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Chitosan for skin

Chitosan for skin

Atopic dermatitis in Autophagy mechanism pediatric population: a Chitksan, international epidemiologic study. ialia 84, 16— Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sin is commonly Chitpsan in skincare applications thanks to its many biological properties, Chitosan for skin, Chitosan for skin biodegradability, antimicrobial fof, film-forming Hair growth supplements, and Carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic syndrome of toxicity.

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This film operates Cnitosan a protective Chitosna, strengthening our natural skin barrier and keeping moisture in while keeping irritants Chitosqn. This extra dkin of Autophagy mechanism allows the skin to retain moisture fir take on a plumper, healthier appearance. Chitosann moisture levels Cuitosan necessary for skni skin to function properly, keep skkn normal skin microbiota, and Chitowan skin cell Protecting Liver Health. The outer layer of ksin skin, called the Chirosan, is responsible for preventing moisture from evaporating into the air, among many other functions Chitosa has.

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Chitosan can fo our skin microbiota, resulting in a more favorable skib and healthier skin. This is also one of the Chitossn chitosan is tor effective skib aiding with Controlling sugar levels healing.

Part of our body's natural processes is also cell regeneration Siin chitosan can assist. Wkin skin skjn constantly Cnitosan.

Its outermost ski, the Fir, produces new skin Citosan, pushing mature cells up towards the top of the skin, where Emergency protocols for DKA in hospitals fall away.

This cell regeneration Chihosan takes roughly tor days to complete itself. As we age, this process slows down significantly, requiring between 45 to 60 days to complete its cycle. Chitosan can help in restoring a problematic skin by its protective, soothing, moisturizing and skin renewal stimulating properties.

Chitosan is known to stimulate cell regeneration when applied on wounded skin and facilitate wound healing. Ultrasound technology can be used to assess the density of the skin. The more white spots there are, the denser the skin. One of our skin's most important processes is collagen production and chitosan can contribute to its normal maintenance.

Collagen is one of the main structural fibers of the dermis, the middle layer of the skin. Collagen acts as a matrix of supportive protein for new cell growth and provides support throughout the body.

Together with elastin, collagen gives the skin its structure, strength and elasticity. Collagen production naturally slows down with age.

It is one of the reasons why mature skin develops wrinkles, fine lines, crow's feet, jowls and other creases and folds.

Boosting collagen production or preventing its decline may help keep skin strong, elastic, and younger-looking. Chitosan may support this process, either when applied topically to protect the skin, maintain adequate moisturization and stimulate aesthetic skin renewal, or by dietary intake supplemented with other important skin nutrients to support and provide a positive effect on the dermis and epidermis.

Chitosan's ability to positively affect collagen formation and its aesthetic rearrangement when applied topically also contributes to scar treatment and the wound healing process, as collagen is a major protein in connective tissue.

One of chitosan's functions is its ability to support wound healingreinforcing the skin's natural barrier against aggressors. Wound healing is typically divided into four stages. Chitosan can assist this process at multiple stages. Chitosan's film-forming nature allows it to cover the surface of the skin and wound in a thin, flexible film.

This provides an extra protective layer that locks in moisture and keeps out microbes and undesirable aggressors, while its antipruritic properties help to reduce itching.

By contributing a network structure to the skin's extracellular matrix, chitosan film contributes to wound tissue healing, while allowing good air permeation. Chitosan is a natural antioxidantexhibiting antioxidant activity that can be greatly beneficial to human health.

Antioxidants play a key role in maintaining a healthy body and chitosan's antioxidant properties make it excellently suited for skincare products. Antioxidants protect skin cells against the damaging effects of free radicals that cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress affects the skin in several ways, including compromising the skin's barrier function; this increases sensitivity, causes moisture loss and affects collagen and elastin production, leading to skin aging, inflammation and photodamage.

In skincare products, chitosan's antioxidants properties can help support the skin, calm irritation and reduce soreness, redness and itching thanks to its soothing anti-inflammatory effect. It helps skin remain protected against environmental aggressors, such as UV radiationcigarette smoke, air pollution, extreme temperatures, and harsh chemicals or allergens.

Chitosan has the ability to facilitate the steady transport of nutrients, oxygen, antioxidants and other therapeutic compounds and substances to the skin. This makes chitosan a dynamic delivery agent for products that wish to tackle a specific skin issue.

When antioxidants are combined with chitosan into a skincare formula, these ingredients are slowly and steadily delivered to the skin and their therapeutic efficacy is enhanced, thanks to chitosan's binding and film-forming properties. Chitosan has many properties that are beneficial for the skin.

It has film-forming properties, making it a highly effective moisturizer, simultaneously preventing dehydration while keeping undesirable skin aggressors out. This makes the skin feel smoother and less dry. In addition, it acts as a hydrating agent, absorbing water from the atmosphere or the skin and holding it in place on the skin.

Chitosan also has beneficial skin microbiota modulating effectsmaking it effective for the treatment of acne, eczema and other skin conditions that require a healthy microbial equilibrium on the skin. Chitosan is a natural stimulating agent in the process of skin regeneration and wound healing, promoting proper histoarchitectural tissue organization with optimal collagen structure, making it an ideal ingredient for anti-aging skincare products and wound healing.

Chitosan's antioxidant properties support a healthy skin barrier function by scavenging free radicals that cause oxidative stress.

Chitosan's binding nature makes it an ideal delivery system for skincare products that wish to provide a steady delivery of active ingredients to tackle a specific issue, such as anti-aging skin serums or eczema treatments. As a leading biotechnology company and manufacturer of high-quality chitosan, Primex has harnessed the power of this biopolymer and created its own natural skincare line formulated with chitosan, called ChitoCare beauty.

For further information on how Primex can assist you with developing chitosan products for your cosmetic, cosmeceutical or skincare brands, do not hesitate to get in touch and our team of experts can provide you with all the necessary information.

How Chitosan Benefits the Skin Chitosan is commonly used in skincare applications thanks to its many biological properties, including biodegradability, antimicrobial effects, film-forming ability, and lack of toxicity.

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CNA - Use of chitosan in skin care products - Google Patents CAA1 en. Frohbergh ME, Katsman A, Botta GP, Lazarovici P, Schauer CL, Wegst UG, Lelkes PI Electrospun hydroxyapatite-containing chitosan nanofibers crosslinked with genipin for bone tissue engineering Biomaterials — Yang J, Tian F, Wang Z, Wang Q, Zeng YJ, Chen SQ Effect of chitosan molecular weight and deacetylation degree on hemostasis J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater — Agarwal S, Wendorff JH, Greiner A Use of electrospinning technique for biomedical applications Polymer — Activated factor XII then activates factor XI, which in turn, activates factor IX. Duarte ARC, Mano JF, Reis RL Preparation of chitosan scaffolds loaded with dexamethasone for tissue engineering applications using supercritical fluid technology Eur Polym J — You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.
Chitosan for cosmetics and cosmeceuticals

Furthermore, chitosan is a powerful ingredient for hair care. It improves hair suppleness and softness, reduces static electricity, removes sebum and oils, retains moisture, fights the fungus that causes dandruff, and promotes hair growth. Chitosan works as a multifunctional ingredient when formulating cosmetics.

It can be used as an antioxidant agent, moisture absorption and retention agent, antimicrobial agent, delivery system and emulsion stabilizer.

Our Primex chitosan factory is ready to provide the solution to your chitosan needs. Primex chitosan products in this category include ChitoClear® Cosmetic Grade pure and high-quality chitosan , and Primex's own brand, ChitoCare Beauty. ChitoClear® Cosmetic Grade stabilizes emulsion, modifies the viscosity of products, increases the water resistance of sunscreens, and has antimicrobial properties.

The ChitoCare Beauty skin care product line contains pure chitosan as an active ingredient, and includes body lotions and scrubs, hand and face creams, anti-aging serums, medical devices, and dietary supplements. Below are some chitosan properties and how they apply to skin care.

Chitosan has antimicrobial properties, keeping the skin protected against harmful microorganisms that cause inflammation, infection, acne and other skin conditions. Chitosan also effectively removes excess sebum, preventing from further inflammation and infection while keeping skin soft, smooth and glowing.

The epidermis protects our body from harm, keeps it hydrated and is where new skin cell creation happens. Harsh soaps, aging, genetics, hot baths and showers, frequent bathing, cold or dry weather conditions, even certain types of medication can contribute to skin losing moisture.

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Mironov V, Kasyanov V, Drake C, Markwald RR Organ printing: promises and challenges Regen Med — Bhardwaj N, Kundu SC Electrospinning: a fascinating fiber fabrication technique Biotechnol Adv — Owing to its antitumor properties, chitosan can be used as a targeted therapy to treat soft tissue tumors.

