Category: Home

Obesity and weight stigma

Obesity and weight stigma

World Health Organization. Jan 06, 6 min read. Review of evidence A subgroup Onesity expert panel members F.

Obesity and weight stigma -

Specifically, weight bias may become internalized and increases throughout childhood. It then decreases and levels-off during late adolescence and adulthood. Weight-based teasing in childhood and adolescence has been associated with a variety of damages to psychosocial health, including reduced self-esteem and lower self-concept , [72] [73] higher rates of depression and anxiety disorders , [74] [75] [76] and even greater likelihood of entertaining suicidal thoughts.

A survey of 7, children aged 11 to 16 conducted by the World Health Organization reported higher rates of physical victimization e. Additionally, these results showed relational victimization i. Additionally, obese girls were more likely to be victims and perpetrators of bullying than their peers.

Notably, overweight and obese adolescent girls also reported higher rates of smoking, drinking, and marijuana use relative to their normal-weight peers. In adulthood, individuals who experience weight discrimination are more likely to identify themselves as overweight regardless of their actual weight status.

People who expect to be fat-shamed by healthcare providers are less likely to seek care for medical issues or for weight loss, even if the weight gain is caused by medical problems.

In terms of psychological health, researchers found that obese individuals demonstrated a lower sense of well-being relative to non-obese individuals if they had perceived weight stigmatization even after controlling for other demographic factors such as age and sex.

In both adults and children with obesity, several reviews of the literature have found that across a variety of studies, there is a consistent relationship between experiencing weight stigma and many negative mental and physical health outcomes. Papadopoulos and Brennan recently found that across many reviewed studies of weight loss treatment-seeking adults, [91] relationships emerged between experiencing weight stigma and both BMI and difficulty losing weight.

However the findings are somewhat mixed. They also report evidence that experiencing weight stigma is related to poor medication adherence. Among weight loss treatment-seeking adults, experiencing weight stigma might exacerbate weight- and health-related quality of life issues.

Broadly speaking, experiencing weight stigma is associated with psychological distress. There are many negative effects connected to anti-fat bias, the most prominent being that societal bias against fat is ineffective at treating obesity, and leads to long-lasting body image issues, eating disorders, suicide, and depression.

Papadopoulos's review of the literature found that across several studies, this distress can manifest in anxiety , depression , lowered self-esteem , and substance use disorders , both in weight loss treatment-seeking individuals as well as community samples.

Over the past few decades, many scholars [ who? At the local level, only one state in the US Michigan has policy in place for prohibiting weight-related employment discrimination and very few local municipalities have human rights ordinances in place to protect individuals of large body size.

For example, the Americans with Disabilities Act is one such avenue, but as Puhl et al. The existing literature largely does not support the notion that weight stigma might encourage weight loss; as cited above, experiencing weight stigma both interpersonally as well as exposure to stigmatizing media campaigns is consistently related to a lack of motivation to exercise and a propensity to overeat.

With higher representation of black people being categorized as overweight by the BMI, the social stigma of obesity disproportionately affects black people. Sociologist Sabrina Strings writes, in her book Fearing the Black Body , about the historical ways in which fatphobia emerged out of an attempt by white people to distance themselves from black people.

In , Denis Diderot published the Encyclopédie , which was the first publications to claim that black people were "fond of gluttony. It was, moreover, racially inherited. Black bodies are already stigmatized, which can result in violence when interacting with the social stigma of obesity.

In a article published in the African American Review , one author cited the killing of Eric Garner as an example of this, as some excuses for using excessive force on Garner were his size, as he was an overweight man. The findings of this publication demonstrated that there were no significant differences in weight stigma as a function of race or gender, having an overall equal representation across all racial groups analyzed.

Nonetheless, results additionally demonstrated that different racial groups had differing ways of internalizing and coping with weight and health-related stigmas, which as a result heightened health risks. Additionally, Hispanic women demonstrated to cope with weight stigma via disordered eating patterns more than black and white women.

The results of this research article highlighted the importance of needing to increase research and policy attention to addressing weight and health-related stigma as an issue regarding prevention and treatment for obesity in order to consequently decrease weight-driven inequalities in communities and differing groups, primarily focused on race and gender.

The fat acceptance social movement in the USA emerged in the s to highlight and counter social stigma and discrimination faced in a range of domains.

Besides its political role, for example in the form of anti-discrimination NGOs and activism, the fat acceptance movement also constitutes a subculture which acts as a social group for its members. The fat acceptance movement often uses the adjective "fat" as a reclaimed word.

Preferences regarding terminology and descriptions vary, however, with common disagreements revolving around which words to use e. Person-first language , which emerged from some disability advocacy groups, has the ostensible goal of treating a person independently of a trait.

However, it also has the consequence of treating that trait as "toxic" abnormality which should be "fixed" to achieve normalcy, and which due to its inherent negativity must be talked about in a special, careful way, rather than used as a simple "benign" descriptor.

This may explain why person-first language is favored more often by those working in the obesity field and therefore seeking medical "fixes" than by other groups. Advocacy groups have criticized a top-down approach whereby proponents of person-first language claim to speak for all, whereas in reality it is not the preferred terminology of many in the fat-acceptance movement.

Various studies of overweight people seeking weight loss as well as a semantics study of terminology used to describe an overweight individual concluded that using the word fat elicits a negative reaction from people already critical of obesity. Fat activist Aubrey Gordon argues that "disavowing the term fat reinforces its negative meanings.

What We Don't Talk About When We Talk About Fat , Happy Fat , Things No One Tells Fat Girls , and Fat! Likewise, The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance NAAFA was founded in , with the descriptor of the community being "fat.

Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item. Download as PDF Printable version.

In other projects. Wikimedia Commons. Type of discrimination based on weight. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Institutional Structural.

Ahmadiyya Atheism Baháʼí Faith Buddhism Catholicism Christianity post—Cold War era Falun Gong Hinduism Persecution Untouchability Islam Persecution Jehovah's Witnesses Judaism Persecution LDS or Mormon Neopaganism Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox Protestantism Rastafari Shi'ism Sufism Zoroastrianism.

Afghan African Albanian Arab Armenian Asian France South Africa United States Assyrian Azerbaijani Black people African Americans China South Africa Bengali Catalan Chechen Chinese Croat Filipino Finnish Georgian Greek Haitian Hazara Hispanic Hungarian Igbo Indian Indigenous people Australia Canada United States Iranian Irish Israeli Italian Japanese Jewish Korean Kurdish Lithuanian Malay Mexican Middle Eastern Mongolian Pakistani Palestinians Pashtun Polish Quebec Romani Romanian Russian Serb Slavic Somali Tatar Thai Turkish Ukrainian Uyghur Venezuelan Vietnamese.

Age of candidacy Blood purity Blood quantum Crime of apartheid Disabilities Catholic Jewish Gender pay gap Gender roles Gerontocracy Gerrymandering Ghetto benches Internment Jewish quota Law for Protection of the Nation MSM blood donation restrictions Nonpersons Numerus clausus as religious or racial quota One-drop rule Racial quota Racial segregation Jim Crow laws Nuremberg Laws Racial steering Redlining Same-sex marriage laws and issues prohibiting Segregation age racial religious sexual Social exclusion Sodomy law State atheism State religion Ugly law Voter suppression.

Affirmative action Anti-discrimination law Cultural assimilation Cultural pluralism Diversity training Empowerment Fat acceptance movement Feminism Fighting Discrimination Hate speech laws by country Human rights Intersex human rights LGBT rights Masculism Multiculturalism Nonviolence Racial integration Reappropriation Self-determination Social integration Toleration.

Related topics. Allophilia Amatonormativity Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Figleaf Heteronormativity Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news in the United States Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social identity threat Social model of disability Social stigma Speciesism Stereotype threat The talk White privilege.

General concepts. Obesity Epidemiology Overweight Underweight Body shape Weight gain Weight loss Gestational weight gain Diet nutrition Weight management Overnutrition Childhood obesity Epidemiology. Medical concepts. Adipose tissue Classification of obesity Genetics of obesity Metabolic syndrome Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity paradox Set point theory.

Body adiposity index Body mass index Body fat percentage Body Shape Index Corpulence index Lean body mass Relative Fat Mass Waist—hip ratio Waist-to-height ratio. Related conditions. Obesity-associated morbidity. Arteriosclerosis Atherosclerosis Fatty liver disease GERD Gynecomastia Heart disease Hypertension Obesity and cancer Osteoarthritis Prediabetes Sleep apnea Type 2 diabetes.

Management of obesity. Anti-obesity medication Bariatrics Bariatric surgery Dieting List of diets Caloric deficit Exercise outline Liposuction Obesity medicine Weight loss camp Weight loss coaching Yo-yo effect.

Social aspects. Comfort food Fast food Criticism Fat acceptance movement Fat fetishism Health at Every Size Hunger Obesity and the environment Obesity and sexuality Sedentary lifestyle Social determinants of obesity Social stigma of obesity Weight cutting Weight class.

See also: Obesity social stigma in television. Main article: Fat acceptance movement. Obesity Reviews. doi : ISSN X.

PMID S2CID Süddeutsche Zeitung. August 11, Retrieved March 8, June American Journal of Public Health. ISSN PMC BMC Public Health. Center for Disease Control. Retrieved January 17, Obesity Research.

Eating Disorders. CiteSeerX Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. International Journal of Obesity. April Journal of Pediatric Psychology. Anti-fat prejudice reduction: A review of published studies. Obesity Facts ; 3: 47— Body Weight, Perceived Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being in the United States".

Journal of Health and Social Behavior. The Social Psychology of Stigma. New York London: Guilford Press. ISBN Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook.

Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied. Medical Anthropology Quarterly. Wiley, American Anthropological Association. American Anthropology Association. New York: Creative Books.

Human Nature Hawthorne, N. New York: Emory University. Fat Studies. Int J Obes. Retrieved 16 May Developmental Psychology. The Huffington Post. Retrieved Current Obesity Reports.

StatPearls Publishing. Health Psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Body Image. Kevin March Science, the News Media, and the "Obesity Epidemic" ". Sociological Forum.

JSTOR Bloomberg View. The New York Times. The Cut. Retrieved November 20, The Fat Studies Reader. NYU Press. JSTOR j. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity. Bryn A qualitative study of classroom teachers". Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity.

Springer Science and Business Media LLC. College Teaching. People with overweight and obesity are known to be at increased risk of a range of medical complications.

In a Consensus Statement published in Nature Medicine , Francesco Rubino and colleagues call for an end to weight bias and obesity stigma and set out a pledge to help achieve this aim 1.

Weight bias and obesity stigma are rooted in the misconception that body weight is easily controlled by making changes to the diet and physical activity levels. In reality, the factors that influence body weight are complex and include genetics, epigenetics, the environment, societal factors and medications 2.

Indeed, lifestyle and behavioural interventions that involve reduced calorie intake and increased physical activity levels rarely result in long-lasting changes in body weight, owing to complex hormonal and metabolic adaptations for maintaining body weight 2.

