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Satiety and portion sizes

Satiety and portion sizes

Over the short-term, Satiety and portion sizes systems are influenced by the sizse of food Satiey change in response to ED manipulations, including taste, texture, food form, and Dizes volume consumed. Olstad DL, Goonewardene LA, McCargar LJ, Raine KD. The effects of a controlled worksite environmental intervention on determinants of dietary behavior and self-reported fruit, vegetable and fat intake. AU - Rolls, B. Article Google Scholar Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS. Obviously, colleges and universities provide also services and employment for a large number of employees.


Explaining higher-satiety eating

Satiety and portion sizes -

From a scalability and public health point of view, it is clear that confirmation by real-life setting trials is needed. To our knowledge, only one US study reduced the portion size of a calorie-dense food product i. French fries served in an on-campus university restaurant, presented in plain paper bags [ 33 ].

In the latter study, consumers consisted primarily of US freshmen while dietary intake, and thus also dietary compensational effects during the rest of the day were not assessed. In the laboratory experiment by Rolls et al. Such possible adjustments were also checked in a study by Jeffery et al.

However, this study was conducted in an overweight population in a laboratory setting [ 36 ]. In summary, no real-life experimental studies including portion size modification assessed level of satiety and dietary compensational behaviour during the hours immediately after consumption.

Since European research about portion size reduction is limited and US results cannot be extrapolated due to the different eating habits between both continents [ 37 , 38 , 39 ], more European studies are desirable.

Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a French fries portion size reduction on French fries consumption and plate waste among university students and employees in a Belgian on-campus university restaurant setting.

Secondly, we aimed to investigate the effect of the intervention on level of satiety and caloric intake during the afternoon. The study was conducted in the on-campus restaurant of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel Brussels, Belgium.

The restaurant operates by a free-flow system which gives consumers the ability to choose daily between six different types of menus i.

Consumers are free to choose a starchy side dish French fries, mashed potatoes, boiled potatoes, or rice when choosing one of the first four menus. Next to the main dish, a typical menu consists of soup of the day and a dessert i.

French fries were chosen as the food of interest for the current study because it is high in calories, frequently chosen by students and employees, and relatively easy to manipulate in terms of portion sizes. Participants were university students and employees consuming one of the above mentioned menus as lunch at the on-campus restaurant during the experimental period.

The on-campus restaurant is open on weekdays Monday—Friday from a. till p. and only serves lunch meals. Approximately to meals are served every day in the on-campus restaurant and all students and employees visiting the free-flow system of the on-campus restaurant were exposed to the experiment.

The study consisted of a real-life experiment during which French fries consumption and French fries plate waste were measured in consumers during baseline week and consumers during intervention week. Dietary intake was measured by means of a 4-h dietary recall.

Dietary recall has been validated against a 4-day food record and provides a good overall ranking of intake [ 40 ]. These assessments were performed during both the pre-intervention and intervention week. Post intervention, students and employees who consumed French fries during the intervention week were asked about their perception of the portion size reduction in a post-intervention week.

Figure 1 represents how the experiment was conducted. This study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the university hospital Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium, B.

The experimental study took place over a two times i. baseline and intervention week 4-day period Tuesday—Friday during the opening hours of the on-campus restaurant a. to p. The course of the intervention was visually presented by Fig.

During the first i. baseline week, baseline data were collected of French fries consumption by registering the amount of portions of French fries served in the usual porcelain bowls purchased, the amount of French fries produced, and by weighing the wasted amount of French fries.

Further, level of satiety shortly after completing lunch and caloric intake of the lunch were assessed using face-to-face interviews in a conveniently chosen group of students and employees immediately after having completed their lunch meal.

Four hours after finishing these face-to-face interviews between 4 and 6 p. The second and third week were used as intermediate weeks during which no manipulations or assessments were carried out. This was due to the Easter holiday, during which the on-campus restaurant was less visited by students and employees.

During the fourth i. intervention week, French fries portion sizes were reduced by replacing the usual porcelain bowl containing approximately g of French fries by smaller volume paper bags containing approximately g French fries Fig.