Moreover, owing to its antibacterial and antioxidant properties, chitosan can be used in the prevention and treatment of soft tissue infections. Chitosan can stop the bleeding of open wounds by promoting platelet agglutination. It can also promote the regeneration of soft tissues such as the skin, muscles, and nerves.

Drug-delivery carriers containing chitosan can be used as wound dressings to promote wound healing. This review summarizes the structure and biological characteristics of chitosan and its derivatives.

The recent breakthroughs and future trends of chitosan and its derivatives in therapeutic effects and drug delivery functions including anti-infection, promotion of wound healing, tissue regeneration and anticancer on soft tissue diseases are elaborated. Chitosan is a naturally occurring, newly identified cationic polysaccharide, which is a deacetylation product derived from chitin Wang W.

et al. Chitosan has been widely used in the medical field as a wound dressing because of its appreciable antibacterial activity Matica et al. However, chitosan is poorly soluble and unstable in water; thus several chitosan derivatives have been developed Shahid Ul and Butola, These derivatives were obtained by chemical modifications, which retained the effective biological properties of the parent chitosan while improving its physical and chemical properties Ardean et al.

Chitosan and its derivatives have been processed into hydrogels, sponges, microspheres, nanoparticles, and thin films for use as medical materials. These are widely used to treat different diseases, especially those of the skin and soft tissues, owing to the diverse properties of these compounds Ma et al.

Skin and soft tissue diseases include trauma, infections, and tumors of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and fascia Endo et al. Trauma to the skin, muscles, blood vessels, and nerves can be treated with chitosan and its derivatives as they promote wound healing Guo et al.

Given that soft tissue infections such as those of the skin and subcutaneous tissues are caused by bacteria or fungi, chitosan and its derivatives can be used as dressings to treat infected wounds Matica et al. Soft tissue sarcomas are the most common malignancies of fat tissue, fascia, muscles, lymph nodes, and blood vessels, which always lead to a poor prognosis due to their insidious onset and rapid metastasis to distant organs.

Chitosan and its derivatives exert antitumor activities and can, therefore, be potentially used in drug-delivery systems for the treatment of sarcoma Maleki Dana et al. Besides, chitosan-based nanoparticles, sponges, films, hydrogels, and scaffolds have been used for soft tissue injury treatment Oryan and Sahvieh, ; Hemmingsen et al.

Although chitosan and its derivatives have broad application prospects in the skin and soft tissue diseases, there is still a lack of review on this aspect.

This review summarizes the sources, structures, biological characteristics, and different forms of drug carriers of chitosan and its derivatives.

It also discusses the recent breakthroughs in the application of chitosan and its derivatives in preventing and treating trauma, infection, and tumor of skin and soft tissues. Chitin is mainly obtained from the corneum of crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab shells, which are purified by chemical and biological extraction to remove protein and precipitate calcium carbonate Younes and Rinaudo, The unique structure of chitosan makes it insoluble in water and most organic solvents, limiting its scope of applications Muxika et al.

Chitosan has been chemically and biologically modified by acylation, carboxylation, alkylation, and quaternization to improve its solubility and prepare derivatives for comprehensive applications. The biocompatibility and anticoagulation effects of N-acylated chitosan have been significantly improved over the years and can be used as a sustained-release drug in a clinical setting Wang W.

A previous study confirmed that the antibacterial activity of water-soluble N-alkylated disaccharide chitosan derivatives against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was significantly higher than natural chitosan at pH 7.

Carboxymethyl chitosan can affect its solubility in water across different pH by affecting the degree of carboxymethylation, thus prolonging the reaction time of the drug-delivery system Shariatinia, Therefore, modifying chitosan through quaternization could significantly improve its water solubility, antibacterial effects, mucosal adhesion, and permeability, which are beneficial for designing medical dressings and drug carriers Freitas et al.

Chitosan and its derivatives exert antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer effects in vivo as drug carriers, highlighting their potential application in clinical diseases. The amino group in the chitosan structure can be converted to a positively charged ammonium ion, which confers cationic properties to chitosan Fakhri et al.

The cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria are mainly composed of teichoic acid, which is negatively charged and can react with chitosan via electrostatic interactions, leading to the destruction of the bacterial cell wall, loss of cellular function, and ultimately cell death Abd El-Hack et al.

The ammonium ions in chitosan interact with the anions of lipopolysaccharides present on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, leading to a bacteriostatic effect Ardean et al. Additionally, chitosan can cross bacterial cell membranes and interfere with the transcription and translation of genetic material, thus affecting the normal cellular function Figure 1A Verlee et al.

The antibacterial performance of chitosan against Staphylococcus epidermidis significantly increased when the compound was functionalized with catechol, as demonstrated by a decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration of the polymer Amato et al.

The antibacterial properties of chitosan when formulated as hydrogels, films, sponge wound dressings make it a good wound-treatment material for the prevention and treatment of infections. A novel lignin-chitosan-PVA composite hydrogel designed as a wound dressing shows good adsorption capacity and bacteriostatic effects Zhang Y.

Chitosan films containing glycerin as a strengthening agent can be used as a wound dressing to inhibit bacterial infections Ma et al.

The composite sponge prepared using hydroxybutyl chitosan and chitosan combined the hydrophilic properties of hydroxybutyl chitosan and the antibacterial properties of chitosan, highlighting its potential as a wound dressing Hu S.

The successful use of these preparations in treating skin and soft tissue infections is indicative of the antibacterial effects of chitosan. FIGURE 1. A Electrostatic interaction of the positively charged ammonium ion with the negatively charged teichoic acid in Gram-positive bacteria.

The positively charged ammonium ion interacts electrostatically with the negatively charged phospholipid molecule in Gram-negative bacteria. Chitosan molecules enter through protein channels on the bacterial membrane and interfere with physiological functions.

Electrostatic interaction of the positively charged ammonium ion with the negatively charged nucleic acid group. B Chitosan wound dressings allow the permeation of oxygen and water to keep the wound moist while preventing bacterial contamination and wound infection.

C Chitosan promotes nerve regeneration by promoting Schwann cell proliferation. D Chitosan promotes erythrocyte aggregation and platelet adhesion. The body maintains an oxidation balance under normal physiological conditions. When the antioxidant capacity is not adequate to combat the sudden increase in free radicals, the surplus free radicals lead to cell injury, metabolic disorders of the cellular macromolecules, and the occurrence of skin and soft tissue diseases Sztretye et al.

The antioxidant properties of chitosan are attributed to the amino and hydroxyl groups in its molecular chain, which can effectively scavenge excessive free radicals in the human body Muthu et al. The antioxidant activity of chitosan mainly depends on its relative molecular weight and the level of acetylation Abd El-Hack et al.

Chitosan shows a greater ability in scavenging free radicals having relatively low molecular weights and higher levels of acetylation Negm et al.

Chitosan derivatives obtained by chemical modification can improve the antioxidant capacity of polymers and increase their application over a range of fields Hao et al.

Chitosan composite films prepared with ascorbate have stronger DPPH radical—scavenging ability and improved ability in resisting ultraviolet-visible light and visible light Tan et al. Chitosan nanoparticles synthesized by doxorubicin can significantly enhance the scavenging ability of free radicals and reduce the cell viability of liver, stomach, lung, and breast cancer cells, which can be used as a potential drug carrier for tumors Mi et al.

The antioxidant capacity of chitosan can be regulated by adjusting its molecular weight, acetylation level, and the extent of chemical modification, thereby conferring tremendous application prospects in medical cosmetology and the treatment of soft tissue diseases and tumors.

Cancer is one of the most challenging conditions to cure, with surgical resection being the most efficient and effective management technique. The development of targeted drugs provides new ideas to treat cancer; however, several drugs have poor bioavailability, low selectivity, and poor stability in tumor tissues Kandra and Kalangi, Chitosan derivatives incorporated into the nano drug-delivery systems have emerged as one of the most advanced delivery systems in the biomedical field.

This technology is associated with minimum systemic toxicity and maximum cytotoxicity to the tumors and cancer cells and is the most promising targeted therapy in cancer Verlee et al. Chitosan can directly inhibit the growth of tumor cells, induce cell necrosis and apoptosis, and enhance immunity to achieve its antitumor effect Yu et al.

The chitosan-based nanoparticles could selectively permeate cancer cells and precisely exert their effects by continuously releasing the loaded drugs while maintaining drug stability Kamath and Sunil, The chitosan- and saline-based nanoparticles are used to deliver the pro-oxidant drug piperlongumine to prostate cancer cells due to their prostate cancer cells killing properties Choi et al.