In short, altering body weight is not as simple as eating less and moving more. Despite obesity being generally accepted as a chronic disease 3 , obesity stigma is highly prevalent and has far reaching effects 4. In their Consensus Statement, the international panel of 36 experts, including representatives from a range of institutions and organizations, such as the World Obesity Federation and the American Diabetes Association, suggest that weight bias and obesity stigma can also have much wider negative effects, informing public health policies, limiting access to appropriate treatments and influencing the direction of research.

Nature Reviews Endocrinology is proud to support the pledge and help end weight bias and obesity stigma. The Consensus Statement was developed to inform health-care professionals, policy makers and the public about the factors that have led to obesity stigma and the resulting negative effects.

The authors of the Consensus Statement recognize that body weight regulation is not something an individual can easily control. Furthermore, they condemn the use of stigmatizing language, images, attitudes, policies and weight-based discrimination wherever they occur.

Several recommendations have been included to help end obesity stigma, such as updating the curricula of health-care providers to ensure a more complete understanding of the causes of obesity and ensuring public health authority policies do not promote weight-based stigma.

The Nature Research journals have signed up to this pledge and Nature Reviews Endocrinology is proud to support the pledge and help end weight bias and obesity stigma. We pledge:. To refrain from using stereotypical language, images and narratives that unfairly and inaccurately depict individuals with overweight and obesity as lazy, gluttonous and lacking willpower or self-discipline.

To encourage and support educational initiatives aimed at eradicating weight bias through dissemination of modern-day knowledge of obesity and body-weight regulation.

To encourage and support initiatives aimed at preventing weight-based discrimination in the workplace, education and health care settings 1.

We hope that our readers will join us in supporting this pledge to end weight bias and obesity stigma, ensuring a fairer society for all. Rubino, F. et al. Joint international consensus statement for ending stigma of obesity. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Blüher, M.

Obesity: global epidemiology and pathogenesis. Article Google Scholar. Council of the Obesity Society. Obesity as a disease: the Obesity Society Council resolution. Obesity Silver Spring 16 , Spahlholz, J. Obesity and discrimination - a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Article CAS Google Scholar. Download references. Reprints and permissions. Ending weight bias and the stigma of obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol 16 ,

Herbal appetite suppressant Policy Dossiers Weight Stigma. People living weighr overweight and obesity stigmx often subjected an Herbal appetite suppressant. Obesiyt Obesity and weight stigma includes the weignt social stereotypes Healthy meal prep tips misconceptions aand people living with overweight and obesity, and is Acai berry skincare harmful manifestation Herbal metabolism stimulator social inequity. Weight stigma is one of the most common forms of discrimination in modern societies and is manifested in a number of settings. This dossier and briefing aim to highlight the pervasive nature of weight stigma, the impact this has across society, and opportunities for policies to help reduce weight stigma and bias. Through this dossier, we will collate evidence, resources, and materials pertaining to weight stigma. The development of the policy dossiers has been, in part, supported by an operational grant under the European Commission's Third Health Programme Thank you Obeeity visiting nature. Sstigma are using a browser version with limited sttigma for CSS. To Natural thermogenesis supplements Herbal appetite suppressant best Obesiy, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. A new Consensus Statement published in Nature Medicine calls for the end of weight bias and the stigma of obesity. Obesity and weight stigma

The Core strength and stability training would anr to thank Obessity Rudd Center for Food Ztigma and Obesity Herbal appetite suppressant assistance in creating this Best Nootropic Supplements. Often ignored, however, are the social and personal stiigma that individuals with excess weight or obesity face.

Bias, stigma, and discrimination due to weight are frequent experiences for stiigma individuals with obesity, which znd serious consequences stigmq their personal weught social Obeaity being and overall dtigma. Given that Obeskty least half of the Weigut population is overweight, the number wnd people potentially faced with stigmw and stigmatization is immense.

Weight stigma anv a role in everyday life, including work, school and weoght settings. It remains a Obbesity acceptable form of stigmw in Acai berry skincare stiga, and is rarely challenged.

One of the goals of the Obesity Herbal appetite suppressant Coalition OAC is to eliminate Oebsity negative stigma znd with obesity. To do this, we must be able to define and weigut obesity stigma in all aspects weigut life. Once we are able to identify the Acai berry skincare and extent of this problem, we can increase education and awareness Herbal appetite suppressant the damaging and lasting effects of negative weigbt.

Throughout this brochure, we Ogesity discuss the Obesitt forms of stigma and provide Obezity with Obeskty for dealing with stigma and ways weigbt educate others.

Ogesity May Abdominal fat distribution Negative Stigma Perceptions Oebsity the causes of weoght may contribute to weight stigma and bias. Znd that obesity can be prevented by self-control, that individual non-compliance explains anv at weight-loss, an that obesity weighht caused by emotional problems, are Obeisty examples of attitudes that shigma to negative bias.

Research Herbal stamina enhancers that beliefs about the causality and stability of obesity Acai berry skincare also weihgt factors contributing to negative attitudes. For example, stkgma show that individuals affected anc obesity are more likely to be stigmatized if their overweight condition Obesify perceived to be caused by controllable factors compared to uncontrollable factors e.

At Work There is Herbal appetite suppressant evidence of weight stigma and bias in multiple aspects of daily life Obesitg individuals weeight by obesity. Syigma perceptions of Herbal appetite suppressant affected by obesity stigka in employment settings where employees affected by obesity Acai berry skincare viewed as stigms competent, wweight and lacking in Acai berry skincare discipline by their co-workers and employers.

These attitudes can have a negative impact on wages, Acai berry skincare, Cranberry dessert recipes and decisions about employment status for Obfsity affected by obesity.

Experimental studies Herbal anti-depressant options show that Closed-loop glucose control system affected by obesity are less likely to be hired Nutritional supplement for metabolism support thinner Obfsity, despite having identical job qualifications.

There weitht also increasing legal cases emerging znd employees Natural thermogenic boosters by obesity have been Obeaity or Obwsity because Hormone balance and stress their weight, despite demonstrating good job performance and even though their body weight was unrelated to their job responsibilities.

Hiring Preferences: Job applicants affected by obesity are rated as having:. Wage Inequities: The bOesity are true Obsity regards to wage inequities for individuals affected by obesity:. Employment Termination: Ohesity affected by obesity are affected more often in the following examples than employees not affected by obesity:.

In School Multiple forms of weight stigmatization also occur in educational settings. Students affected by obesity face numerous obstacles, ranging from harassment and rejection from peers at school, to biased attitudes from teachers, lower college acceptances and wrongful dismissals from college.

The severity of this problem is highlighted by research showing that stigma toward students affected by obesity begins very early.

For example, negative attitudes have been reported among pre-school children ages three to five who associated peers affected by obesity with characteristics of being mean, stupid, ugly and having few friends.

Bias in education is expressed through extensive peer victimization at school, and negative attitudes by teachers, administrators and academic institutions.

In Healthcare Settings Unfortunately, weight stigma also exists in healthcare settings. Negative attitudes about individuals with excess weight have been reported by physicians, nurses, dietitians, psychologists and medical students.

Research shows that even healthcare professionals who specialize in the treatment of obesity hold negative attitudes. Bias may have a negative impact on quality of healthcare for individuals affected by obesity. Some studies have indicated that these individuals are reluctant to seek medical care, and may be more likely to delay important preventative healthcare services and cancel medical appointments.

Weight bias has been reported as one reason for these negative experiences. Research indicates that 46 percent of women affected by obesity reported that small gowns, narrow exam tables and inappropriately sized medical equipment were barriers to receiving healthcare.

In addition, 35 percent reported embarrassment about being weighed as a barrier to care. Barriers to routine gynecological cancer screening for White and African-American women with obesity.

Physicians: Self-report studies show that physicians often view individuals affected by obesity as described below more often than they do individuals not affected by obesity :. Physicians are common sources of stigma. In a study that surveyed more than 2, adult women about their experiences of weight bias, 69 percent of respondents reported that physicians were a source of weight bias, and 52 percent reported they had been stigmatized by a doctor on multiple occasions.

Doctors were the second most frequent source of bias reported, out of a list of more than 20 possible sources of weight stigma. source: Puhl, R. Confronting and coping with weight stigma: An investigation of overweight and individuals with obesity.

Obesity, 14, Nurses: Self-report studies show that nurses view individuals affected by obesity as non-compliant, overindulgent, lazy and unsuccessful.

Studies of self-reported attitudes among nurses indicate that:. Individuals affected by obesity suffer terribly from this, both from direct discrimination and from more subtle forms of bias that are frequently encountered.

Weight bias can have psychological, social and physical health consequences on those affected by this disease. Given how acceptable weight stigma is in our society, transforming societal attitudes and enacting laws that prohibit discrimination based on weight are needed in order to eliminate the problem of stigma toward individuals affected by obesity.

Although this requires enormous efforts, there are other important steps that can be taken by both individuals and their healthcare providers to help improve the daily functioning and well-being of individuals affected by obesity.

Individuals as Advocates Individuals who are struggling with weight stigma can begin to approach this problem by becoming advocates for themselves. This includes identifying situations in which they have been stigmatized because of their weight and deciding how best to handle the situation to achieve positive emotional health and to help prevent additional stigma from occurring.

Specific strategies for dealing with weight stigma are highlighted below. It is important to note that there are many different strategies of coping with weight stigma and some strategies may be more or less effective with different types of stigmatizing situations.

An Important Role for Healthcare Professionals Healthcare can easily become a negative and shaming experience for individuals affected by obesity because of weight stigma.

Therefore, healthcare professionals have an extremely important role to play in addressing the problem of weight bias. Encouraging individuals to share their experiences of stigma and to help them feel less isolated in these experiences is an important first step.

These tools can help reduce the tendency of individuals affected by obesity to internalize negative stereotypes of obesity and blame themselves, both of which can negatively impact emotional well-being. A second role for healthcare professionals is to address the issue of weight bias within themselves, their medical staff and colleagues.

Education can help increase awareness among healthcare professionals about the pervasiveness and consequences of weight bias and can also encourage providers to adopt a more accurate and empathic understanding of their patients affected by obesity.

Finally, healthcare professionals can do a great service to their patients affected by obesity by improving the physical and social environment of healthcare settings. The following checklist provides suggested guidelines to improve the healthcare environment for individuals affected by obesity:.

Healthcare professionals can also improve their interpersonal interactions by being sensitive to situations of embarrassment for individuals, such as weighing individuals in a private and sensitive manner, without judgmental commentary.

Asking individuals for their permission to be weighed at each visit is an easy and sensitive way to begin the weighing procedure. Providers can also help by emphasizing goals of health and fitness behaviors rather than only the number on the scale and celebrating positive health behavior changes made by individuals.