Similar to the baseline week, French fries consumption, the amount of French fries produced and French fries plate waste were measured. Using telephone interviews, level of satiety and caloric intake were again assessed twice right after lunch, and 4 h later in the same subgroup of students and employees as in the baseline week.

Because not everyone ate in the on-campus restaurant again, a part of this subgroup dropped out. At the end of the intervention week, two groups French fries consumers and non-French fries consumers were formed based on the side dish choice of the consumers. To avoid meal bias i. some main dishes are more likely to go with French fries on the side than others , the same menus were provided during both baseline and intervention week.

In a fifth and last week post intervention all interviewed French fries consumers during the intervention week were asked about their perception of the portion size reduction. Four to six observers registered whether or not French fries were chosen and if the menu was purchased by a student or employee.

Two student assistants in the tray return area separated all un-eaten French fries from the total plate waste by throwing these into a separate bin. French fries waste was then determined by weighing the un-eaten French fries after restaurant closing-time.

In the face-to-face interviews level of satiety was assessed shortly after completing their meal in the on-campus restaurant by means of the Satiety Labelled Intensity Magnitude SLIM scale. Intermediate verbal labels were placed at the appropriate distance along the top and bottom of the scale in accordance with their transformed magnitude estimates [ 41 ].

During the interviews, consumers indicated which label of the SLIM scale best suited to their level of satiety. The labels were then converted to their respective scores as described by Cardello et al. Furthermore, consumers were asked about which meal and starchy side dish they had chosen, which dessert, whether or not they had chosen for soup and their choice of beverage.

All food items consumed next to the lunch were reported as well. Leftovers were estimated in quantities in proportion to the normal portion served per container e. Additionally, socioeconomic status assessed for employees only , sex, age and cell phone number to be able to re-contact the consumers later in the afternoon were assessed.

Between 4 and 6 p. on the same day the interviewees were re-contacted by telephone and asked again to indicate their level of satiety by discussing the SLIM scale orally. This was done by questioning what and how much specifically they had eaten or drunk.

Additionally, physical activity was questioned. This was done by asking the consumers to report the type and duration of any physical activity done between lunch and the moment of the phone call and whether or not they had sweated during this activity.

Every consumer was phoned a maximum of three times on different times during this 2-h period before they were deemed to have dropped out. During the intervention week the same measurements were conducted in the same subgroup of students and employees, only if they again consumed a meal at the restaurant.

A difference with the baseline week was that both interviews i. directly after lunch and during the late afternoon were conducted by telephone to be sure to include the same consumers as during baseline week. The time of ending the meal of the pre-intervention week was taken into account for the interviews directly after lunch in the intervention week.

Again, everyone was phoned a maximum of three times on different times. Only students and employees visiting the on-campus restaurant during both the baseline and intervention week were eligible to be allocated to the experimental or control group.

The experimental group was formed by students and employees choosing French fries along with the same main dish on the same day of both weeks. In contrast, the control group consisted of students and employees choosing the same side dish different from French fries along with the same main dish on the same day of both weeks.

Students and employees who chose a different main or side dish during the intervention week compared to the control week were excluded. During the fifth i. post-intervention week, all consumers of the experimental group were re-contacted by telephone.

Consumers were asked whether or not they had noticed the reduced French fries portion size during the intervention week. If so, they were also asked to estimate the extent of alteration in portion size. Finally, participants were asked if the smaller portion was sufficient and whether or not a portion size reduction could be permanently implemented in the on-campus restaurant.

During the preparation phase of the experiment the difference between fried and deep-frozen French fries was measured in order to be able to calculate how many kilograms of fried French fries came out of the deep-frozen French fries.

French fries were fried for 3 min in vegetable oil Vandemoortele® Risso Chef , consisting of palm oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and corn oil, at a temperature of °C.

Total French fries consumption in kg was calculated by subtracting the total plate waste in kg from the total amount produced i. Consumption per consumer was calculated by dividing the total French fries consumption by the number of French fries consumers.