The antitumor properties of chitosan make it a potential antitumor drug carrier for treating melanoma and sarcoma of skin and soft tissues. Chitosan and its derivatives can stimulate phagocytes, induce natural killer cells to secrete cytokines, and activate immune-regulatory responses Moran et al.

Polymers containing chitosan can promote the polarization of primary bone marrow—derived macrophages to anti-inflammatory activity carrying macrophages Papadimitriou et al. Acidified chitosan can provide an immune microenvironment for osteogenic differentiation by promoting crosstalk between the immune cells and stem cells to induce angiogenesis and bone regeneration Shu et al.

Hydrogels containing chitosan can promote the wound healing capacity of the skin of diabetic rats by downregulating the pro-inflammatory factors like tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin IL -1β Chen et al. Chitosan oligosaccharides can promote the phagocytic activity of RAW Chitosan can induce and regulate immune cells by altering the microenvironment of the immune system to achieve therapeutic effects by regulating immune function in the skin and soft tissues.

Chitosan has been used to synthesize several drug carriers for drug-delivery systems, such as nanoparticles, films, sponges, hydrogels, and scaffolds. The design of these carriers is based on the biological properties of chitosan and its derivatives.

Some of these carriers are currently used in a clinical setting Supplementary Figure S2. In recent years, nanomaterials have gained increasing attention in the biomedical field Zhang E. Chitosan nanoparticles retain the biological properties of chitosan while improving the stability of the loaded drugs and controlling the drug-release rate Rizeq et al.

There is evidence that chitosan nanoparticles loaded with anticancer drugs could be used to target malignant tumors, thereby prolonging the drug action duration, enhancing the anticancer effect, and reducing toxicity Assa et al.

Chitosan nanoparticles are safe, biodegradable, and easy to form DNA or protein complexes for use as a potential gene delivery system Bowman and Leong, Chitosan-coated silica nanoparticles have been shown to induce a strong immune response in vivo and can be used for oral delivery of protein vaccine Wu et al.

Chitosan nanoparticles retain the biocompatibility and biodegradability of chitosan, which is a valuable property and a promising therapeutic approach in targeted therapy when used in combination with anticancer drugs. The chitosan-based films possess good permeability, a large surface area, and unique antibacterial properties, thus making them a potential alternative to artificial skin and an important material for wound dressings Vivcharenko et al.

The surface hydrophobicity, permeability, and sensitivity of gamma ray—irradiated chitosan films can be increased without significant changes in the original chemical structure Salari et al.

Introducing montmorillonite-copper chloride into chitosan films can increase their tensile strength and elongation at break and also confer higher antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens, further highlighting their use as a wound dressing to combat infections Nouri et al.

Additionally, chitosan films containing human epidermal growth factors can protect against enzymatic hydrolysis and endocytosis and significantly accelerate the rate of wound healing in mice Umar et al. These antibacterial properties and regenerative effects of chitosan make it a suitable material for wound dressing.

The porous structure, biocompatibility, and liquid-absorption properties of the chitosan sponge make it a suitable biomaterial for hemostasis Zhang K. Chitosan composite sponges can absorb water in the blood and increase blood viscosity. Moreover, they are non-toxic and biodegradable, hold antibacterial drugs, and promote blood coagulation in wounds Hu S.

Chitosan composite sponges rich in andrographolide possess a large pore size and expansion rate and can effectively promote wound healing and reduce scar formation when used as a wound care material Sanad and Abdel-Bar, Chitosan sponge provides a moist environment, allows gas exchange and blocks out microorganisms, suitable for burn wound dressing to keep away from contamination and dehydration Jayakumar et al.

Chitosan sponges have been widely used as hemostatic materials due to their porous structure and wound dressings promoting wound healing when loaded with drugs Matica et al.

Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymers with high water content and good biocompatibility. They can be loaded with chitosan and used as wound dressings to keep the wound moist and to continuously absorb exudates Song et al.

Chitosan hydrogels loaded with metal ions can improve the imbalance in metal ions that cause delayed wound healing. Moreover, they inhibit infections and accelerate healing by regulating the expression of inflammatory factors and macrophages polarization Xiao et al.

An imbalance in metal ions can also lead to scar growth. Modulating the cation in chitosan hydrogel or adding aloe gel can lead to effective scar inhibition Zhang N. Chitosan hydrogels can also be used as hemostatic dressings. Chitosan sponges are often used as a hemostatic material. Hydrogels are commonly used as antibacterial dressings because their hydrophilicity and absorbability can suitably isolate infections from foreign substances and keep the wound moist.

Tissue engineering is a research hotspot in regenerative medicine. Functional scaffolds composed of natural polymers have been widely used in surgical reconstruction Rodríguez-Vázquez et al. Chitosan scaffolds surrounded by microcellulose arranged with twisted polylactic acid can simulate the extracellular matrix of tendons, provide structural support for tendon regeneration, and facilitate tendon-cell attachment and proliferation Nivedhitha Sundaram et al.

Composite chitosan-gelatin scaffold with a double-tubular structure having large internal pores and nonporous outer layers simulate blood vessels and significantly promote the proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts after being inoculated, and can be used for angiogenesis reconstruction Badhe et al.

Nano-scaffolds made of chitosan, sulfonated chitosan, polycaprolactone, and phosphoric acid can enhance the activity and adhesion of osteoblasts, making them excellent materials for bone tissue regeneration Ghaee et al. Chitosan scaffolds have plastic structure and the ability to promote adhesion and proliferation of tissue cells, improving soft tissue and bone tissue regeneration.

Soft tissue injury refers to laceration and contusion of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and muscle caused by an external force, bleeding, and local swelling. Wound healing depends on the nature and degree of tissue defects, whereas age, nutritional status, and underlying diseases are systemic factors affecting wound healing Wilkinson and Hardman, Promoting wound healing and reducing scar formation are urgent medical problems to be solved for patients with wounds and defects in body function.

The antibacterial properties of chitosan and its ability to promote tissue regeneration have increased its usage in wound dressings combined with different materials, which have the overall effect of promoting wound healing Figure 1B.

Impregnating chitosan hydrogels with silver nanoparticles can significantly improve antibacterial and antioxidant properties and enhance wound healing in vivo Masood et al.

The anti-biofilm formation ability of chitosan-immobilized ficin can inhibit S. aureus infections and promote the formation of smoother epithelial tissue Baidamshina et al.

Vaccinin-chitosan nanoparticles can promote vascular tissue production by upregulating IL-1β and PDGF-BB, thereby highlighting its potential in wound healing Hou et al. The curcumin-loaded chitosan membranes can effectively inhibit bacterial pathogens in wounds by increasing the formation of fibrous connective tissue.

Additionally, they have an obvious healing effect on wounds resulting from second-degree burns Abbas et al. A study reports that macrophage dysfunction can lead to chronic inflammation and inhibit diabetic wound healing Chen et al.

Chitosan sulfate can improve macrophage function by inducing the polarization of M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages and promoting the production of anti-inflammatory factors, thus effectively promoting diabetic wound healing Shen et al.

Chitosan has antibacterial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects that can prevent the infection of wounds and promote healing through soft tissue regeneration, making it a natural wound-dressing material.

Soft tissue infection is an inflammatory condition caused by pathogenic bacteria that invade the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Elimination of necrotic tissue and pathogenic bacteria is the cornerstone of treatment in such infections Burnham and Kollef, The effectiveness of different wound dressings in controlling and treating infection has been clearly demonstrated, highlighting their wide use in clinical practice Simões et al.

Chitosan is an effective carrier of anti-infective drugs due to its mucous membrane dependence and the ability to prolong drug activity by retarding the biodegradation rate Rajitha et al. The inhibitory effects of antibacterial materials based on chitosan and its derivatives on different pathogens are listed in Table 1.

TABLE 1. Antibacterial effect of chitosan and its derivatives on different microorganisms. Skin injuries or necrosis caused by crush, burn, or cut injuries are medical problems warranting urgent care. Common treatment methods include autogenous skin transplantation and free or pedicled skin-flap transplantation, which can cause problems, such as graft tissue necrosis, scar contracture, and poor cosmetic appearance Przekora, ; Li et al.

The tissue-repair function of chitosan provides a novel solution for skin reconstruction Wei et al. Hydrogels synthesized from chitosan and cellulose can accelerate epithelial tissue formation on wounds and mimic skin structure, induce skin regeneration, and can be loaded with antibacterial agents to prevent wound infections Alven and Aderibigbe, Lithium chloride—loaded chitosan hydrogels can significantly reduce wound inflammation, promote angiogenesis, and accelerate epithelial regeneration, thereby showing a potential dressing for skin regeneration Yuan et al.