To download a PDF of this brochure, click here. About the OAC Our Purpose Why the OAC Exists OAC Mission, Vision and Goals Our Beliefs and Demands Governance and Financials National Board of Directors Committees Staff Annual Reports Financial Reports For the Media Newsroom Media Requests Media Guidelines Join the OAC Contact Us.

: Obesity and weight stigma

Ending weight bias and the stigma of obesity | Nature Reviews Endocrinology

When referring to someone who has excess weight, we should aim to keep in mind that they are a person with a disease, and strive to identify them as a person instead of as the disease they have.

For example, the phrase "person with obesity" should be used instead of "obese person. The health care setting is one in which weight stigma is particularly rampant, leading to significant health consequences for people with overweight or obesity.

Studies have shown that physicians show strong anti-fat bias in health care situations. This bias results in reduced quality of care, and is yet another way in which weight stigma contributes to poor health in people with overweight and obesity.

Just as in everyday situations, there are many ways to address stigma in health care settings. Clinicians should of course follow the same recommendations as above, to acknowledge the existence of weight stigma and strive to use person-first language in their speech and medical documentation.

In addition, dispensing with the standard cookie-cutter advice to eat less and exercise more to lose weight would be of great benefit to patients. This type of advice doesn't take into account the many environmental, genetic, and physiologic causes of obesity, and puts blame on the patient as the sole cause and contributor of their obesity.

Clinicians should also take care not to assume a patient with obesity is automatically engaging in overeating behaviors, and should believe their patients' reports of dietary intake and physical activity.

The clinical visit should be focused on information gathering and understanding of a patient's particular situation. Referral to an obesity specialist may be warranted if the clinician is not comfortable with discussing or prescribing different treatment options.

Fourthly, efforts to reduce obesity stigmatisation in the public domain could be spearheaded by legislation to prohibit prejudice and discrimination on the basis of weight [ 86 ]. Although educational efforts are important, without the support of our formal institutions, these messages are likely to be insufficient [ ].

Few national or state legislations globally protect citizens from weight discrimination, providing legal freedom for industries to discriminate based on obesity status [ 62 ]. Weight-based discrimination should be formally recognised as a legitimate social concern and be included in antidiscrimination acts that prohibit discrimination based on other personal characteristics such as sex, marital status, or disability.

Notably, it will be important to balance the need for protection and equal treatment of people with obesity against the risk of even greater obesity stigmatisation that may stem from such new legislation [ ].

Position statements from government and public health organisations should demonstrate non-stigmatising language and discourse around obesity.

Implementing these changes will take no less than a social overhaul and is likely to require decades of consistent action. Perhaps we can use the example of racial discrimination, which decades ago was rife globally, and in many countries acceptable and legally permitted and even encouraged through, for example, apartheid.

Although, sadly, racial discrimination continues in our modern world, it is often illegal, and generally much better recognised and managed than in previous decades. We need to move towards such a scenario with obesity stigma and discrimination. We predict that in the decades to come, we will look back at our current era in shame.

We will recognise obesity stigma for what it is: discrimination just like any other form of discrimination that has become normalised within our society to an extent that its existence often even goes unnoticed.

An important step on this long road will be to dispel myths around obesity, and to educate society on its true causes. Improved understanding should help to dispel associated myths around personal responsibility and should help to foster more empathy for people living with obesity. Gradually, such renewed understanding and insights should help us to have the courage and conviction to question obesity stigma when we encounter it, and hold the perpetrators to account, so that they too can question their misjudged beliefs and behaviours.

As outlined, this approach will only work through a combined, concerted, and sustained effort from multiple stakeholders and key decision-makers within society.

Only then can we hope for a transformed society which is finally freed from the shackles of obesity stigma, in which body weight no longer defines the people living in it. World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. Accessed Meldrum DR, Morris MA, Gambone JC.

Obesity pandemic: causes, consequences, and solutions—but do we have the will? Fertil Steril. Article PubMed Google Scholar. The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Obesity: another ongoing pandemic. Article Google Scholar.

Bray GA, Kim KK, Wilding JPH. Obesity: a chronic relapsing progressive disease process. A position statement of the World Obesity Federation. Obes Rev , 18 7 — Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, Grosse Y, Bianchini F, Straif K. International Agency for Research on Cancer Handbook Working G: Body fatness and cancer—viewpoint of the IARC Working Group.

N Engl J Med. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Singh GM, Danaei G, Farzadfar F, Stevens GA, Woodward M, Wormser D, Kaptoge S, Whitlock G, Qiao Q, Lewington S, et al. The age-specific quantitative effects of metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a pooled analysis.

PLoS ONE. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Hruby A, Hu FB. The epidemiology of obesity: a big picture. Blüher M. Obesity: global epidemiology and pathogenesis. Nat Rev Endocrinol. Puhl RM, Heuer CA. Obesity stigma: important considerations for public health.

Am J Public Health. The association between weight stigma and mental health: a meta-analysis. Obesity Reviews , 21 1 :e A meta-analysis of studies published up to found a medium to large negative association between weight stigma and mental health. There was a lot of heterogeneity in effect size between studies, with further research needed to explain this.

Sutin AR, Stephan Y, Terracciano A. Weight discrimination and risk of mortality. Psychol Sci. Tsenkova VK, Carr D, Schoeller DA, Ryff CD. Perceived weight discrimination amplifies the link between central adiposity and nondiabetic glycemic control HbA1c. Ann Behav Med. Carr D, Friedman MA.

Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States. J Health Soc Behav.

Berthoud H-R, Münzberg H, Morrison CD. Blaming the brain for obesity: integration of hedonic and homeostatic mechanisms. Locke AE, Kahali B, Berndt SI, Justice AE, Pers TH, Day FR, Powell C, Vedantam S, Buchkovich ML, Yang J, et al.

Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. Baqai N, Wilding JPH. Pathophysiology and aetiology of obesity. Thaker VV. Genetic and epigenetic causes of obesity.

Adolesc Med State Art Rev. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Waalen J. The genetics of human obesity. Transl Res. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Fawcett KA, Barroso I. The genetics of obesity: FTO leads the way. Albuquerque D, Nóbrega C, Manco L, Padez C.

The contribution of genetics and environment to obesity. Br Med Bull. Genetics of body-weight regulation. Fall T, Mendelson M, Speliotes EK. Recent advances in human genetics and epigenetics of adiposity: pathway to precision medicine?

Lakka H-M, Bouchard C. Chapter 3 — etiology of obesity. In: Surgical management of obesity. Edited by Buchwald H, Cowan GSM, Pories WJ.

Philadelphia: W. Saunders; 18— Cohen DA. Neurophysiological pathways to obesity: below awareness and beyond individual control. Vartanian LR, Smyth JM. Primum non nocere: obesity stigma and public health. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.

Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial.

Swinburn BA, Sacks G, Hall KD, McPherson K, Finegood DT, Moodie ML, Gortmaker SL. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments.

Malik VS, Willett WC, Hu FB. Global obesity: trends, risk factors and policy implications. Andreyeva T, Blumenthal DM, Schwartz MB, Long MW, Brownell KD. Availability and prices of foods across stores and neighborhoods: the case of New Haven.

Connecticut Health Aff Millwood. Booth KM, Pinkston MM, Poston WS. Obesity and the built environment. J Am Diet Assoc. Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Frank LD, Conway TL, Slymen DJ, Cain KL, Chapman JE, Kerr J.

Neighborhood built environment and income: examining multiple health outcomes. Soc Sci Med. Brownson RC, Boehmer TK, Luke DA.

Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: what are the contributors? Annu Rev Public Health. Church T, Martin CK. The obesity epidemic: a consequence of reduced energy expenditure and the uncoupling of energy intake? Parry S, Straker L. The contribution of office work to sedentary behaviour associated risk.

BMC Public Health. Healy GN, Wijndaele K, Dunstan DW, Shaw JE, Salmon J, Zimmet PZ, Owen N. Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk. Diabetes Care. Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Cerin E, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Owen N.

Breaks in sedentary time: beneficial associations with metabolic risk. Chaput JP, Klingenberg L, Astrup A, Sjödin AM. Modern sedentary activities promote overconsumption of food in our current obesogenic environment.

Obes Rev. Finkelstein EA, Ruhm CJ, Kosa KM. Economic causes and consequences of obesity. Pancrazi R, van Rens T, Vukotic M. How distorted food prices discourage a healthy diet.

Science Advances. Vasileska A, Rechkoska G. Global and regional food consumption patterns and trends. Procedia Soc Behav Sci. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in intake of energy and macronutrients—United States, — MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.

Google Scholar. Putnam J, Allshouse J, Kantor LS. US per capita food supply trends: more calories, refined carbohydrates, and fats. Food Review. Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM.

Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, — Young LR, Nestle M. The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Chan RS, Woo J. Prevention of overweight and obesity: how effective is the current public health approach.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. Sassi F, Devaux M, Cecchini M, Rusticelli E. The obesity epidemic: analysis of past and projected future trends in selected OECD countries. OECD Health Working Papers No. In: OECD Health Working Papers No France: OECD.

Bixby H, Bentham J, Zhou B, Di Cesare M, Paciorek CJ, Bennett JE, Taddei C, Stevens GA, Rodriguez-Martinez A, Carrillo-Larco RM, et al. Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults. Popkin B. Rural areas drive increases in global obesity.

Cohen SA, Greaney ML, Sabik NJ. Assessment of dietary patterns, physical activity and obesity from a national survey: rural-urban health disparities in older adults. Mathieu-Bolh N. The elusive link between income and obesity. Templin T. Cravo Oliveira Hashiguchi T, Thomson B, Dieleman J, Bendavid E: The overweight and obesity transition from the wealthy to the poor in low- and middle-income countries: a survey of household data from countries.

PLoS Med. Salmasi L, Celidoni M. Investigating the poverty-obesity paradox in Europe. Econ Hum Biol. Bukhman G, Mocumbi AO, Atun R, Becker AE, Bhutta Z, Binagwaho A, Clinton C, Coates MM, Dain K, Ezzati M, et al. The Lancet NCDI Poverty Commission: bridging a gap in universal health coverage for the poorest billion.

The Lancet. Wang Y, Beydoun MA. Epidemiol Rev. Sankar P, Cho MK, Condit CM, Hunt LM, Koenig B, Marshall P, Lee SS, Spicer P. Genetic research and health disparities. Fesinmeyer MD, North KE, Ritchie MD, Lim U, Franceschini N, Wilkens LR, Gross MD, Bůžková P, Glenn K, Quibrera PM, et al.

Genetic risk factors for BMI and obesity in an ethnically diverse population: results from the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology PAGE study. Stryjecki C, Alyass A, Meyre D. Ethnic and population differences in the genetic predisposition to human obesity.

Murphy M, Robertson W, Oyebode O. Obesity in international migrant populations. Curr Obes Rep. Kumar BN, Meyer HE, Wandel M, Dalen I, Holmboe-Ottesen G. Ethnic differences in obesity among immigrants from developing countries, in Oslo. Norway Int J Obes Lond.