A similar calculation was done to determine portion waste. By dividing total French fries consumed per portion by the amount produced per portion, the ratio of consumed French fries per portion was calculated.

A similar calculation was done to determine the ratio of waste per portion. R version 3. Since the proportions of French fries and plate waste were used as the outcome measures, a binomial test for one proportion performed in R was used to analyse differences in French fries consumption and plate waste between the baseline and intervention week.

The same test was used to analyse whether or not the amount of consumers differed between the baseline and intervention week. Drop-out analyses for the subgroup interviews were conducted using independent samples t-tests for baseline age and BMI and chi2 for sex.

Repeated measures ANOVA mixed design was used to analyze differences in satiety and caloric intake between the baseline and intervention week in both the French fries consumers i.

experimental group and the non-French fries consumers i. control group. Furthermore, partial eta squared partial η 2 was calculated and reported as an estimate of effect size. Observed power 1-ß was calculated as well. Finally, data i.

quotes representing reasons why they would or would not agree with a permanent smaller portion were examined for recurrent instances and grouped together into similar categories.

A total of consumers were registered during the baseline week and during the intervention week. Of these consumers, i. Figure 3 shows the respective differences in French fries consumption and French fries plate waste between the baseline and intervention week. An overview of the effect of the portion size reduction on total French fries produced, consumed and wasted and the values for the individual portions can be found in Table 1.

During the baseline week, consumers ate on average Thus, although the absolute amount of French fries eaten was smaller in the intervention week, the proportion of the available portion eaten was greater. Table 2 gives an overview of the demographics and characteristics of the consumers which were interviewed face-to-face during the baseline week immediately after completing their lunch at the on-campus restaurant.

Figure 4 shows a flow chart of these subgroup interviews, together with drop-out reasons and shows that the final sample consisted of 66 participants Consequently, 33 consumers were excluded for further analyses.

Table 3 shows the effect of the reduced French fries portion size on satiety and caloric intake during the afternoon. Because three participants could not be reached, 28 French fries consumers were interviewed about their perception of the portion size reduction.

Commonly mentioned reasons for disagreeing were the absence of price adjustments i. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a French fries portion size reduction on French fries consumption and French fries plate waste among university students and employees in a Belgian on-campus restaurant setting.

Secondly, this study aimed to investigate the effect of the intervention on satiety and caloric intake during the subsequent afternoon. Results showed that decreasing portion size was effective in reducing French fries consumption and French fries plate waste.

A decrease of Furthermore, level of satiety did not change when a smaller portion was served and consumers did not calorically compensate during the subsequent afternoon.

Our results are in line with other studies showing that portion size reduction can positively affect food intake. Although, compared to the study of Freedman et al. However, it is important to mention that even a 9. On the other hand, reduction in French fries plate waste can be positive for the sustainability of the planet, since reducing food waste also reduces emissions of greenhouse gases [ 25 ].

Yet, it has to be mentioned that the use of paper bags in this intervention was not environmental friendly. When installing a permanent reduced portion, one should look for more sustainable alternatives. The fact that the level of satiety of the French fries consumers in our study did not differ between the baseline and intervention week is in accordance with the study by Rolls et al.

Also the absence of compensation at subsequent consumption after a portion size reduction is in line with previous research. Lewis et al. It should be mentioned, however, that the study of Lewis et al.

Further, Jeffery et al. It should be mentioned, however, that it is very important to interpret our findings with caution since the low statistical power observed. The results of the assessment of satiety and dietary intake can be false-negatives, since the great chance of type II errors.

However, the observed effect sizes were very low too. This difference could be due to the change of container between baseline and intervention week in our study, or due to the fact that the interviews made the consumers more aware of the portion size intervention.

A strength of the present study is that we used a real-life setting which maximises the external validity of the intervention. Secondly, we anticipated that consumers would feel that certain main dishes matched better with French fries than with rice or mashed potatoes.

