and Diabetes Australia. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Faculty of Biological Sciences, Pharmacology Department, University of Concepcion, Concepción, Chile. Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology, University of Concepcion, Concepción, Chile. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ochsner Baptist Hospital, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Carlos Salomon. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Reprints and permissions. Ormazabal, V. et al. Association between insulin resistance and the development of cardiovascular disease.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 17 , Download citation. Received : 22 May Accepted : 20 August Published : 31 August Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative.

Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Review Open access Published: 31 August Association between insulin resistance and the development of cardiovascular disease Valeska Ormazabal 1 , Soumyalekshmi Nair 2 , Omar Elfeky 2 , Claudio Aguayo 3 , Carlos Salomon ORCID: orcid.

Zuñiga 3 Show authors Cardiovascular Diabetology volume 17 , Article number: Cite this article k Accesses Citations Altmetric Metrics details. Abstract For many years, cardiovascular disease CVD has been the leading cause of death around the world. Background The pathological processes and risk factors associated with CVD begin as early as during childhood [ 1 ].

Insulin signaling Insulin is a potent anabolic hormone that exerts a variety of effects on many types of cells. Full size image. Insulin resistance Insulin resistance is defined as an experimental or clinical condition in which insulin exerts a biological effect lower than expected.

Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance Insulin works on multiple processes, essentially providing an integrated set of signals that allows the correct balance between nutrient supply and demand [ 33 ]. Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease Elevated levels of LDL, smoking, elevated blood pressure and type 1 and type 2 diabetes, are well known risk factors for CVD, however, insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and inflammation can also lead to and predict adverse cardiovascular events.

Insulin resistance and dyslipidemia The dyslipidemia induced by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes diabetic dyslipidemia [ 82 ] is characterized by the lipid triad: 1 high levels of plasma triglycerides, 2 low levels of HDL, and 3 the appearance of small dense low-density lipoproteins sdLDL , as well as an excessive postprandial lipemia [ 35 , 82 , 83 , 84 ].

Insulin resistance and lipoproteins profile alterations VLDL, very low-density lipoprotein, is assembled and produced in the liver, which depends on the availability of substrates and is tightly regulated by insulin [ 91 ].

Insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction The integrity of the functional endothelium is a fundamental vascular health element. Chronic hyperglycemia in cardiovascular disease The increased CVD risk in patients with type 2 diabetes has been known for many years [ ].

Insulin resistance and changes in the cardiac metabolism The thickest layer of the heart wall is the myocardium, composed of cardiac muscle cells, thus, the knowledge provided by skeletal muscle cell physiology helps explain the cardiac metabolic function [ ].

Instead, energy is stored in cardiac muscle cells in three forms: 1. Conclusions Insulin essentially provides an integrated set of signals allowing the balance between nutrient demand and availability.

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Article PubMed CAS Google Scholar Tenenbaum A, Adler Y, Boyko V, Tenenbaum H, Fisman EZ, Tanne D, Lapidot M, Schwammenthal E, Feinberg MS, Matas Z, et al. It is a ubiquitous process, present in plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms. It is one of two primary mechanisms — the other being degradation of glycogen glycogenolysis — used by humans and many other animals to maintain blood sugar levels , avoiding low levels hypoglycemia.

In humans, substrates for gluconeogenesis may come from any non-carbohydrate sources that can be converted to pyruvate or intermediates of glycolysis see figure. For the breakdown of proteins , these substrates include glucogenic amino acids although not ketogenic amino acids ; from breakdown of lipids such as triglycerides , they include glycerol , odd-chain fatty acids although not even-chain fatty acids, see below ; and from other parts of metabolism they include lactate from the Cori cycle.

Under conditions of prolonged fasting, acetone derived from ketone bodies can also serve as a substrate, providing a pathway from fatty acids to glucose. The gluconeogenesis pathway is highly endergonic until it is coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP or guanosine triphosphate GTP , effectively making the process exergonic.

For example, the pathway leading from pyruvate to glucosephosphate requires 4 molecules of ATP and 2 molecules of GTP to proceed spontaneously. These ATPs are supplied from fatty acid catabolism via beta oxidation.