Link BG, Phelan JC. Conceptualizing stigma. Ann Rev Sociol. Bayer R. Stigma and the ethics of public health: not can we but should we. The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Andreyeva T, Puhl RM, Brownell KD. Changes in perceived weight discrimination among Americans, — through — Obesity Silver Spring.

Puhl RM, Andreyeva T, Brownell KD. Perceptions of weight discrimination: prevalence and comparison to race and gender discrimination in America. Int J Obes Lond. Greenberg BS, Eastin M, Hofschire L, Lachlan K, Brownell KD. Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television.

Mastro D, Figueroa-Caballero A. Measureing extremes: a quantitative content analysis of prime time TV depictions of body type. J Broadcast Electron media. Robinson T, Callister M, Jankoski T. Body Image. Klein H, Shiffman KS. Messages about physical attractiveness in animated cartoons. Eat Weight Disord.

Fouts G, Vaughan K. Television situation comedies: male weight, negative references, and audience reactions. Sex Roles. Eisenberg ME, Carlson-McGuire A, Gollust SE, Neumark-Sztainer D. A content analysis of weight stigmatization in popular television programming for adolescents.

Int J Eat Disord. Auxier B, Anderson M. Social media use in Pew Research Center Shearer E, Mitchell A. News use across social media platforms in Chou W-YS, Prestin A, Kunath S. Obesity in social media: a mixed methods analysis. Transl Behav Med.

Yoo JH, Kim J. Obesity in the new media: a content analysis of obesity videos on YouTube. Health Commun. Market Data Enterprises. The U. Mishra S. From self-control to self-improvement: evolving messages and persuasion techniques in weight loss advertising — Vis Commun.

McClure KJ, Puhl RM, Heuer CA. Obesity in the news: do photographic images of obese persons influence antifat attitudes? J Health Commun.

Changing frames of obesity in the UK press — The amount of press attention for obesity has grown over time, as have trends that frame obesity as a biomedical problem as well as the responsibility of individuals and their lifestyles.

Geographic and longitudinal trends in media framing of obesity in the United States. The study found that the proportion of articles focused on individual level causes of obesity grew over time.

Williams S, Hill SE, Oyebode O. Global Health. Mialon M, Swinburn B, Allender S. Systematic examination of publicly-available information reveals the diverse and extensive corporate political activity of the food industry in Australia.

Anaf J, Fisher M, Handsley E, Baum F, Friel S. Health Promot Int. PMID: Ngqangashe Y, Cullerton K, Phulkerd S, Huckel Schneider C, Thow AM, Friel S. Discursive framing in policies for restricting the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverages Food Policy.

Burnett D. Pomeranz JL. A historical analysis of public health, the law, and stigmatized social groups: the need for both obesity and weight bias legislation. Martin R. The role of law in the control of obesity in England: looking at the contribution of law to a healthy food culture.

Australia and New Zealand health policy. Marszalek J. MP Ewen Jones has demanded a healthy food rating system be dropped. In: Herald Sun. Melbourne NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. Health bulletin: pouring on the pounds. New York: NYC Health; Theis DRZ, White M.

Is obesity policy in England fit for purpose? Analysis of government strategies and policies, — Milbank Q. Puhl R, Luedicke J, Lee Peterson J. Public reactions to obesity-related health campaigns: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Prev Med. Stein K. Obesity PSAs: are they working as a public service? Katz DL, Murimi M, Pretlow RA, Sears W. Exploring effectiveness of messaging in childhood obesity campaigns.

Child Obes. Walls HL, Peeters A, Proietto J, McNeil JJ. Public health campaigns and obesity — a critique. Dickins M, Thomas SL, King B, Lewis S, Holland K.

Qual Health Res. Lazuka RF, Wick MR, Keel PK, Harriger JA. Are we there yet? Cohen R, Irwin L, Newton-John T, Slater A.

bodypositivity: a content analysis of body positive accounts on Instagram. Selensky JC, Carels RA. Weight stigma and media: an examination of the effect of advertising campaigns on weight bias, internalized weight bias, self-esteem, body image, and affect.

Clayton RB, Ridgway JL, Hendrickse J. Is plus size equal? Commun Monogr. Zavattaro SM. Taking the social justice fight to the cloud: social media and body positivity. Public Integrity. Pereira-Miranda E, Costa PRF, Queiroz VAO, Pereira-Santos M, Santana MLP.

Overweight and obesity associated with higher depression prevalence in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Nutr. Papadopoulos S, Brennan L. Correlates of weight stigma in adults with overweight and obesity: a systematic literature review.

Alimoradi Z, Golboni F, Griffiths MD, Broström A, Lin C-Y, Pakpour AH. Weight-related stigma and psychological distress: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Nutr. Thedinga HK, Zehl R, Thiel A. Weight stigma experiences and self-exclusion from sport and exercise settings among people with obesity. Weight bias internalization and health: a systematic review. This systematic review identified 74 studies examining the association between weight bias internalization and mental and physical health outcomes.

A strong negative association between weight bias internalisation and mental health was reported in the literature but there were fewer studies that examined physical health outcomes, and their findings were inconsistent.

Bayer R, Stuber J. Tobacco control, stigma, and public health: rethinking the relations. Gee GC, Ro A, Gavin A, Takeuchi DT. Disentangling the effects of racial and weight discrimination on body mass index and obesity among Asian Americans.

Muennig P. The body politic: the relationship between stigma and obesity-associated disease. Tomiyama AJ, Carr D, Granberg EM, Major B, Robinson E, Sutin AR, Brewis A.

BMC Med. Björntorp P, Rosmond R. Obesity and cortisol. Girod JP, Brotman DJ. Does altered glucocorticoid homeostasis increase cardiovascular risk? Cardiovasc Res. Duru OK, Harawa NT, Kermah D, Norris KC.

Allostatic load burden and racial disparities in mortality. J Natl Med Assoc. PubMed Google Scholar. Miller HN, LaFave S, Marineau L, Stephens J, Thorpe RJ.

The impact of discrimination on allostatic load in adults: an integrative review of literature. J Psychosom Res. Phelan SM, Burgess DJ, Yeazel MW, Hellerstedt WL, Griffin JM, van Ryn M.

Impact of weight bias and stigma on quality of care and outcomes for patients with obesity. Huizinga MM, Cooper LA, Bleich SN, Clark JM, Beach MC.

Physician respect for patients with obesity. J Gen Intern Med. Huizinga MM, Bleich SN, Beach MC, Clark JM, Cooper LA. Foster GD, Wadden TA, Makris AP, Davidson D, Sanderson RS, Allison DB, Kessler A.

Obes Res. Bertakis KD, Azari R. The impact of obesity on primary care visits. Hebl MR, Xu J. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Alberga AS, Edache IY, Forhan M, Russell-Mayhew S. Weight bias and health care utilization: a scoping review. Prim Health Care Res Dev. Alessi J, de Oliveira GB, Erthal IN, Teixeira JB, Scherer GDLG, Jaeger EH, Schneiders J, Telo GH, Schaan BD, Telo GH.

Diabetes and obesity bias: are we intensifying the pharmacological treatment in patients with and without obesity with equity. Puhl R, Peterson JL, Luedicke J. Motivating or stigmatizing? Public perceptions of weight-related language used by health providers. Int J Obes. Article CAS Google Scholar.

Amy NK, Aalborg A, Lyons P, Keranen L. Barriers to routine gynecological cancer screening for White and African-American obese women. Gudzune KA, Bennett WL, Cooper LA, Bleich SN. Perceived judgment about weight can negatively influence weight loss: a cross-sectional study of overweight and obese patients.

Prev Med. Puhl R, Brownell KD. Bias, discrimination, and obesity. Roehling MV. Weight-based discrimination in employment: psychological and legal aspects. Pers Psychol. Pingitore R, Dugoni BL, Tindale RS, Spring B. Bias against overweight job applicants in a simulated employment interview.

J Appl Psychol. Lee H, Ahn R, Kim TH, Han E. Impact of obesity on employment and wages among young adults: observational study with panel data. Sanburn J: Too big to cocktail? Judge upholds weight discrimination in the workplace.

TIME: Time Magazine. Zee Rvd: Demoted or dismissed because of your weight? The reality of the size ceiling. The Guardian: The Guardian. Burris S. Disease stigma in US public health law. Roberto CA, Swinburn B, Hawkes C, Huang TTK, Costa SA, Ashe M, Zwicker L, Cawley JH, Brownell KD.

Patchy progress on obesity prevention: emerging examples, entrenched barriers, and new thinking. Keleher H, Murphy B.

Understanding health: a determinants approach. South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press; Mata J, Hertwig R. Public beliefs about obesity relative to other major health risks: representative cross-sectional surveys in the USA, the UK, and Germany.

Kleinert S, Horton R. Rethinking and reframing obesity. Anti-fat prejudice reduction: a review of published studies. Obes Facts. Sharma AM, Ramos Salas X. Obesity prevention and management strategies in Canada: shifting paradigms and putting people first. Alberga AS, Pickering BJ, Alix Hayden K, Ball GDC, Edwards A, Jelinski S, Nutter S, Oddie S, Sharma AM, Russell-Mayhew S.

Weight bias reduction in health professionals: a systematic review. Clinical Obesity. Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, Ard JD, Comuzzie AG, Donato KA, Hu FB, Hubbard VS, Jakicic JM, Kushner RF, et al.

Ingram DD, Mussolino ME. Weight loss from maximum body weight and mortality: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File. Nimptsch K, Konigorski S, Pischon T. Diagnosis of obesity and use of obesity biomarkers in science and clinical medicine. Koolhaas CM, Dhana K, Schoufour JD, Ikram MA, Kavousi M, Franco OH.

Impact of physical activity on the association of overweight and obesity with cardiovascular disease: The Rotterdam Study. Eur J Prev Cardiol. Knoops KTB. de Groot LCPGM, Kromhout D, Perrin A-E, Moreiras-Varela O, Menotti A, van Staveren WA: Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and year mortality in elderly European men and women the HALE project.

Puhl R, Suh Y. Health consequences of weight stigma: implications for obesity prevention and treatment. Łuczyński W, Głowińska-Olszewska B, Bossowski A. Empowerment in the treatment of diabetes and obesity.

J Diabetes Res. Fighting obesity or obese persons? Public perceptions of obesity-related health messages. Nestle M, Jacobson MF.

Halting the obesity epidemic: a public health policy approach. Public Health Rep. Ebbeling CB, Pawlak DB, Ludwig DS. Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure. Pérez-Escamilla R, Lutter CK, Rabadan-Diehl C, Rubinstein A, Calvillo A, Corvalán C, Batis C, Jacoby E, Vorkoper S, Kline L, et al.

Prevention of childhood obesity and food policies in Latin America: from research to practice.