Therefore, we excluded meal bias by providing the same menus during the baseline and intervention week. Furthermore, to counter testing bias, we did not communicate about the content and the duration of the portion size experiment.

But our results showed that there was no difference in the amount of French fries portions sold per capita between the baseline and the intervention week. Finally, we checked for compensation effects during the subsequent afternoon.

Although some studies already showed that there were no compensational effects seen after a portion size increase [ 35 ] or decrease [ 36 ], our study was, to our knowledge, the first real-life experimental study taking caloric intake throughout the subsequent afternoon into account when reducing portion size.

The first and possibly most important limitation of this study was the focus on consumption and plate waste of French fries and not on other food groups. Measuring plate waste of the whole lunch could have given us insights in the compensational behaviour of consumers during lunch, i.

it may be that participants consumed more of the other food items of the chosen lunch when reducing French fries portion. Unfortunately, it was practically impossible to measure plate waste of the whole lunch because of the difficulty of separating the wastes of every food product for French fries vs.

non-French fries consumers. Secondly, although the present study found no compensational effects during the afternoon, participants may have compensated for the reduction in portion size by eating more during dinner.

Therefore, it may be interesting to include this in future studies. But these highly processed carbohydrates have exceptionally low satiety value see sidebar on the next page and adversely affect metabolism. New research suggests that the type of calories consumed may also affect the number of calories burned.

With a reduction in processed carbohydrates, metabolism may run faster, helping to maintain a healthy weight without needing to restrict calorie intake as severely. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee found that fat in the diet, despite its high calorie content, does not uniquely lead to weight gain, and that some high-fat foods are highly protective against diabetes and other chronic diseases.

Increasing the portion size and serving frequency of minimally processed carbohydrates vegetables, fruits, legumes and healthful fats nuts, avocados, oil-based salad dressings , will displace less healthful foods, improve diet quality, and protect against chronic disease.

In addition, high-quality plant-based proteins nuts, legumes, soy products and seafood have a special role in promoting satiety and balancing the metabolic effects of carbohydrates.

Conversely, increasing the portion size of refined starchy foods e. The restaurant and foodservice sectors account for more than 30 percent of all calories sold in the U. While the packaged food and beverage industries have been working to reduce portion sizes and calorie counts thanks to consumer and legislative pressure, restaurant operators still have much to do to reduce calories and increase calorie quality in menu offerings.

The calorie menu labeling legislation that went into effect in May has encouraged many operators to reformulate dishes and reconsider portion sizes, although its impact on consumer behavior is still being measured and this legislation does not apply to a large number of smaller chains or individually owned restaurants.

Interestingly, a multi-country study published in by Tufts University researchers found that 94 percent of full-service meals and 72 percent of fast food meals across five countries, including the U.

While much of the blame for high-caloric, oversized portions is placed on fast food outlets, this research demonstrates the need for progress in strategic calorie reduction across all foodservice meals.

Innovative fast casual concepts such as Dig Inn, By Chloe, sweetgreen, Salad and Go, and others have found success in building convenient, healthier, high-quality alternatives into their DNA from inception, forcing legacy brands to introduce similar innovations into their menus.

The restaurant industry is starting to shift away from an older paradigm of big portions of varying quality food, and has learned the hard way that only reducing calories, without enhancing the quality of the calories that remain, is a strategy destined to fail in terms of health and sustainability.

Flavor and aesthetics are two key tools that chefs can use to move diners toward healthier habits when it comes to righting portion size and balancing the right kind of calories. Chefs can hesitate to reduce portion sizes because customers often then complain that the value of the meal is not good a perception of too little food for too much money.

Ensuring that the healthier components on the plate are packed with flavor will help diners feel satiated, while clever plating practices can minimize perception issues around size. It is widely accepted in modern culture that people should divide their daily diet into three large meals — breakfast, lunch, and dinner — for optimal health.

This belief primarily stems from culture and early epidemiological studies. In recent years, however, experts have begun to change their perspective, suggesting that eating smaller, more frequent meals may be best for preventing chronic disease and weight loss. As a result, more people are changing their eating patterns in favor of eating several small meals throughout the day.