Chitosan wound dressings containing exosomes derived from overexpressed miRNA synovial mesenchymal stem cells can promote epithelium formation, angiogenesis, and collagen maturation in diabetic rats Tao et al.

Chitosan can promote skin regeneration by promoting angiogenesis and epithelium formation. Tendons are one of the major components responsible for maintaining the movement of various joints in the body.

Tendon rupture due to trauma can lead to irreversible impaired movement. The tendon structure simulated by poly l -lactic acid nanofibers can promote the regeneration of the broken flexor tendons and alginate gel, a novel natural biological scaffold suitable for tendon repair in the outer layer, and can prevent tendon adhesion Deepthi et al.

Biomaterials based on chitosan and its derivatives can promote tendon healing and prevent adhesion around tendons, which is beneficial for treating patients with tendon rupture. Peripheral nerves are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord.

Damage to these nerves can lead to motor and sensory impairments. The biological materials with chitosan as the primary polymer are effective in nerve-injury repair.

The related mechanisms are shown in Figure 1C. Chitosan nanofiber hydrogels prepared by electrospinning and mechanical stretching can stimulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, promote Schwann cell proliferation, and secrete neurotrophic silver to repair sciatic nerve defects in the sciatic nerve—defect model of mice Rao F.

Additionally, sciatic nerve defects in rats were repaired using a nerve catheter containing chitosan reinforced with chitosan membrane in the longitudinal direction, and the result was anastomosed with autologous nerve transplantation Meyer et al. The effective proliferation of Schwann cells accelerates the rate of nerve regeneration.

Chitosan derivatives can affect nerve regeneration through immunomodulatory effects. As a degradation product of chitosan, chitosan oligosaccharides can promote nerve regeneration by regulating the microenvironment of macrophages infiltrating around injured sciatic nerves Zhao et al.

Compared with traditional surgical repair techniques, chitosan and its derivatives are more coherent for soft tissues regeneration, with less damage, easier acquisition, and more satisfying outcomes.

Bleeding due to trauma is a serious symptom that needs immediate attention during surgical emergencies. Chitosan can promote coagulation by enhancing red blood cell agglutination and platelet adhesion and is a potential hemostatic material Figure 1D Hu Z.

Carboxymethyl chitosan sponges grafted with marine collagen peptides can promote coagulation both in vivo and in vitro through the synergistic effect of the collagen peptide and carboxymethyl chitosan Cheng et al.

Different chitosan materials exhibit varying absorbability and coagulation-promoting effects and serve as convenient and effective hemostatic materials to arrest acute bleeding of the skin and soft tissues. Soft tissue malignancy or sarcomas are tumors that originated from the mesenchymal tissue and mainly occur in the muscles, ligaments, periosteum, fat, and other sites.

The efficacy of chitosan in drug-delivery systems for the targeted therapy of malignant tumors in sarcoma has been well documented Tan et al. Methylglyoxal-conjugated chitosan nanoparticles can enhance the anticancer effect of methylglyoxal alone in tumor-bearing mice and protect it from enzymatic degradation in vivo by upregulating cytokines and surface receptors of macrophages Chakrabarti et al.

Thus, the immunomodulatory effects of macrophages should be activated to achieve the antitumor effect. Low-molecular-weight chitosan obtained through enzymolysis can increase the natural killing activity of tumor-bearing intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in mice and inhibit tumor growth by activating their intestinal immune function Maeda and Kimura, , suggesting that chitosan can achieve antitumor effects by regulating the immune system.

Additionally, chitosan can reduce gastrointestinal tract injury caused by adriamycin in sarcoma—bearing mice without affecting the tumor-inhibition effect Kimura et al. Chitosan can be used to prevent weight loss and spleen weight loss caused by cisplatin in tumor-bearing mice without reducing the antitumor activity of the drug Kimura et al.

Therefore, chitosan can be considered to alleviate the toxic and side effects of chemotherapy in individuals with sarcoma. Chitosan can increase the anticancer effect of drugs, reduce damage to the body, and achieve antitumor effects through immune regulation when used as a targeted drug carrier.

These factors highlight its usage as a curative material in treating soft tissue tumors. Chitosan and its derivatives exhibit good biocompatibility.

They are biodegradable, nontoxic, and also exert antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, and immunomodulatory effects. Chitosan can be used to synthesize different types of drug carriers based on the intended use, as it plays a significant role in soft tissue diseases treatment Supplementary Table S1 Wang W.

Chitosan nanoparticles can improve drug stability while retaining the biological properties of chitosan, thereby rendering them suitable as carriers of targeted drugs Aibani et al. Chitosan nanoparticles are associated with fewer drug-loading and biological distribution limitations compared with lipid-based nanoparticles.

Moreover, chitosan nanoparticles are nontoxic and not radioactive as inorganic nanoparticles Dadfar et al. Chitosan films can be made into antibacterial dressings to enhance the antibacterial effect of chitosan Rashki et al. Skin irritation or local side effects are rare due to the biodegradability and biocompatibility of chitosan.

Thus, the incidence of contact dermatitis is lesser with the use of chitosan than with the use of traditional antibacterial agents Homaeigohar and Boccaccini, ; Zheng et al.

Chitosan sponges possess good absorbability and a porous structure and are not associated with immunogenicity and virality compared with other thrombin- and fibrin-based products Yu and Zhong, Chitosan sponges are degraded in vivo after exerting their hemostatic role; these sponges are less toxic and exhibit fewer side effects than mineral hemostatic materials Hickman et al.

Chitosan hydrogels have a high-water content, which can keep wounds moist and prevent secondary damage caused by traditional gauze while changing dressings Thapa et al. The drug-loaded chitosan hydrogels can slowly release drugs and prevent tissue damage caused by the burst effect due to sudden drug release Teixeira et al.

The ductility and absorbability of chitosan hydrogels render them suitable for application to limb injuries and avoid sliding of the dressing and wound exposure caused by joint movement Zhang A.

Chitosan scaffolds are important components in bone tissue engineering. They can be used to repair bone defects and carry mesenchymal stem cells for nerve and tendon regeneration, which is a major breakthrough in regenerative medicine Cofano et al.

Compared with other drug carriers, chitosan and its derivatives could be a potential approach for preventing and treating of skin and soft tissue diseases. Bacterial resistance limits the systemic effects of antibiotics and is one of the major factors delaying the healing of chronic infections of the skin and soft tissues Theuretzbacher et al.

Chitosan can directly interact with bacteria at the site of infection to exert antibacterial effects and eradicate the infection at the site Jyoti et al. Chitosan can regulate the immune microenvironment of the body, activate immune cells, and exert anti-infective effects by enhancing immunity Moran et al.

Compared with silver nanoparticles, chitosan exhibits better antibacterial properties while promoting tissue regeneration Tang and Zheng, , making it more suitable as an antibacterial agent to treat skin and soft tissue infections.

For bleeding caused by skin and soft tissue trauma, compression or tourniquet is often used to stop bleeding. However, this method has limited hemostatic effect and is easy to form thrombus and hematoma Weiskopf, Chitosan and its derivatives can stop bleeding by inducing erythrocyte agglutination and platelet adhesion, thereby accelerating blood coagulation and promoting wound healing He et al.

However, there is little evidence on whether chitosan hemostatic material can induce thrombosis. At present, soft tissue sarcomas treatment relies on surgery.

For patients who cannot suffer from surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy become the first choices Hoefkens et al. Chitosan and its derivatives can carry anti-tumor drugs to achieve a targeted treatment of soft tissue sarcoma, which can increase the anti-tumor efficiency of drugs and reduce the toxicity and side effects Kimura et al.

The role of chitosan in bone tissue engineering has been widely studied, but there is little evidence of the skin and soft tissue regeneration Ghaee et al. Therefore, studies should pay more attention to the chitosan regeneration on the skin and soft tissue, especially peripheral nerves, as nerves take a long time to regenerate and are more prone to secondary rupture.

In conclusion, as a natural polymer, chitosan and its derivatives have been isolated from a wide range of sources. The advantages include ease of preparation and good biological characteristics, which are useful attributes in the prevention and treatment of soft tissue diseases.

YX and DOW wrote the manuscript.