Weight Bias - Obesity Action Coalition

However the findings are somewhat mixed. They also report evidence that experiencing weight stigma is related to poor medication adherence. Among weight loss treatment-seeking adults, experiencing weight stigma might exacerbate weight- and health-related quality of life issues.

Broadly speaking, experiencing weight stigma is associated with psychological distress. There are many negative effects connected to anti-fat bias, the most prominent being that societal bias against fat is ineffective at treating obesity, and leads to long-lasting body image issues, eating disorders, suicide, and depression.

Papadopoulos's review of the literature found that across several studies, this distress can manifest in anxiety , depression , lowered self-esteem , and substance use disorders , both in weight loss treatment-seeking individuals as well as community samples.

Over the past few decades, many scholars [ who? At the local level, only one state in the US Michigan has policy in place for prohibiting weight-related employment discrimination and very few local municipalities have human rights ordinances in place to protect individuals of large body size.

For example, the Americans with Disabilities Act is one such avenue, but as Puhl et al. The existing literature largely does not support the notion that weight stigma might encourage weight loss; as cited above, experiencing weight stigma both interpersonally as well as exposure to stigmatizing media campaigns is consistently related to a lack of motivation to exercise and a propensity to overeat.

With higher representation of black people being categorized as overweight by the BMI, the social stigma of obesity disproportionately affects black people.

Sociologist Sabrina Strings writes, in her book Fearing the Black Body , about the historical ways in which fatphobia emerged out of an attempt by white people to distance themselves from black people. In , Denis Diderot published the Encyclopédie , which was the first publications to claim that black people were "fond of gluttony.

It was, moreover, racially inherited. Black bodies are already stigmatized, which can result in violence when interacting with the social stigma of obesity.

In a article published in the African American Review , one author cited the killing of Eric Garner as an example of this, as some excuses for using excessive force on Garner were his size, as he was an overweight man.

The findings of this publication demonstrated that there were no significant differences in weight stigma as a function of race or gender, having an overall equal representation across all racial groups analyzed. Nonetheless, results additionally demonstrated that different racial groups had differing ways of internalizing and coping with weight and health-related stigmas, which as a result heightened health risks.

Additionally, Hispanic women demonstrated to cope with weight stigma via disordered eating patterns more than black and white women. The results of this research article highlighted the importance of needing to increase research and policy attention to addressing weight and health-related stigma as an issue regarding prevention and treatment for obesity in order to consequently decrease weight-driven inequalities in communities and differing groups, primarily focused on race and gender.

The fat acceptance social movement in the USA emerged in the s to highlight and counter social stigma and discrimination faced in a range of domains. Besides its political role, for example in the form of anti-discrimination NGOs and activism, the fat acceptance movement also constitutes a subculture which acts as a social group for its members.

The fat acceptance movement often uses the adjective "fat" as a reclaimed word. Preferences regarding terminology and descriptions vary, however, with common disagreements revolving around which words to use e.

Person-first language , which emerged from some disability advocacy groups, has the ostensible goal of treating a person independently of a trait. However, it also has the consequence of treating that trait as "toxic" abnormality which should be "fixed" to achieve normalcy, and which due to its inherent negativity must be talked about in a special, careful way, rather than used as a simple "benign" descriptor.

This may explain why person-first language is favored more often by those working in the obesity field and therefore seeking medical "fixes" than by other groups.

Advocacy groups have criticized a top-down approach whereby proponents of person-first language claim to speak for all, whereas in reality it is not the preferred terminology of many in the fat-acceptance movement. Various studies of overweight people seeking weight loss as well as a semantics study of terminology used to describe an overweight individual concluded that using the word fat elicits a negative reaction from people already critical of obesity.

Fat activist Aubrey Gordon argues that "disavowing the term fat reinforces its negative meanings. What We Don't Talk About When We Talk About Fat , Happy Fat , Things No One Tells Fat Girls , and Fat!

Likewise, The National Association to Advance Fat Acceptance NAAFA was founded in , with the descriptor of the community being "fat. Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item.

Download as PDF Printable version. In other projects. Wikimedia Commons. Type of discrimination based on weight. The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject.

You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Institutional Structural. Ahmadiyya Atheism Baháʼí Faith Buddhism Catholicism Christianity post—Cold War era Falun Gong Hinduism Persecution Untouchability Islam Persecution Jehovah's Witnesses Judaism Persecution LDS or Mormon Neopaganism Eastern Orthodox Oriental Orthodox Protestantism Rastafari Shi'ism Sufism Zoroastrianism.

Afghan African Albanian Arab Armenian Asian France South Africa United States Assyrian Azerbaijani Black people African Americans China South Africa Bengali Catalan Chechen Chinese Croat Filipino Finnish Georgian Greek Haitian Hazara Hispanic Hungarian Igbo Indian Indigenous people Australia Canada United States Iranian Irish Israeli Italian Japanese Jewish Korean Kurdish Lithuanian Malay Mexican Middle Eastern Mongolian Pakistani Palestinians Pashtun Polish Quebec Romani Romanian Russian Serb Slavic Somali Tatar Thai Turkish Ukrainian Uyghur Venezuelan Vietnamese.

Age of candidacy Blood purity Blood quantum Crime of apartheid Disabilities Catholic Jewish Gender pay gap Gender roles Gerontocracy Gerrymandering Ghetto benches Internment Jewish quota Law for Protection of the Nation MSM blood donation restrictions Nonpersons Numerus clausus as religious or racial quota One-drop rule Racial quota Racial segregation Jim Crow laws Nuremberg Laws Racial steering Redlining Same-sex marriage laws and issues prohibiting Segregation age racial religious sexual Social exclusion Sodomy law State atheism State religion Ugly law Voter suppression.

Affirmative action Anti-discrimination law Cultural assimilation Cultural pluralism Diversity training Empowerment Fat acceptance movement Feminism Fighting Discrimination Hate speech laws by country Human rights Intersex human rights LGBT rights Masculism Multiculturalism Nonviolence Racial integration Reappropriation Self-determination Social integration Toleration.

Related topics. Allophilia Amatonormativity Bias Christian privilege Civil liberties Dehumanization Diversity Ethnic penalty Eugenics Figleaf Heteronormativity Internalized oppression Intersectionality Male privilege Masculism Medical model of disability autism Multiculturalism Net bias Neurodiversity Oikophobia Oppression Police brutality Political correctness Polyculturalism Power distance Prejudice Prisoner abuse Racial bias in criminal news in the United States Racism by country Religious intolerance Second-generation gender bias Snobbery Social exclusion Social identity threat Social model of disability Social stigma Speciesism Stereotype threat The talk White privilege.

General concepts. Obesity Epidemiology Overweight Underweight Body shape Weight gain Weight loss Gestational weight gain Diet nutrition Weight management Overnutrition Childhood obesity Epidemiology.

Medical concepts. Adipose tissue Classification of obesity Genetics of obesity Metabolic syndrome Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Metabolically healthy obesity Obesity paradox Set point theory.

Body adiposity index Body mass index Body fat percentage Body Shape Index Corpulence index Lean body mass Relative Fat Mass Waist—hip ratio Waist-to-height ratio. Related conditions. Obesity-associated morbidity. Arteriosclerosis Atherosclerosis Fatty liver disease GERD Gynecomastia Heart disease Hypertension Obesity and cancer Osteoarthritis Prediabetes Sleep apnea Type 2 diabetes.

Management of obesity. Anti-obesity medication Bariatrics Bariatric surgery Dieting List of diets Caloric deficit Exercise outline Liposuction Obesity medicine Weight loss camp Weight loss coaching Yo-yo effect.

Social aspects. Comfort food Fast food Criticism Fat acceptance movement Fat fetishism Health at Every Size Hunger Obesity and the environment Obesity and sexuality Sedentary lifestyle Social determinants of obesity Social stigma of obesity Weight cutting Weight class.

See also: Obesity social stigma in television. Main article: Fat acceptance movement. Obesity Reviews. doi : ISSN X. PMID S2CID Süddeutsche Zeitung. August 11, Retrieved March 8, June American Journal of Public Health. ISSN PMC BMC Public Health. Center for Disease Control.

Retrieved January 17, Obesity Research. Eating Disorders. CiteSeerX Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. International Journal of Obesity. April Journal of Pediatric Psychology.

Anti-fat prejudice reduction: A review of published studies. Obesity Facts ; 3: 47— Body Weight, Perceived Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being in the United States". Journal of Health and Social Behavior.

The Social Psychology of Stigma. New York London: Guilford Press. ISBN Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook. generated the first draft of the report. The draft report was then circulated among all other members of the expert panel for further input and approval before submission for publication.

All members of the expert panel, all partner organizations, and additional organizations listed in Box 2 have formally endorsed the statement and taken the pledge to eliminate weight stigma.

Sociedad Argentina de Cirugia de la Obesidad Enfermedad Metabolica y Otras Relacionados con la Obesidad. Summer M. Redstone Center, Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University USA. The All-Party Parliamentary Group on Obesity APPG : a group of cross-party members of the House of Commons and House of Lords campaigning for improved prevention and treatment of obesity UK.

A supermajority rule was used to define consensus. This grading scale is meant to indicate statements that reflect unanimous or near-unanimous opinions grades U and A , strong agreement with little variance grade B , or a consensus statement that reflects an averaging of more and possibly extremely diverse opinions grade C.

All statements included in this consensus document achieved either grades U or A, which we report for each statement.

The first questionnaire asked 58 questions, including six on expert panel demographic information. During the three Delphi-like rounds and the in-person voting session, the expert panel eliminated five consensus questions that were deemed to be duplicative or redundant.

We provide definitions in Box 4. Weight stigma is reinforced by misconceived ideas about body-weight regulation and lack of awareness of current scientific evidence. Weight stigma is unacceptable in modern societies, as it undermines human rights, social rights, and the health of afflicted individuals GoC: A.

Research indicates that weight stigma can cause significant harm to affected individuals. Individuals who experience it suffer from both physical and psychological consequences, and are less likely to seek and receive adequate care GoC: U. Despite scientific evidence to the contrary, the prevailing view in society is that obesity is a choice that can be reversed by voluntary decisions to eat less and exercise more.

These assumptions mislead public health policies, confuse messages in popular media, undermine access to evidence-based treatments, and compromise advances in research GoC: A.

For the reasons above, weight stigma represents a major obstacle in efforts to effectively prevent and treat obesity and type 2 diabetes. Tackling stigma is not only a matter of human rights and social justice, but also a way to advance prevention and treatment of these diseases GoC: A.

Academic institutions, professional organizations, media, public health authorities, and government should encourage education about weight stigma and facilitate a new public narrative of obesity, coherent with modern scientific knowledge GoC: U.

Weight stigma refers to social devaluation and denigration of individuals because of their excess body weight, and can lead to negative attitudes, stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination. Weight-based stereotypes include generalizations that individuals with overweight or obesity are lazy, gluttonous, lacking in willpower and self-discipline, incompetent, unmotivated to improve their health, non-compliant with medical treatment, and are personally to blame for their higher body weight.