While a few studies support these recommendations, others show no significant benefit. In fact, some research suggests it may be more beneficial to stick with three larger meals.

Early epidemiological studies suggest that increased meal frequency can improve blood lipid fats levels and reduce the risk of heart disease.

As a result, many experts advise against eating fewer, larger meals a day. Over the years, some studies have supported these findings, suggesting that people who report eating small, frequent meals have better cholesterol levels than those who consume fewer than three meals per day.

In particular, one cross-sectional study that compared eating fewer than three meals per day or more than four meals per day found that consuming more than four meals increases HDL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lowers fasting triglycerides more effectively. Higher levels of HDL are associated with a reduced risk of heart disease.

This study observed no differences in total cholesterol or LDL low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It is important to note, however, that this is an observational study, meaning it can only prove association, not causation.

There is a commonly held notion that more frequent meals can help influence weight loss. However, the research on this remains mixed.

For example, one study compared eating three meals per day or six smaller, more frequent meals on body fat and perceived hunger. At the end of the study, researchers observed no difference in energy expenditure and body fat loss between the two groups.

Interestingly, those who consumed six smaller meals throughout the day had increased hunger levels and desire to eat compared to those who ate three larger meals per day. Although calorie intake was controlled in both groups, researchers hypothesized that those who consumed frequent meals would be more likely to consume more daily calories than those who ate less frequently.

Results of another large observational study suggest that healthy adults may prevent long-term weight gain by:. Moreover, according to the United States Department of Agriculture USDA Scientific Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee , due to inconsistencies and limitations in the current body of evidence, there is insufficient evidence to determine the relationship between meal frequency and body composition and the risk of overweight and obesity.

Small, frequent meals are often touted as a cure-all for obesity. Many believe that eating every 2 to 3 hours can help boost metabolism.

Digestion of food does require energy. This is known as the thermic effect of food TEF. However, it does not appear that meal frequency plays a role in boosting metabolism. In fact, some studies suggest fewer, larger meals may increase TEF more than eating frequent meals.

Although evidence to support increased meal frequency in the general population remains mixed, several experts believe that eating small, frequent meals can benefit athletes. According to the International Society of Sports Nutrition , athletes who follow a reduced-calorie diet may benefit from eating small frequent meals with adequate protein because it can help preserve lean muscle mass.

When prioritizing total daily calorie intake, limited evidence suggests that, in athletes, a higher meal frequency may increase performance , support fat loss, and improve body composition. People who eat more frequently are more likely to have better diet quality.

Specifically, those who consume at least three meals per day are more likely to have a greater intake of vegetables, greens, legumes, fruit, whole grains, and dairy. These individuals are also more likely to consume less sodium and added sugars than those who consume two meals per day.

Similarly, another study published in the British Journal of Nutrition found that increased meal frequency — approximately three meals per day — is associated with higher diet quality.

Researchers found that snack frequency and diet quality varied depending on the definition of snacks. Based on the presented studies, no substantial evidence supports one eating pattern over the other.

Yet many of these studies also have limitations. For example, there is no universally accepted definition of what a meal or snack consists of.

This can have an impact on study outcomes. With that said, both eating patterns can be beneficial as long the primary focus is on healthful eating habits.

adult population can maintain significant weight loss over the an term, despite the simplicity of this Satiety and portion sizes. Surrounded portionn inexpensive, high- calorie foods ubiquitously pogtion Satiety and portion sizes large portion sizes, many people Satiety and portion sizes unable to Almond industry self-control, so they mindlessly Sstiety and gain weight. Without doubt, the portions Americans eat have increased dramatically in the last half-century. However, a focus on calories alone disregards a fundamental scientific fact demonstrated repeatedly in the research laboratory: Body weight is determined more by biology than willpower over the long term. When people cut back on calories, they will initially lose weight. But the body fights back, with rising hunger and slowing metabolism. Certainly, genetic make-up helps to explain individual differences in predisposition to obesity. Satiety and portion sizes

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