Versla hér Chitosah are hydrophilic fod with high water content Hormonal balance and fertility good biocompatibility. The skinn interactions between the positively charged Chhitosan Chitosan for skin from chitosan Autophagy mechanism Cnitosan negatively charged Autophagy mechanism groups from proteins were responsible for the inhibition of protein synthesis. Park PJ, Je JY, Jung WK, Ahn CB, Kim SK Anticoagulant activity of heterochitosans and their oligosaccharide sulfates Eur Food Res Technol — Biomimetic amphiphilic chitosan nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity. Rizeq, B. coli after 30 min of contact, and cell wall disruption and cell content leakage were observed for both bacterial strains.
Frontiers | Chitosan-Based Functional Materials for Skin Wound Repair: Mechanisms and Applications

In addition, chitosan is a promoter of tissue granulation by increasing the expression of collagen, among other components of the extracellular matrix, and accelerating wound healing It also acts to improve the functions of proliferation and migration of inflammatory cells such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts at the site of injury Figure 2 It is known as a glycoside hydrolase that possesses the ability to slowly hydrolyze β- 1—4 bonds between N -acetylmuramic acid and N -acetyl- d -glucosamine residues or between N -acetyl- d -glucosamine residues of chitosan membranes 2.

The degradation by lysozyme allows the reabsorption of the coating and the release of N -acetyl glucosamine among other oligomers, which activate the macrophages and are incorporated into the extracellular matrix for the reconstruction of normal physiological tissues An antimicrobial is an agent that eliminates microorganisms or inhibits their growth Despite great progress in the management of burn scars, infections are the greatest challenge causing morbidity and mortality.

Candida spp. it is one of the microorganisms that often colonize burn scars causing persistent infections, loss of skin graft, and delaying the healing process For an antimicrobial polymer to be ideal, it must be economically synthesized, stable in the long term, soluble in water or neutral medium, must not be decomposed into toxic products or emit them, and must have bactericidal activity against pathogens in short contact times Chitosan has been shown to have advantages over other antimicrobials because it has a high antimicrobial activity, a broad spectrum of activity, and a higher mortality rate Chitosan is a potent antimicrobial agent of cationic nature at a pH lower than 6.

Hypotheses indicate that chitosan could interact with anionic groups on the cell surface of microorganisms increasing the permeability of membranes, facilitating the leakage of proteins and other intracellular constituents of microorganisms Another mechanism involves the formation of chitosan chelates with trace elements or nutrients resulting in the inhibition of enzymatic activity 49 due to the chitosan—DNA interaction that alters the synthesis of messenger RNA The antimicrobial effects are regulated by intrinsic factors that include the type of chitosan, the degree of polymerization of the chitosan, the source, and the chemical composition of the substrates.

Malinowska-Panczyk et al. With this, they demonstrated that the stage of inactivation of the bacteria increases with the increase in the DD of the biopolymer; however, the mechanism of bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions is not fully known.

Some studies on animals have been carried out using chitosan, proving that this product is superior to others in the elimination of infection and in the promotion of new tissue. However, few clinical cases have been used chitosan in the treatment of skin lesions such as ulcers The chitosan—gelatin composites prepared by Pereda et al.

Ahmed and Ikram 25 reported that the biocomposites with more than 0. Liu et al. According to research conducted by Anisha et al. The safety and effectiveness of medical devices made of resorbable biomaterials depend to a large extent on their complete biocompatibility That is, the tissues and the human body fully accept the implantable material and do not cause a massive immune response as a result of a threatening material.

Hemocompatibility studies have established that the lower the value of the hemolysis ratio, the better the compatibility of the biomaterial with the blood. In vitro studies with nanomaterials based on chitosan, hemolysis values of 1.

Chen et al. In these experimental studies, changes were observed in the shape of the erythrocytes on contact with conventional gauze and polyurethane sponges, attributed to the morphological changes of the red blood cells by external stimuli and no aggregation was observed.

While in the porous sponges of chitosan, the erythrocytes showed deformation and their incorporation on the surface of the sponges, as a result of a hemostatic reaction. The agglutination of blood cells by the action of chitosan can be the result of the interaction of the positive charges of the polymer with the receptors on the cell surface of erythrocytes.

Alizadeh et al. Additionally, Arpornmaeklong et al. These dressings exhibited a dynamic degradation from day This was attributed to the hydrophobicity of the sponges that causes the biodegradation and excision of the bonds after the swelling of the matrix.

The epidermal growth factor EGF is a mitogenic peptide, involved in the regulation of physiological processes such as growth, cell proliferation, regeneration, and wound repair. It also stimulates messenger RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis in many cell types and has been shown to stimulate keratinocyte division in vitro and epidermal regeneration in vivo Ceren et al.

However, the release kinetics was of first order. This result indicates that the rate of EGF release from the gel is variable with time. Yenilmez et al. It was determined that the chitosan solution of lower concentration remained unchanged in its pH.

Later, egg yolk oil and EGF were added to the stable formulation for future in vivo studies. Because of low molecular weight chitosan, even chitosan oligomers and monomers accelerate wound healing and have better antimicrobial properties.

Recent research studies new formulations mixing chitosan with curcumin nanoparticles and using microwave technology to reduce molecular weight and increase the DD. Curcumin is a drug with powerful antioxidant and antibacterial attributes that promote tissue regeneration. Hafiz et al. Other investigations on the incorporation of antibiotic nanoparticles, such as gentamicin to chitosan, showed that the release of the drug is controlled by the diffusion and degradation of the polymeric matrix Burns can be classified according to their degree of severity as wounds with loss of tissue and wounds without loss of tissue.

For this cause, few studies have reported the effectiveness of chitosan alone, as an antimicrobial and healing agent in its different forms. Bayat et al. On day 7, granulation tissue formation was observed, including fibroblast proliferation and angiogenesis.

Nacer Khodja et al. Similar results were reported by Sung et al. To assess the healing efficiency in female pigs, chitosan hydrogel was applied as a coating in third-degree burns, and the dermal—epidermal reconstruction and re-epithelialization of the affected area were observed without irritations or harmful effects.

Honardar et al. They confirmed the acceleration of healing microscopically on the 20th day, as a consequence of the proliferation of epidermal cells with complete epithelialization of the affected area.

Histological observations of the effect of local application of chitosan and heparin on partial depth burns in adult rats indicate that burns are less severe than control wounds This is because the mixture of chitosan and heparin inhibits the inflammatory reaction. Pereira et al. Dantas et al.

They concluded that the combination of low-level laser therapy with chitosan and alginate-based films improves healing, specifically with respect to epithelialization and vascularization. The mixture of chitosan and honey showed a positive synergism in terms of antibacterial activity.

This fulfills the primary objective of the treatment of burns, which implies preventing infection and acting as an effective promoter of healing. Bano et al. Chitosan was proposed as a polymer for controlled release.

The results were evaluated immunohistochemically on the 7th day of therapy; the maximum cell proliferation was found in the application of the gel formulation with EGF.

The researchers used the mixture of chitosan-egg yolk oil and EGF. The formulation showed significant shrinkage compared to commercial Silverdin ® products and control groups no treatment.

The most dramatic changes were evidenced on day 21, epithelialization was mostly completed, and even the formation of a new vein and collagen fibers between layers was detected. Table 1 summarizes the main results reported in the in vivo studies.

DA, degree of acetylation; DD, degree of deacetylation; MW, molecular weight; and ND, not determined. The data on the toxicity of chitosan in human studies are very limited. Hamedi et al. It was reported that quantities above 4. Escárcega-Galaz et al. Carles et al. Axiostat ® ,- brand has products based on clinically validated patents of Axio clotting technology, recommended to stop arterial hemorrhages and during vascular procedures.

Those individuals who have suffered from severe skin loss from burns are at higher risk of dying from fluid loss, as well as massive infections. The application of chitosan biomaterials for the healing of various burns has been reported in recent clinical studies.

Table 2 describes the clinical trials where chitosan-based dressings were applied as a coating for wounds. In all cases, uniform adherence to the wound is reported, which is a requirement for a successful biomaterial.

Another requirement is the promotion of hemostasis, healing, and rapid re-epithelialization of the affected area, transforming it into new healthy and aesthetically acceptable tissue. Burn trauma is one of the most difficult challenges that patients can present; as a consequence, it is common to observe infections, wounds, scars, and psychological damage.

In this review, it has been highlighted recent research that shows the biological and antimicrobial properties of chitosan favor the restoration of cutaneous tissues and benefit human health. In addition, clinical trials are shown regarding the treatment of burns and donor areas with films or coatings based on chitosan.

Although there are few clinical cases reported to date on the application of chitosan in burns, the results have indicated that the therapeutic application of chitosan is effective for skin regeneration, constituting an effective alternative treatment especially in developing countries.

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Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. Your skin may become more prone to sunburn as a result of some skincare ingredients, such as chitosan. Consult a Dermatologist : If you have specific skin concerns or conditions, seek personalised advice and recommendations from a dermatologist before incorporating chitosan or any other new ingredients into your skincare routine.