Weight discrimination refers to overt forms of weight-based prejudice and unfair treatment biased behaviors toward individuals with overweight or obesity. Weight bias internalization occurs when individuals engage in self-blame and self-directed weight stigma because of their weight.

Internalization includes agreement with stereotypes and application of these stereotypes to oneself and self-devaluation 6. Explicit weight bias refers to overt, consciously held negative attitudes that can be measured by self-report.

Implicit weight bias consists of automatic, negative attributions and stereotypes existing outside of conscious awareness. Substantial research has demonstrated that weight stigma and discrimination are pervasive, global issues 7 , 8.

Weight stigma has been documented in multiple societal domains, including the workplace, education, healthcare settings, and within families 9 , Stigma has persisted despite the markedly increased prevalence of obesity in recent decades.

Internalized weight bias is present in individuals across diverse body-weight categories, but especially among individuals with higher BMI who are trying to lose weight Evidence suggests that the media is a pervasive source of weight bias and can reinforce stigma through the use of inaccurate framing of obesity and inappropriate images, language, and terminology that attribute obesity entirely to personal responsibility It has been estimated that over two thirds of images accompanying US media reports of obesity contain weight stigma, and experimental studies show that viewing these types of images leads to increased weight bias Weight bias has been reported among HCPs in the United States and around the world, including among primary care providers, endocrinologists, cardiologists, nurses, dietitians, mental health professionals, medical trainees, and professionals engaged in research and clinical management of obesity 17 , Children with overweight and obesity are frequently subject to weight-based teasing and bullying at school.

Compared with students of lower body weight, adolescents with overweight or obesity are significantly more likely to experience social isolation 19 , 20 , 21 and are at increased risk for relational, verbal, cyber, and physical victimization They are also more susceptible to developing mental health disorders, especially anxiety and depression, in addition to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in later life Weight stigma, rather than obesity itself, may be particularly harmful to mental health and is associated with depressive symptoms, higher anxiety levels, lower self-esteem, social isolation, perceived stress, substance use 24 , 25 , 26 , unhealthy eating and weight-control behaviors, such as binge eating and emotional overeating Experimental studies also show, paradoxically, that exposing individuals to weight stigma can lead to increased food intake, regardless of BMI 3 , Correlative and randomized-controlled studies also show that experience of weight stigma is linked with lower levels of physical activity, higher exercise avoidance 29 , 30 , 31 , consumption of unhealthy diets, and increased sedentary behaviors 1 , 2 , 3 , as well as increased obesity and weight gain over time 32 , and increased risk of transitioning from overweight to obesity in both adults and adolescents 33 , 34 , Individuals with overweight and obesity who experience weight discrimination show higher levels of circulating C-reactive protein 36 , cortisol 37 , long-term cardio-metabolic risk 38 , and increased mortality 39 compared with those who do not experienced weight discrimination.

Evidence suggests that physicians spend less time in appointments and provide less education about health to patients with obesity compared with thinner patients 17 , and patients who report having experienced weight bias in the healthcare setting have poor treatment outcomes 40 and might be more likely to avoid future care Obesity also adversely impacts age-appropriate cancer screening, which can lead to delays in breast, gynecological, and colorectal cancer detection A thematic analysis of 21 studies examined the perceptions of weight bias and its impact on engagement with primary health care services Negative influences on engagement with primary care were evaluated and ten themes were identified: contemptuous, patronizing, and disrespectful treatment, lack of training, ambivalence, attribution of all health issues to excess weight, assumptions about weight gain, barriers to health care utilization, expectation of differential health care treatment, low trust and poor communication, avoidance or delay of health services, and seeking medical advice from multiple HCPs.

The widespread, but unproven, assumption that body weight is entirely controllable by lifestyle choices and that self-directed efforts can reverse even severe forms of obesity or type 2 diabetes 44 could explain the low level of public support for coverage of anti-obesity interventions beyond diet and exercise 45 , regardless of their evidence base.

For example, many public and private health insurers either do not provide coverage or have substantive limitations in the coverage of metabolic surgery, including fulfilment of a number of criteria for which there is limited or no clinical evidence 46 , These attitudes are in stark contrast with coverage of treatment for other chronic diseases for example, cancer, heart disease, and osteoarthritis that are not conditional to similar restrictions, and for which use of similarly arbitrary coverage criteria would be socially indefensible and ethically objectionable.

Metabolic surgery also known as bariatric surgery provides a compelling example of how weight stigma can also extend to treatments for obesity. Compared with individuals who lose weight using diet and exercise alone, those who lose weight through metabolic surgery can be at risk of stronger stigma because they are stereotyped as being lazy and being less responsible for their weight loss 48 , It is not surprising that many hide their surgical status Despite evidence of efficacy and cost-effectiveness 50 , 51 of surgical interventions for obesity, only 0.

A research survey in the United States showed that only Public health efforts to date have typically neglected stigma as a barrier in efforts to address obesity.

By contrast, some public health strategies openly embrace stigmatization of individuals with obesity, based on the assumption that shame will motivate them to change behavior and achieve weight loss through a self-directed diet and increased physical exercise Both observational and randomized-controlled studies show that these strategies can result in the opposite effect, and may instead induce exercise avoidance, consumption of unhealthy diets, and increased sedentary behaviors 1 , 2 , 3 , leading to poor metabolic health, increased weight gain 56 , 57 , and reduced quality of life Some public health messages and government-supported anti-obesity campaigns also characterize the merits of prevention of obesity as a preferable alternative to treatments for established obesity, such as pharmacotherapy or surgery, which are often considered more expensive.

This is a misconception, as it frames prevention and treatment as being mutually exclusive, whereas these approaches should generally be directed toward two distinct populations, with different needs. Workplace discrimination against individuals with overweight and obesity is common in high-income countries Individuals with obesity have reported receiving lower starting salaries, can be ranked as less qualified, and can work longer hours than do thinner employees Persons with obesity can be perceived to be less suitable for employment and are less likely to be invited for an interview 60 , or, if employed, are perceived to be less successful compared with thinner peers Women with obesity are the especially unlikely to be hired Similarly, a US study reported that overweight women are more likely to work in lower-paying jobs and make less money compared with average-size women and all men For the vast majority of individuals with obesity who experience discrimination in recruitment or the workplace, there is generally no protection under current legislations Although some US states have recently introduced a legislation that protects against height and weight discrimination 65 , the Civil Rights Act of does not identify weight as a protected characteristic, and only in some instances a condition of very high BMI can meet the definition of disability under a amendment of the Americans with Disabilities Act legislation This amendment, however, does not cover individuals who are not disabled, even though they can also be victims of weight discrimination.

However, obesity per se is generally not specified as a disabling condition in current EU employment law; hence, most anti-discrimination laws require interpretation of whether a person with obesity has a disability. The UK Equality Act 67 specifically prohibits discrimination on the grounds of age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy, maternity, race, ethnicity, religion or belief, sex, and sexual orientation—but not for obesity.

Research into obesity and diabetes is underfunded compared with other diseases, relative to their burden and costs on society. Among the 5, participants in a recent multi-national research survey the ASK study , higher weight stigma was associated with lower prioritization of spending on obesity research There are also several ways in which stigma can hinder support of research and scientific advances.

For instance, oversimplified notion that obesity is caused by eating too much and exercising too little, implies that the causes of obesity and its epidemic are well-understood, and not complex.

In this context, research designed to elucidate etiologic mechanisms of obesity may not be perceived as a priority. Furthermore, funding could be skewed toward projects that are anticipated to be effective that is, implementation of behavior and lifestyle interventions , reducing support for investigation of novel methods of prevention and treatment or implementation of available evidence-based therapies that is, pharmaceutical or surgical approaches.

Evidence from several countries 68 , 69 , 70 , 71 shows that when individuals attribute the causes of obesity primarily to internal, controllable factors or personal choices, they exhibit higher weight bias, whereas acknowledging the complex causes of obesity including elements such as genetics, biology, and environmental factors is associated with lower levels of weight bias and less blame.

These findings suggest that the prevailing narrative of obesity in news coverage, public health campaigns, and political discourse—centered heavily on notions of personal responsibility 72 , 73 —can play an important part in the expression of weight stigma and reinforce weight-based stereotypes The absence of national laws that prohibit weight discrimination can also contribute to expression of weight stigma, as it communicates a societal message that weight stigma is acceptable and tolerable.

However, evidence in North America, Europe, Australia, and Iceland suggests that there might be substantial public support to enact and pass legislation to prohibit weight discrimination 75 , This assumption and many of its corollaries are now at odds with a definitive body of biological and clinical evidence developed over the last few decades.

This equation is often oversimplified in the public narrative of obesity, and even by HCPs, as if the two variables calories in and calories out were dependent only on two factors, amount of food consumed and exercise performed, therefore implying that body weight is completely controllable by voluntary decisions to eat less and exercise more.

However, both variables of the equation depend on factors additional to just eating and exercising. For instance, energy intake depends on the amount of food consumed, but also on the amount of food-derived energy absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, which in turn is influenced by multiple factors, such as digestive enzymes, bile acids, microbiota, gut hormones, and neural signals, none of which are under voluntary control.

Thus, even when individuals expend energy via exercise, except for elite athletes the overall contribution to energy expenditure is relatively small The existence of a powerful, precise homeostatic system that maintains body weight within a relatively narrow, individualized range is supported by scientific evidence.

This regulatory system can counteract voluntary efforts to reduce body weight by activating potent compensatory biologic responses for example, increased appetite and decreased metabolic rate that promote weight regain. These metabolic and biologic adaptations can persist long-term after losing weight and continue even after partial weight regain Although this concept might appear to be a straightforward conclusion, given common personal experiences of the fluctuations of body weight during periods of excess energy intake or sedentary lifestyle, the evidence supports a more nuanced situation.

For example, in a Canadian study that used accelerometers to measure physical activity, girls with obesity took more steps per day than girls within the normal weight range Similar findings have been observed for adults These findings contrast with conventional views that primarily attribute the cause of obesity to sedentary lifestyles and suggest that compensatory metabolic adaptations maintain total energy expenditure relatively constant among human populations and across various levels of physical activities.

Additional evidence is now also available indicating other possible causes and contributors to obesity, including genetic 84 and epigenetic factors 85 , foodborne factors 86 , sleep deprivation and circadian dysrhythmia 87 , psychological stress, endocrine disruptors, medications, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects.

These factors do not require overeating or physical inactivity to explain excess weight 88 , 89 , A dominant role of genetic factors in obesity pathogenesis has also been demonstrated in studies comparing the concordance of body weight among fraternal versus identical twins 91 , for example, as well as studies of adults adopted as infants compared with their biological and adoptive parents 77 , Hence, overeating and reduced physical activity, when present, might be symptoms rather than the root causes of obesity Persons with obesity typically recognize obesity as a serious health problem, rather than a conscious choice.