Glycogenolysis refers to the breakdown of glycogen. Glucosephosphate can then progress through glycolysis. Glucagon in the liver stimulates glycogenolysis when the blood glucose is lowered, known as hypoglycemia.

Adrenaline stimulates the breakdown of glycogen in the skeletal muscle during exercise. Glycogenesis refers to the process of synthesizing glycogen. The pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative method of oxidizing glucose. Fructose must undergo certain extra steps in order to enter the glycolysis pathway.

Lactose, or milk sugar, consists of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose. Many steps of carbohydrate metabolism allow the cells to access energy and store it more transiently in ATP.

Typically, the complete breakdown of one molecule of glucose by aerobic respiration i. involving glycolysis, the citric-acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation , the last providing the most energy is usually about 30—32 molecules of ATP.

Hormones released from the pancreas regulate the overall metabolism of glucose. The level of circulatory glucose known informally as "blood sugar" , as well as the detection of nutrients in the Duodenum is the most important factor determining the amount of glucagon or insulin produced.

The release of glucagon is precipitated by low levels of blood glucose, whereas high levels of blood glucose stimulates cells to produce insulin. Because the level of circulatory glucose is largely determined by the intake of dietary carbohydrates, diet controls major aspects of metabolism via insulin.

Regardless of insulin levels, no glucose is released to the blood from internal glycogen stores from muscle cells. Carbohydrates are typically stored as long polymers of glucose molecules with glycosidic bonds for structural support e.

chitin , cellulose or for energy storage e. glycogen , starch. However, the strong affinity of most carbohydrates for water makes storage of large quantities of carbohydrates inefficient due to the large molecular weight of the solvated water-carbohydrate complex.

In most organisms, excess carbohydrates are regularly catabolised to form acetyl-CoA , which is a feed stock for the fatty acid synthesis pathway; fatty acids , triglycerides , and other lipids are commonly used for long-term energy storage.

The hydrophobic character of lipids makes them a much more compact form of energy storage than hydrophilic carbohydrates.

Gluconeogenesis permits glucose to be synthesized from various sources, including lipids. In some animals such as termites [20] and some microorganisms such as protists and bacteria , cellulose can be disassembled during digestion and absorbed as glucose. Contents move to sidebar hide.

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Metabolic pathway Metabolic network Primary nutritional groups. Purine metabolism Nucleotide salvage Pyrimidine metabolism Purine nucleotide cycle. Pentose phosphate pathway Fructolysis Polyol pathway Galactolysis Leloir pathway. Glycosylation N-linked O-linked. Photosynthesis Anoxygenic photosynthesis Chemosynthesis Carbon fixation DeLey-Doudoroff pathway Entner-Doudoroff pathway.

Xylose metabolism Radiotrophism. Fatty acid degradation Beta oxidation Fatty acid synthesis. Steroid metabolism Sphingolipid metabolism Eicosanoid metabolism Ketosis Reverse cholesterol transport.

Metal metabolism Iron metabolism Ethanol metabolism Phospagen system ATP-PCr. Metabolism map. Carbon fixation. Photo- respiration. Pentose phosphate pathway. Citric acid cycle. Glyoxylate cycle. Urea cycle. Fatty acid synthesis.

ECE Waist-to-hip ratio and skin health Presentations Diabetes, Obesity, Metabolism and Nutrition abstracts. Bukovinian State Medical University, Ressistance Immunology, Carbohyddrate and Carbhoydrate, Chernivtsi, Ukraine. Background: Chronic metaboism CP is a wnd kidney Carbohydrate metabolism and insulin resistance Lycopene and aging in patients with diabetes mellitus and one of the main reasons of chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients. The objective: Of the study was to determine the features of the carbohydrate metabolism and insulin resistance in patients with CP depending on the phenotype of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults LADA. Methods: 28 patients with LADA and CP were examined, as well as 25 representatives of the control group. RUTH D. PETERSON, CLARISSA H. Insulin increased Assessing water composition glycogen levels resiwtance incubation in Carbohydrate metabolism and insulin resistance but not in fiber groups. The insklin effect of glucagon on glucose uptake and lactate production was probably due to a trace of insulin in the glucagon. With adductor muscle, lactate production rose and pyruvate production fell, following operation, while no changes were observed with diaphragm muscle. Carbohydrate metabolism and insulin resistance

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