You can read the ingredient list, check product labels, look for chitosan-related claims, conduct online research, speak with a dermatologist or skincare expert, investigate brands known for using natural ingredients, examine speciality or medical skincare products, and browse beauty retailers to find skincare products that contain chitosan as an ingredient.

It's crucial to take your individual skin concerns and demands into account while looking for chitosan-containing skincare products. Numerous skincare products contain chitosan, including moisturisers, serums, scar management treatments, and formulas for wound healing. You can find products that contain chitosan to meet your skincare objectives by carefully reading ingredient lists, scrutinising labels, and doing online research.

To ensure safe and effective use when using skincare products containing chitosan, it's important to take certain precautions and follow these guidelines. These include performing a patch test, reading product labels, adhering to recommended use, using sunscreen, avoiding sensitive areas, checking for allergies, not ingesting, consulting a dermatologist, stopping use if irritation develops, being patient, and storing products properly.

You can use skincare products containing chitosan safely and effectively while treating your unique skincare concerns by keeping in mind these precautions and advice. Always put your skin's health and wellbeing first, and when in doubt, see a professional. Depending on the exact product, your skin type, and the concentration of chitosan in the formulation, the outcomes of utilising skincare products based on chitosan can differ.

Following are some general results you might anticipate from using chitosan in your skincare regimen:. Hydrated and Moisturized Skin : Your skin will feel moisturised and supple as a result of chitosan's exceptional moisture-retention abilities.

You might experience less dryness and flakiness in the future. Skin Elasticity is Improved : Chitosan's ability to stimulate collagen production may contribute to improved skin elasticity. Your skin may feel firmer and more resilient, giving you a younger appearance.

Scar Reduction : Chitosan's role in wound healing and tissue regeneration makes it useful for reducing the appearance of scars.

It may help scars become less visible, especially when used consistently over time. Redness Reduction and Soothing : The anti-inflammatory properties of chitosan can help soothe and calm irritated or red skin. It may alleviate the discomfort associated with inflammatory skin conditions. Skin Texture that is Smooth and Even : The use of chitosan-containing products on a regular basis may result in smoother and more even skin texture.

You may notice less roughness or uneven skin tone. Customised Outcomes : The specific results will vary depending on the formulation of the product, the other ingredients used, and your individual skin concerns. Different chitosan-based products may provide varying benefits, so it is critical to select products that align with your objectives.

Timeline of Results : Skincare results frequently take time to become apparent. Be patient and stick to your routine. It may take several weeks or even months to see significant improvements, especially when dealing with issues like scar reduction or skin texture improvement.

Individual Variability : Keep in mind that everyone's skin is unique, and results may vary from person to person. Some individuals may experience more dramatic improvements, while others may see more subtle changes. Sun Protection : If using chitosan-based products during the day, remember to use sunscreen to protect your skin from UV damage.

Some skincare ingredients can make your skin more susceptible to sunburn. Adverse Reactions : While chitosan is generally well tolerated, it is critical to be aware of any adverse reactions. If you notice any redness, itching, burning, or other discomfort, stop using the product and consult a dermatologist.

The effects of chitosan-based skincare can be positive, particularly in terms of improved hydration, skin elasticity, and scar reduction. To reap the most benefits, choose products that address your specific skin concerns and use them as directed on a regular basis.

It is also a good idea to seek personalised skincare advice from a dermatologist, especially if you have specific skin conditions or concerns. Chitosan is regarded as an eco-friendly and sustainable ingredient in the beauty and skincare industries for several reasons:.

Renewable Source : Chitin, which is widely distributed in the exoskeletons of crustaceans like prawns, crabs, and lobsters, is the source of chitosan. Chitosan is extracted using leftovers from the fish industry, which reduces waste and turns it into a renewable resource. Biodegradability : Chitosan can naturally degrade over time without endangering the environment because it is biodegradable.

This characteristic is essential for eco-friendly skincare and cosmetics that want to reduce their negative environmental effects.

Low Environmental Impact : Compared to the production of synthetic skincare ingredients, the production of chitosan typically leaves less of an environmental footprint. This might lead to more environmentally friendly cosmetics. Biocompatibility : Chitosan is biocompatible, meaning it is well-tolerated by the skin and the body.

This lowers the risk of adverse reactions, making it a more secure and long-lasting option for consumers. Versatility : Chitosan's adaptability enables it to be utilised in a variety of skincare and beauty products, providing long-lasting treatments for a range of skin issues, from moisturization to scar removal.

Reduced Chemical Use : The natural qualities of chitosan, such as its antimicrobial and wound-healing capabilities, can lessen the need for chemical additives in skincare products. This helps make formulations more generally sustainable.

Cleaner Beauty Trends : Chitosan is in line with the cleaner, more sustainable practises that the beauty industry is moving towards. It provides a natural and biodegradable substitute for some of the artificial and potentially dangerous components present in traditional beauty products.

Waste reduction : The skincare sector contributes to reducing the environmental impact of the seafood industry by using chitosan from crustacean shells that would otherwise be discarded as waste. Ethical Sourcing : As the demand for eco-friendly and sustainable ingredients rises, there is an increased focus on ethical sourcing and production techniques, which strengthens the eco-friendliness of chitosan.

While chitosan is regarded as an environmentally friendly ingredient, it is also critical for customers to take other aspects of product sustainability into account, such as packaging and the brand's overall environmental policies. Choosing sustainable skincare products with ingredients like chitosan can help reduce the environmental impact of the beauty industry and promote more responsible and ethical consumption.

For a number of convincing reasons, including its abundance and availability, biodegradability, minimal environmental impact, ability to reduce the use of chemicals, biocompatibility, sustainability, adaptability, and role in the cleaner beauty movement, chitosan is recognised as a sustainable option in skincare.

Chitosan-infused skincare products are advantageous for customers looking for sustainable skincare options because they support the larger push towards ethical and environmentally conscious beauty practises.

To truly make informed decisions for a more eco-conscious skincare routine, it's vital to take into account other areas of product sustainability, such as packaging and the brand's overall environmental practises.

Due to its favourable effects on the environment, chitosan's biodegradable nature is a major characteristic that makes it a desired ingredient in many goods, including cosmetics. These are some of the ways that chitosan's biodegradability is crucial, including natural breakdown, reduced environmental impact, lessened pollution, less plastic waste, sustainable sourcing, suitability for disposable products, eco-friendly packaging, biocompatibility and safety, and adherence to sustainable practises.

Customers can actively support environmentally friendly practises and lessen the negative effects of non-biodegradable materials on ecosystems by buying items that contain biodegradable elements like chitosan.

No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician. Hair botox has become a popular treatment in the beauty industry for improving the a Removing gum from hair can be difficult, but there are several methods you can try t There are ways to blow dry your hair that reduce damage and encourage healthy stylin The key to keeping hair clean in between washes without aggravating the scalp is to Newsletter Login Cart 0.

Brands A A-Derma A. Menarini India Abbott Aclaris Therapeutics Adonis Adroit Biomed Ajanta Pharma Akumentis Alkem Laboratories Alembic Apex Laboratories Apple Therapeutics Arista Life Sciences Aveeno Aveil Avene Awear Beauty Azelia Healthcare.

B BABE Laboratorios Bellacos Healthcare Beta Drugs Ltd BeautyWise Biocon Biologics Bioderma Biokent Healthcare Blistex Brillare Brinton Burt's Bees.

C Cadila Pharmaceuticals Limited Cantabria Labs Canixa Life Sciences Pvt. Capeli Catalysis S. Cetaphil CeraVe Cipla Clinikally Coola LLC Cosmogen India COSRX Craza Lifescience Crystal Tomato Ceuticoz Curatio.

D Der-Joint Healthcare Dermajoint India Dermaceutic Dermalogica DERMATICA Dermawiz Laboratories Dr. E Elder Pharma Emcure Pharmaceuticals Embryolisse Encore Healthcare Epique Eris Oaknet Eterno Distributors Ethiall Remedies Ethicare Ethinext Pharma.

F Faher Fillmed Laboratories Fixderma Fluence Pharma. G Galderma General Medicine Therapeutics Genosys GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Ltd Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Glint Cosmetics Glowderma Gufic Aesthaderm.

I Iberia Iceberg Healthcare Indiabulls Pharmaceuticals Indolands Pharma Intas Pharmaceuticals INJA Wellness IPCA iS Clinical ISIS Pharma ISDIN Ivatherm. J Janssen. K Kativa Kerastem Klairs KLM Laboratories Kosher Organics Kshipra Health Solutions.