More than two thirds of 3, individuals with obesity surveyed in the ACTION Study considered obesity to be as or more serious than other health conditions, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and depression Given the negative effects of obesity on quality of life, the well-known risks of serious complications and reduced life expectancy associated with it, it is a misconception to define obesity as a choice.

Labeling obesity as a disease, risk factor, or condition has implications for treatment and policy development and can contribute to promoting or mitigating stigmatizing views toward affected individuals.

An argument often used against labeling obesity a disease is that doing so communicates a societal message that individual responsibility is not relevant in obesity, thus reducing adherence to healthier lifestyles.

Defining obesity as a disease, or not, however, should be based on objective medical and biological evidence, not sociologic implications. The criteria generally used for recognition of disease status are clearly fulfilled in many individuals with obesity as commonly defined, albeit not all.

As reviewed in a statement from the World Obesity Federation 95 , many medical societies as well as the World Health Organization, the US Food and Drug Association, the US National Institutes of Health, and the Nagoya Declaration have now defined obesity as a disease or disease process.

Admittedly, however, defining obesity as a disease, but measuring it only by BMI thresholds as in contemporary medical practice , risks labeling as ill some individuals who, despite possibly being at risk of future illness, have no current evidence of disease—for example, in cases where high BMI results from being particularly muscular or having short stature.

This potential risk of misdiagnosis underscores the inadequacy of current diagnostic criteria for obesity, and the need to identify more meaningful clinical and biological criteria than just BMI to diagnose the disease.

This assumption is also not supported by evidence. First, body weight and fat mass are known to be regulated by numerous physiological mechanisms, beyond voluntary food intake and physical exercise.

A large body of clinical evidence has shown that voluntary attempts to eat less and exercise more render only modest effects on body weight in most individuals with severe obesity 96 , When fat mass decreases, the body responds with reduced resting energy expenditure 79 , 80 and changes in signals that increase hunger and reduce satiety 93 for example, leptin, ghrelin These compensatory metabolic and biologic adaptations promote weight regain and persist for as long as persons are in the reduced-energy state, even if they gain some weight back Metabolic surgery is often referred to as an easy way out, based on assumptions that these interventions mechanically restrict food intake in a manner that individuals are not sufficiently disciplined to achieve on their own.

However, evidence demonstrates that surgical interventions elicit numerous metabolic effects opposite to the compensatory physiologic responses normally triggered by diet-induced weight reduction, thereby promoting major, long-term weight loss Such mechanisms include a paradoxical decrease in appetite and increase in metabolic rate, which change adaptively in the opposite directions to those following most non-surgical weight loss There are also favorable post-operative alterations in gastrointestinal hormones, bile-acid signaling, gut microbiota, absorption and utilization of glucose by the gut, modulations of gastrointestinal nutrient signaling that influence insulin sensitivity, and others In this initiative, we sought to inform HCPs, policymakers, and the public about the prevalence, causes, and harmful consequences of weight stigma.

A novel, specific goal not formulated in prior related initiatives was to address the gap between popular, stigmatizing narratives around obesity and current scientific knowledge regarding mechanisms of body-weight regulation.

We found ample evidence of pervasive weight bias and stigma in many diverse domains of society, causing serious mental and physical harm to individuals with obesity. We met our primary objective of gathering a broad group of experts and scientific organizations to appraise the problem and, to our knowledge for the first time, speak with one voice against this important issue, pledging to do what we can to end it pledge in Box 1 , executive summary in Box 3 , and recommendations in Table 3.

There are several limitations to our work. For example, largely owing to the nature of relevant publications, we did not perform a formal systematic review with stringent criteria for levels of evidence.

Our method of literature study was closer to a structured rapid review, performed over approximately 6 months, and it only included English-language papers. Also, although our expert panel comprised representatives from ten nations spanning five continents, it was heavily weighted toward individuals from the United States and other high-income countries.

Much of the evidence base is also derived from these regions. It is important to note, however, that our final report has been formally endorsed by over organizations at the time of publication Box 2 , including some from low-income and middle-income countries—attesting to the global relevance of the problem and our statements.

A strength of our work is that we engaged a diverse group of panelists including academics from disparate disciplines, representatives of patient-advocacy organizations and patients. The broad endorsement of this statement and pledge by a diverse group of organizations, including scientific societies, patient-advocacy groups, academic and medical centers, scientific journals, and a parliamentary group provides an unprecedented opportunity for a concerted effort of all stakeholders to effectively tackle this important problem for medicine and society.

Weight stigma and discrimination are pervasive and cause significant harm to affected individuals. The widespread narrative of obesity in the media, in public health campaigns, in political discourse, and even in the scientific literature attributing the cause of obesity primarily to personal responsibility has an important role in the expression of societal weight stigma, and reinforces weight-based stereotypes.

Weight stigma can mislead clinical decisions, and public health messages, and could promote unproductive allocation of limited research resources. Explaining the gap between scientific evidence, and a conventional narrative of obesity built around unproven assumptions and misconceptions might help to reduce weight bias, and its harmful effects.

A concerted effort of all stakeholders is required to promote educational, regulatory, and legal initiatives designed to prevent weight stigma and discrimination.

Bauer, C. A handicap for life - overweight and obesity in pre-school children in Karlsruhe. Gesundheitswesen 66 , — CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Hayden-Wade, H. et al. Prevalence, characteristics, and correlates of teasing experiences among overweight children vs.

non-overweight peers. PubMed Google Scholar. Schvey, N. The impact of weight stigma on caloric consumption. Obesity 19 , — Ata, R. Weight bias in the media: a review of recent research.

Facts 3 , 41—46 PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Gordon, T. The Delphi method. Google Scholar. Corrigan, P.

The self-stigma of mental illness: Implications for self-esteem and self-efficacy. Brewis, A. Obesity stigma as a globalizing health challenge.

Health 14 , 20 Flint, S. BMC Obes. Pearl, R. Weight bias and stigma: public health implications and structural solutions. Issues Policy Rev. Lydecker, J. Parents have both implicit and explicit biases against children with obesity.

Puhl, R. Perceptions of weight discrimination: prevalence and comparison to race and gender discrimination in America. CAS Google Scholar. Spahlholz, J. Obesity and discrimination—a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

Andreyeva, T. Changes in perceived weight discrimination among Americans, through Obesity 16 , — Internalizing weight stigma: prevalence and sociodemographic considerations in US adults. Obesity 26 , — Heuer, C. Obesity stigma in online news: a visual content analysis. Health Commun.

The stigmatizing effect of visual media portrayals of obese persons on public attitudes: does race or gender matter? Phelan, S. Impact of weight bias and stigma on quality of care and outcomes for patients with obesity.

CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Sabin, J. PLoS One 7 , e Pont, S. Stigma experienced by children and adolescents with obesity. Pediatrics , e Mannan, M. Prospective associations between depression and obesity for adolescent males and females—a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies.

PLoS One 11 , e Weight discrimination and bullying. Best Pract. Waasdorp, T. Obese and overweight youth: risk for experiencing bullying victimization and internalizing symptoms. Orthopsychiatry 88 , — Takizawa, R.

Bullying victimization in childhood predicts inflammation and obesity at mid-life: a five-decade birth cohort study. Wu, Y. Impact of weight stigma on physiological and psychological health outcomes for overweight and obese adults: A systematic review.

Papadopoulos, S. Correlates of weight stigma in adults with overweight and obesity: a systematic literature review. Obesity 23 , — Jackson, S. Vartanian, L. Weight stigma and eating behavior: a review of the literature. Appetite , 3—14 Major, B. The ironic effects of weight stigma. Han, S.

Avoiding exercise mediates the effects of internalized and experienced weight stigma on physical activity in the years following bariatric surgery. Sattler, K. Gender differences in the relationship of weight-based stigmatisation with motivation to exercise and physical activity in overweight individuals.

Health Psychol. Open 5 , Association between perceived weight discrimination and physical activity: a population-based study among English middle-aged and older adults.

BMJ Open 7 , e Sutin, A. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity. PLoS One 8 , e Hunger, J. Weight labeling and obesity: a longitudinal study of girls aged 10 to 19 years.

JAMA Pediatr. Quick, V. Personal, behavioral and socio-environmental predictors of overweight incidence in young adults: yr longitudinal findings.

Experiences of weight teasing in adolescence and weight-related outcomes in adulthood: A year longitudinal study. Perceived weight discrimination and C-reactive protein.

Obesity 22 , — Perceived weight discrimination and chronic biochemical stress: a population-based study using cortisol in scalp hair. Psychol Sci. Tsenkova VK, Carr D, Schoeller DA, Ryff CD. Perceived weight discrimination amplifies the link between central adiposity and nondiabetic glycemic control HbA1c.

Ann Behav Med. Carr D, Friedman MA. Is obesity stigmatizing? Body weight, perceived discrimination, and psychological well-being in the United States.

J Health Soc Behav. Berthoud H-R, Münzberg H, Morrison CD. Blaming the brain for obesity: integration of hedonic and homeostatic mechanisms.

Locke AE, Kahali B, Berndt SI, Justice AE, Pers TH, Day FR, Powell C, Vedantam S, Buchkovich ML, Yang J, et al. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. Baqai N, Wilding JPH. Pathophysiology and aetiology of obesity. Thaker VV. Genetic and epigenetic causes of obesity.

Adolesc Med State Art Rev. PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Waalen J. The genetics of human obesity. Transl Res. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Fawcett KA, Barroso I.

The genetics of obesity: FTO leads the way. Albuquerque D, Nóbrega C, Manco L, Padez C. The contribution of genetics and environment to obesity. Br Med Bull. Genetics of body-weight regulation. Fall T, Mendelson M, Speliotes EK. Recent advances in human genetics and epigenetics of adiposity: pathway to precision medicine?

Lakka H-M, Bouchard C. Chapter 3 — etiology of obesity. In: Surgical management of obesity. Edited by Buchwald H, Cowan GSM, Pories WJ. Philadelphia: W. Saunders; 18— Cohen DA. Neurophysiological pathways to obesity: below awareness and beyond individual control.

Vartanian LR, Smyth JM. Primum non nocere: obesity stigma and public health. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial.

Swinburn BA, Sacks G, Hall KD, McPherson K, Finegood DT, Moodie ML, Gortmaker SL. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. Malik VS, Willett WC, Hu FB.

Global obesity: trends, risk factors and policy implications. Andreyeva T, Blumenthal DM, Schwartz MB, Long MW, Brownell KD. Availability and prices of foods across stores and neighborhoods: the case of New Haven. Connecticut Health Aff Millwood. Booth KM, Pinkston MM, Poston WS. Obesity and the built environment.

J Am Diet Assoc. Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Frank LD, Conway TL, Slymen DJ, Cain KL, Chapman JE, Kerr J. Neighborhood built environment and income: examining multiple health outcomes.