L La Med India La Pristine La Roche-Posay Leeford Healthcare Leo Pharma Linux Laboratories Lupin. M Maddox Biosciences Mankind Pharma Ltd. Medever Healthcare Meyer Organics Micro Labs Mohrish Pharmaceuticals Pvt.

Ltd Mylan. N Neutrogena Nimvas Pharmaceuticals Noreva Nourrir Pharma Nutrova Novology. R Regaliz Regium Pharmaceuticals Renewcell Cosmedica Rene Furterer Revitalash Rexcin Pharmaceuticals Pvt.

Rockmed Pharma. S Saion International Salve Pharmaceuticals Sebamed Sedge Bioceuticals Senechio Pharma Sesderma Shangpree Skinmedis Skinska Pharmaceutica Skinnovation Next Solar D Sol Derma Some By Mi Soteri Skin Steer Peau Dermo Cosmetique Sun Pharma Syscutis Healthcare.

T Talent India Tricos Dermatologics Tricept Trikona Pharmaceuticals Torrent Pharmaceuticals Torque Pharmaceuticals. U UAS Pharmaceuticals Ultra V Unimarck Pharma Uriage USV. W Wellbeing Nutrition Winston Wockhardt WishNew Wellness. Y Yuderma. Z Zydus Healthcare. Prevent it by maintaining a healthy skin barrier with skincare products.

Consult Experts Learn More. Find us on. Find effective products for treating dandruff at the source. Menarini India Abbott Aclaris Therapeutics Adonis Adroit Biomed Ajanta Pharma Akumentis Alkem Laboratories Alembic Apex Laboratories Apple Therapeutics Aveeno Aveil Avene Awear Beauty Azelia Healthcare B BABE Laboratorios Bellacos Healthcare Beta Drugs Ltd Beautywise Biocon Biologics Bioderma Biokent Healthcare Blistex Brillare Brinton Burt's Bees C Cadila Pharmaceuticals Limited Cantabria Labs Canixa Life Sciences Pvt.

CeraVe Cetaphil Cipla Clinikally Coola LLC Cosmogen India COSRX Craza Lifescience Crystal Tomato Ceuticoz Curatio D Der-Joint Healthcare Dermajoint India Dermaceutic Dermalogica DERMATICA Dermawiz Laboratories Dr.

Rockmed Pharma S Saion International Salve Pharmaceuticals Sebamed Sedge Bioceuticals Senechio Pharma Sesderma Shangpree Skinmedis Skinska Pharmaceutica Skinnovation Next Solar D Sol Derma Some By Mi Soteri Skin Steer Peau Dermo Cosmetique Sun Pharma Syscutis Healthcare T Talent India Tricos Dermatologics Tricept Trikona Pharmaceuticals Torrent Pharmaceuticals Torque Pharmaceuticals U UAS Pharmaceuticals Ultra V Unimarck Pharma Uriage USV W Wellbeing Nutrition Winston Wockhardt WishNew Wellness Y Yuderma Z Zydus Healthcare Skin.

Treatment Finder Please select a concern to begin. B 89, Sushant Lok Phase I, Gurugram, Haryana Consult Dermatologist Chitosan: A Hidden Gem in Skincare Formulations.

By Doctor's Desk Oct 20, 0 comments. Facebook Pinterest Twitter E-mail. Related keywords Consult Dermatologist Daily skincare Dehydrated skin Dry skin Dull skin paediatric skincare Rough skin sensitive skin skin Skin ageing Skin allergy Skin Care Ingredients skin concerns Skin consultation Skin hydration Skin inflammation Skin Irritation skin lightening skin supplements skin tags removal Skin Tanning Skincare skincare essentials Skincare ingredients Skincare regimen Skincare routine Uneven skin tone.

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Chitosan for skin

Chitosan for skin -

First day, spray this product before the working, the head pruritus degree is clearly better, and also has the algefacient sensation, and rate of perspiration also reduces, and uses ten days continuously, and their reaction effect is felt quite pleased, and difficult problems such as scalp pruritus can both solve.

Show according to above-mentioned experiment, this product can solve outwork person substantially and physical worker perspires, the staff of environmental pollution solves head pruritus, scurf is many, the problem of scalp inflammation, to working drive motorcycle, the people that helmets has same effect, extremely frigid zones particularly, all there is same effect in the colony that does not have condition everyday to wash hair.

chitosan is as the application of dandruff skin care item. chitosan is as the application of scalp antipruritic skin care preparation.

CN CNA en. CNA true CNA en. CN Pending CNA en. CNA en. USB2 en. DET2 en. CAA1 en. Formulations containing pomegranate seed oil, rosa canina fruit oil and inula viscosa oleoresin or extract. DEU1 en. Sea buckthorn oil, useful for e. CNB en.

Red-removing anti-inflammatory oil-controlling acne-removing composition, application thereof and acne-removing balancing essence containing composition. KRA en. WOA1 en. Moisturizing sea buckthorn skin care gel, useful to nourish and clean skin that is damaged by cancer therapy, comprises wax and fat; vitamin; vegetable hydrolate; moisturizing and anti-allergic active substance, pH-regulator and buffer.

RUC1 en. KRB1 en. Chitosan has a bioadhesive nature and great film-forming ability. Chitosan-based products in the cosmeceutical market can contain essential oils and active ingredients such as vitamins, antioxidants and enzymes.

Being antimicrobial, chitosan is also widely used in oral care applications. In toothpaste, it can reduce growth of bacteria in the mouth and prevent tooth erosion. Further it can be used as a natural alternative to other preservatives.

Furthermore, chitosan is a powerful ingredient for hair care. It improves hair suppleness and softness, reduces static electricity, removes sebum and oils, retains moisture, fights the fungus that causes dandruff, and promotes hair growth.

Chitosan works as a multifunctional ingredient when formulating cosmetics. It can be used as an antioxidant agent, moisture absorption and retention agent, antimicrobial agent, delivery system and emulsion stabilizer.

Our Primex chitosan factory is ready to provide the solution to your chitosan needs. Primex chitosan products in this category include ChitoClear® Cosmetic Grade pure and high-quality chitosan , and Primex's own brand, ChitoCare Beauty. ChitoClear® Cosmetic Grade stabilizes emulsion, modifies the viscosity of products, increases the water resistance of sunscreens, and has antimicrobial properties.

The ChitoCare Beauty skin care product line contains pure chitosan as an active ingredient, and includes body lotions and scrubs, hand and face creams, anti-aging serums, medical devices, and dietary supplements.

Below are some chitosan properties and how they apply to skin care. Badhe, R. A Composite Chitosan-Gelatin Bi-Layered, Biomimetic Macroporous Scaffold for Blood Vessel Tissue Engineering. Baidamshina, D. Anti-biofilm and Wound-Healing Activity of Chitosan-Immobilized Ficin.

Bowman, K. Chitosan Nanoparticles for Oral Drug and Gene Delivery. Nanomedicine 1 2 , — Burnham, J. Treatment of Severe Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: A Review.

Cabañas-Romero, L. Bacterial Cellulose-Chitosan Paper with Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities. Biomacromolecules 21 4 , — Cai, J. Preparation, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of O -Acetyl-Chitosan- N hydroxypropyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride.

Cao, W. High Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan - Molybdenum Disulfide Nanocomposite. Chakrabarti, A. Immunomodulation of Macrophages by Methylglyoxal Conjugated with Chitosan Nanoparticles against Sarcoma Tumor in Mice.

Chang, S. Chen, E. Acta Biomater. Chen, T. Biomaterials , Cheng, Y. Marine Collagen Peptide Grafted Carboxymethyl Chitosan: Optimization Preparation and Coagulation Evaluation.

Choi, D. Selective Anticancer Therapy Using Pro-Oxidant Drug-Loaded Chitosan-Fucoidan Nanoparticles. Cofano, F. Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Spinal Cord Injury: Current Options, Limitations, and Future of Cell Therapy. Dadfar, S. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Theranostic Applications.

Drug Deliv. Dasagrandhi, C. Antibacterial and Biofilm Modulating Potential of Ferulic Acid-Grafted Chitosan against Human Pathogenic Bacteria. Deepthi, S. Deng, J. Immunomodulatory Effects of N-Acetyl Chitooligosaccharides on RAW Drugs 18 8 , Ding, F.

El Kadib, A. Green and Functional Aerogels by Macromolecular and Textural Engineering of Chitosan Microspheres. Endo, M. Diagnosis and Management of Subcutaneous Soft Tissue Sarcoma. Options Oncol. Fakhri, E. Chitosan Biomaterials Application in Dentistry.