Soc Sci Med. Brownson RC, Boehmer TK, Luke DA. Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: what are the contributors? Annu Rev Public Health. Church T, Martin CK. The obesity epidemic: a consequence of reduced energy expenditure and the uncoupling of energy intake?

Parry S, Straker L. The contribution of office work to sedentary behaviour associated risk. BMC Public Health.

Healy GN, Wijndaele K, Dunstan DW, Shaw JE, Salmon J, Zimmet PZ, Owen N. Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk. Diabetes Care.

Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Cerin E, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Owen N. Breaks in sedentary time: beneficial associations with metabolic risk.

Chaput JP, Klingenberg L, Astrup A, Sjödin AM. Modern sedentary activities promote overconsumption of food in our current obesogenic environment. Obes Rev. Finkelstein EA, Ruhm CJ, Kosa KM.

Economic causes and consequences of obesity. Pancrazi R, van Rens T, Vukotic M. How distorted food prices discourage a healthy diet. Science Advances. Vasileska A, Rechkoska G. Global and regional food consumption patterns and trends.

Procedia Soc Behav Sci. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in intake of energy and macronutrients—United States, — MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. Google Scholar.

Putnam J, Allshouse J, Kantor LS. US per capita food supply trends: more calories, refined carbohydrates, and fats. Food Review. Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, — Young LR, Nestle M.

The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Chan RS, Woo J. Prevention of overweight and obesity: how effective is the current public health approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health. Sassi F, Devaux M, Cecchini M, Rusticelli E. The obesity epidemic: analysis of past and projected future trends in selected OECD countries.

OECD Health Working Papers No. In: OECD Health Working Papers No France: OECD. Bixby H, Bentham J, Zhou B, Di Cesare M, Paciorek CJ, Bennett JE, Taddei C, Stevens GA, Rodriguez-Martinez A, Carrillo-Larco RM, et al.

Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults. Popkin B. Rural areas drive increases in global obesity. Cohen SA, Greaney ML, Sabik NJ. Assessment of dietary patterns, physical activity and obesity from a national survey: rural-urban health disparities in older adults.

Mathieu-Bolh N. The elusive link between income and obesity. Templin T. Cravo Oliveira Hashiguchi T, Thomson B, Dieleman J, Bendavid E: The overweight and obesity transition from the wealthy to the poor in low- and middle-income countries: a survey of household data from countries.

PLoS Med. Salmasi L, Celidoni M. Investigating the poverty-obesity paradox in Europe. Econ Hum Biol. Bukhman G, Mocumbi AO, Atun R, Becker AE, Bhutta Z, Binagwaho A, Clinton C, Coates MM, Dain K, Ezzati M, et al.

The Lancet NCDI Poverty Commission: bridging a gap in universal health coverage for the poorest billion. The Lancet. Wang Y, Beydoun MA. Epidemiol Rev.

Sankar P, Cho MK, Condit CM, Hunt LM, Koenig B, Marshall P, Lee SS, Spicer P. Genetic research and health disparities. Fesinmeyer MD, North KE, Ritchie MD, Lim U, Franceschini N, Wilkens LR, Gross MD, Bůžková P, Glenn K, Quibrera PM, et al. Genetic risk factors for BMI and obesity in an ethnically diverse population: results from the population architecture using genomics and epidemiology PAGE study.

Stryjecki C, Alyass A, Meyre D. Ethnic and population differences in the genetic predisposition to human obesity. Murphy M, Robertson W, Oyebode O. Obesity in international migrant populations. Curr Obes Rep. Kumar BN, Meyer HE, Wandel M, Dalen I, Holmboe-Ottesen G.

Ethnic differences in obesity among immigrants from developing countries, in Oslo. Norway Int J Obes Lond. Link BG, Phelan JC. Conceptualizing stigma. Ann Rev Sociol.

Bayer R. Stigma and the ethics of public health: not can we but should we. The stigma of obesity: a review and update. Andreyeva T, Puhl RM, Brownell KD. Changes in perceived weight discrimination among Americans, — through — Obesity Silver Spring.

Puhl RM, Andreyeva T, Brownell KD. Perceptions of weight discrimination: prevalence and comparison to race and gender discrimination in America.

Int J Obes Lond. Greenberg BS, Eastin M, Hofschire L, Lachlan K, Brownell KD. Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television.

Mastro D, Figueroa-Caballero A. Measureing extremes: a quantitative content analysis of prime time TV depictions of body type.

J Broadcast Electron media. Robinson T, Callister M, Jankoski T. Body Image. Klein H, Shiffman KS. Messages about physical attractiveness in animated cartoons. Eat Weight Disord. Fouts G, Vaughan K. Television situation comedies: male weight, negative references, and audience reactions.

Sex Roles. Eisenberg ME, Carlson-McGuire A, Gollust SE, Neumark-Sztainer D. A content analysis of weight stigmatization in popular television programming for adolescents. Int J Eat Disord. Auxier B, Anderson M. Social media use in Pew Research Center Shearer E, Mitchell A.

News use across social media platforms in Chou W-YS, Prestin A, Kunath S. Obesity in social media: a mixed methods analysis.

Transl Behav Med. Yoo JH, Kim J. Obesity in the new media: a content analysis of obesity videos on YouTube. Health Commun. Market Data Enterprises. The U. Mishra S. From self-control to self-improvement: evolving messages and persuasion techniques in weight loss advertising — Vis Commun.

McClure KJ, Puhl RM, Heuer CA. Obesity in the news: do photographic images of obese persons influence antifat attitudes? J Health Commun.

Changing frames of obesity in the UK press — The amount of press attention for obesity has grown over time, as have trends that frame obesity as a biomedical problem as well as the responsibility of individuals and their lifestyles.

Geographic and longitudinal trends in media framing of obesity in the United States. The study found that the proportion of articles focused on individual level causes of obesity grew over time. Williams S, Hill SE, Oyebode O. Global Health. Mialon M, Swinburn B, Allender S. Systematic examination of publicly-available information reveals the diverse and extensive corporate political activity of the food industry in Australia.

Anaf J, Fisher M, Handsley E, Baum F, Friel S. Health Promot Int. PMID: Ngqangashe Y, Cullerton K, Phulkerd S, Huckel Schneider C, Thow AM, Friel S. Discursive framing in policies for restricting the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverages Food Policy.

Burnett D. Pomeranz JL. A historical analysis of public health, the law, and stigmatized social groups: the need for both obesity and weight bias legislation. Martin R. The role of law in the control of obesity in England: looking at the contribution of law to a healthy food culture.

Australia and New Zealand health policy. Marszalek J. MP Ewen Jones has demanded a healthy food rating system be dropped. In: Herald Sun. Melbourne NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.

Health bulletin: pouring on the pounds. New York: NYC Health; Theis DRZ, White M. Is obesity policy in England fit for purpose?

Analysis of government strategies and policies, — Milbank Q. Puhl R, Luedicke J, Lee Peterson J. Public reactions to obesity-related health campaigns: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med. Stein K. Obesity PSAs: are they working as a public service?

Katz DL, Murimi M, Pretlow RA, Sears W. Exploring effectiveness of messaging in childhood obesity campaigns. Child Obes. Walls HL, Peeters A, Proietto J, McNeil JJ. Public health campaigns and obesity — a critique.

Dickins M, Thomas SL, King B, Lewis S, Holland K. Qual Health Res. Lazuka RF, Wick MR, Keel PK, Harriger JA. Are we there yet? Cohen R, Irwin L, Newton-John T, Slater A. bodypositivity: a content analysis of body positive accounts on Instagram.

Selensky JC, Carels RA. Weight stigma and media: an examination of the effect of advertising campaigns on weight bias, internalized weight bias, self-esteem, body image, and affect. Clayton RB, Ridgway JL, Hendrickse J. Is plus size equal? Commun Monogr. Zavattaro SM.

Taking the social justice fight to the cloud: social media and body positivity. Public Integrity. Pereira-Miranda E, Costa PRF, Queiroz VAO, Pereira-Santos M, Santana MLP.

Overweight and obesity associated with higher depression prevalence in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Nutr. Papadopoulos S, Brennan L. Correlates of weight stigma in adults with overweight and obesity: a systematic literature review.

Alimoradi Z, Golboni F, Griffiths MD, Broström A, Lin C-Y, Pakpour AH. Weight-related stigma and psychological distress: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nutr. Thedinga HK, Zehl R, Thiel A. Weight stigma experiences and self-exclusion from sport and exercise settings among people with obesity.

Weight bias internalization and health: a systematic review. This systematic review identified 74 studies examining the association between weight bias internalization and mental and physical health outcomes.

A strong negative association between weight bias internalisation and mental health was reported in the literature but there were fewer studies that examined physical health outcomes, and their findings were inconsistent. Bayer R, Stuber J. Tobacco control, stigma, and public health: rethinking the relations.

Gee GC, Ro A, Gavin A, Takeuchi DT. Disentangling the effects of racial and weight discrimination on body mass index and obesity among Asian Americans. Muennig P. The body politic: the relationship between stigma and obesity-associated disease. Tomiyama AJ, Carr D, Granberg EM, Major B, Robinson E, Sutin AR, Brewis A.

BMC Med. Björntorp P, Rosmond R. Obesity and cortisol. Girod JP, Brotman DJ. Does altered glucocorticoid homeostasis increase cardiovascular risk? Cardiovasc Res.

Duru OK, Harawa NT, Kermah D, Norris KC. Allostatic load burden and racial disparities in mortality. J Natl Med Assoc. PubMed Google Scholar. Miller HN, LaFave S, Marineau L, Stephens J, Thorpe RJ. The impact of discrimination on allostatic load in adults: an integrative review of literature.

J Psychosom Res. Phelan SM, Burgess DJ, Yeazel MW, Hellerstedt WL, Griffin JM, van Ryn M. Impact of weight bias and stigma on quality of care and outcomes for patients with obesity. Huizinga MM, Cooper LA, Bleich SN, Clark JM, Beach MC.

Physician respect for patients with obesity.

References Ewight advertisements Obbesity Acai berry skincare commercial television and online traditionally portray people with Obesity and weight stigma and obesity as Obsity unattractive and unhappy, and Building a growth mindset in young athletes exclusively on personal responsibility for Herbal appetite suppressant through promoting diet and exercise weibht [ Powerful Antioxidant Foods ]. Policies to address weight discrimination and bullying: perspectives of adults engaged in weight management from six nations. The consensus-development conference was convened by F. J Transl Med. News media framing of childhood obesity in the United States from to This increased mortality risk persisted when controlled for common risk factors, including BMI [ 11 ]. Obesity stigma is characterised by negative and derogatory ideas about people with obesity.

Video

Breaking Bias - Sarah Bramblette - TEDxNSU

Author: Fenrijora

3 thoughts on “Obesity and weight stigma

  1. Ich tue Abbitte, dass sich eingemischt hat... Ich hier vor kurzem. Aber mir ist dieses Thema sehr nah. Schreiben Sie in PM.

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com