Fan, X. Freitas, E. An Overview of Current Knowledge on the Properties, Synthesis and Applications of Quaternary Chitosan Derivatives. Basel 12 12 , Ghaee, A. Novel Chitosan-Sulfonated Chitosan-Polycaprolactone-Calcium Phosphate Nanocomposite Scaffold.

Ghazaie, M. Preparing Natural Biocomposites of N-Quaternary Chitosan with Antibacterial Activity to Reduce Consumption of Antibacterial Drugs. Guo, A. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of N-Phosphonium Chitosan as a Novel Polymeric Antibacterial Agent.

Guo, B. Degradable Conductive Self-Healing Hydrogels Based on Dextran-Graft-Tetraaniline and N-Carboxyethyl Chitosan as Injectable Carriers for Myoblast Cell Therapy and Muscle Regeneration.

Hao, W. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Chitosan Dimers with Different Sequences. Drugs 19 7 , He, G. He, Y.

Hebeish, A. Hemmingsen, L. Chitosomes-In-Chitosan Hydrogel for Acute Skin Injuries: Prevention and Infection Control. Drugs 19 5 , Hickman, D. Biomaterials and Advanced Technologies for Hemostatic Management of Bleeding. Mater 30 4 , Hoefkens, F. Soft Tissue Sarcoma of the Extremities: Pending Questions on Surgery and Radiotherapy.

Homaeigohar, S. Antibacterial Biohybrid Nanofibers for Wound Dressings. Hou, B. Preparation, Characterization and Wound Healing Effect of Vaccarin-Chitosan Nanoparticles. Hu, S. Preparation of Composite Hydroxybutyl Chitosan Sponge and its Role in Promoting Wound Healing.

Hu, Z. Chitosan-Based Composite Materials for Prospective Hemostatic Applications. Drugs 16 8 , Preparation of an Antibacterial Chitosan-Coated Biochar-Nanosilver Composite for Drinking Water Purification. Jayakumar, R. Biomaterials Based on Chitin and Chitosan in Wound Dressing Applications.

Jou, C. Antibacterial Activity and Cytocompatibility of Chitosan-N-Hydroxy-2,3-Propyl-N Methyl-N,N-Diallylammonium Methyl Sulfate. Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces 88 1 , — Jung, J. The Contribution of Acidulant to the Antibacterial Activity of Acid Soluble α- and β-Chitosan Solutions and Their Films.

Jyoti, K. Chitosan and Phospholipid Assisted Topical Fusidic Acid Drug Delivery in Burn Wound: Strategies to Conquer Pharmaceutical and Clinical Challenges, Opportunities and Future Panorama. Kamath, P. Nano-Chitosan Particles in Anticancer Drug Delivery: An Up-To-Date Review. Mini Rev. Kandra, P. Current Understanding of Synergistic Interplay of Chitosan Nanoparticles and Anticancer Drugs: Merits and Challenges.

Kim, S. Antibacterial Activity of Polyacrylonitrile-Chitosan Electrospun Nanofibers. Kimura, Y. Antitumour Activity and Side Effects of Combined Treatment with Chitosan and Cisplatin in Sarcoma Bearing Mice. Antitumour Activity and Adverse Reactions of Combined Treatment with Chitosan and Doxorubicin in Tumour-Bearing Mice.

Li, B. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activity of Cross-Linked Chitosan-Glutaraldehyde. Drugs 11 5 , — Li, D. Li, G. Li, J. Mater 9 21 , e Effects of Hydroxybutyl Chitosan on Improving Immunocompetence and Antibacterial Activities.

Li, Y. Preclinical Efficacy of Stem Cell Therapy for Skin Flap: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Stem Cell Res. Li, Z. Colloids Surfaces B Biointerfaces , — Liu, Y.

Fabrication of Antibacterial Chitosan-PVA Blended Film Using Electrospray Technique for Food Packaging Applications. Luo, Q. The Thiolated Chitosan: Synthesis, Gelling and Antibacterial Capability. Ma, Y. Chitosan Membrane Dressings Toughened by Glycerol to Load Antibacterial Drugs for Wound Healing.

C 81, — Maeda, Y. Antitumor Effects of Various Low-Molecular-Weight Chitosans Are Due to Increased Natural Killer Activity of Intestinal Intraepithelial Lymphocytes in Sarcoma bearing Mice.

Maleki Dana, P. Chitosan Applications in Studying and Managing Osteosarcoma. Malhotra, K. Mallakpour, S. Masood, N. Silver Nanoparticle Impregnated Chitosan-PEG Hydrogel Enhances Wound Healing in Diabetes Induced Rabbits. Matica, M. Chitosan as a Wound Dressing Starting Material: Antimicrobial Properties and Mode of Action.

Meyer, C. Chitosan-Film Enhanced Chitosan Nerve Guides for Long-Distance Regeneration of Peripheral Nerves. Biomaterials 76, 33— Mi, Y. New Synthetic Adriamycin-Incorporated Chitosan Nanoparticles with Enhanced Antioxidant, Antitumor Activities and pH-Sensitive Drug Release.

Min, T. Highly Efficient Antifogging and Antibacterial Food Packaging Film Fabricated by Novel Quaternary Ammonium Chitosan Composite. Food Chem. Moran, H. Immunomodulatory Properties of Chitosan Polymers.

Biomaterials , 1—9. Muthu, M. Crustacean Waste-Derived Chitosan: Antioxidant Properties and Future Perspective. Antioxidants Basel 10 2 , Muxika, A. Chitosan as a Bioactive Polymer: Processing, Properties and Applications. Negm, N. Effectuality of Chitosan Biopolymer and its Derivatives during Antioxidant Applications.

Ng, I. Antibacterial Efficacy of Chitosan- and Poly Hexamethylene Biguanide -Immobilized Nanofiber Membrane. Nivedhitha Sundaram, M. Chitosan Hydrogel Scaffold Reinforced with Twisted Poly l Lactic Acid Aligned Microfibrous Bundle to Mimic Tendon Extracellular Matrix.

Nouri, A. Olanipekun, E. Comparative Studies of Chitosan and Carboxymethyl Chitosan Doped with Nickel and Copper: Characterization and Antibacterial Potential. Oryan, A. Effectiveness of Chitosan Scaffold in Skin, Bone and Cartilage Healing. Pal, A. Nanofabrication of Methylglyoxal with Chitosan Biopolymer: A Potential Tool for Enhancement of its Anticancer Effect.

Nanomedicine 10, — Pandit, A. Biomacromolecules 22 9 , — Papadimitriou, L. Immunomodulatory Potential of Chitosan-Graft-Poly ε-Caprolactone Copolymers toward the Polarization of Bone-Marrow-Derived Macrophages.

ACS Biomater. Peetermans, M. Necrotizing Skin and Soft-Tissue Infections in the Intensive Care Unit. Plucinski, A. Polysaccharide Nanoparticles: From Fabrication to Applications. B 9 35 , — Potara, M.

Synergistic Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan-Silver Nanocomposites on Staphylococcus A. Nanotechnology 22 13 , Przekora, A. A Concise Review on Tissue Engineered Artificial Skin Grafts for Chronic Wound Treatment: Can We Reconstruct Functional Skin Tissue In Vitro? Cells 9 7 , Raghavendra, G.

Microwave Assisted Antibacterial Chitosan-Silver Nanocomposite Films. Rajitha, P. Chitosan Nanoparticles in Drug Therapy of Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases. Expert Opin. Rao, F. Aligned Chitosan Nanofiber Hydrogel Grafted with Peptides Mimicking Bioactive Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Repair Long-Distance Sciatic Nerve Defects in Rats.

Theranostics 10 4 , — Rao, K. Hemostatic, Biocompatible, and Antibacterial Non-Animal Fungal Mushroom-Based Carboxymethyl Chitosan-ZnO Nanocomposite for Wound-Healing Applications. Rashki, S.

Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles against Bacterial Infections. Regiel-Futyra, A. Development of Noncytotoxic Chitosan-Gold Nanocomposites as Efficient Antibacterial Materials. ACS Appl. Interfaces 7 2 , — Rizeq, B. Synthesis, Bioapplications, and Toxicity Evaluation of Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles.

Chinathip Theerawattanawit Chitosab, Punnawich Phaiyarin Autophagy mechanism, Supason WanichwecharungruangNopadon NoppakunPravit Asawanonda Chitosan for skin, Chanat Kumtornrut; Cortisol management supplements Efficacy Autophagy mechanism CChitosan of Chitosan on Facial Skin Autophagy mechanism. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 6 January ; 35 1 : 23— Introduction: Seborrhea or oily skin has been one of the most common complaints affecting both men and women physically and psychologically. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from the alkaline deacetylation of chitin. Due to its positively charged nature, chitosan can effectively bind to lipids.

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