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Body composition and aging

Body composition and aging

Myosteatosis is composiion in Diabetes care products women, compositino if they do not appear clinically obese or overweight, but it could also be seen in obese younger individuals, as shown recently Stefanaki et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Journal of Nutrition —

Body composition and aging -

Factors affecting frailty include chronic conditions and cancer, cardiovascular disease, multi-morbidity, and polypharmacy Sinha, et al. Depression may also be a risk factor for frailty. This may be due to the symptoms that correspond with depression or the use of antidepressants, which increases the risk of falls and fractures.

Women are twice as likely to be diagnosed with frailty, which may be due to lower muscle mass. Having a lower income and being socially isolated are also associated with frailty. Access to secure, stable, and affordable housing can help an individual avoid the adverse outcomes of frailty.

Individuals who live in communities with greater levels of neighbourhood deprivation have higher levels of frailty. People with frailty experience low physical activity, low energy levels, slower walking speeds and non-deliberate weight loss. Frailty is associated with a lower quality of life, a higher mortality risk, and more frequent hospitalization, and institutionalization.

The definition of frailty remains unclear leading to the creation of many scales to measure, reflecting the uncertainty about the term and its components. Measuring frailty is useful at a clinical and healthcare policy level.

Information about frailty helps program planners by identifying the range of services that might be required. Because the scales are intended to stratify risk, the ability to predict adverse outcomes serves a common goal.

The Clinical Frailty Scale was developed to be both predictive and easy to use. The 7-point Clinical Frailty Scale is rooted in a theoretical model of fitness and frailty and the importance of function Rockwood et al. The Clinical Frailty Scale ranges from 1 robust health to 7 complete functional dependence on others.

Very fit — robust, active, energetic, well-motivated and fit; these people commonly exercise regularly and are in the most fit group for their age.

Well, with treated comorbid disease — disease symptoms are well controlled compared with those in category 4. Mildly frail — with limited dependance on others for instrumental activities of daily living.

Moderately frail — help is needed with both instrumental and non-instrumental activities of daily living. Severely frail — completely dependent on others for the activities of daily living, or terminally ill.

A link to the Clinical Frailty Scale can be found here: Clinical Frailty Scale. In a study using the Clinical Frailty Scale, participants with higher scores were older, more likely to be female, were cognitively impaired and incontinent, had impaired mobility and function, and had more comorbid illnesses than those with lower scores.

Maintaining good nutrition as people age is one of the most critical ways to prevent frailty. For further information on what frailty is and how to identify it here is a link to the Canadian Frailty Network.

Calcium and vitamin D are vital for bone and muscle health. Vitamin D helps with the absorption of calcium and has roles in the nervous, muscle and immune systems Canadian Frailty Network, n.

Protein helps maintain muscle mass, which is important for healthy aging. Meeting nutrition al needs is essential for cell and tissue repair to ensure older adults keep healthy and able to do daily activities. Bernstein, M. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: food and nutrition for older adults: promoting health and wellness.

Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 8 , Canadian Frailty Network n. Diet and nutrition. Cox, N. Assessment and treatment of the anorexia of aging: A systematic review.

Nutrients, 11 1 , De Castro, J. Age-related changes in spontaneous food intake and hunger in humans. Appetite , 21, — Di Francesco, V. The anorexia of aging. Kojima, G. Prevalence of Frailty in Nursing Homes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

JAMDA, 16, Landi, F. Anorexia of aging: risk factors, consequences, and potential treatments. Nutrients, 8 2 , Prevalence and potentially reversible factors associated with anorexia among older nursing home residents: Results from the ULISSE project.

Laviano, A. Therapy insight: Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome—When all you can eat is yourself. MacIntosh, C. Nutrition , 16, — Mir, F. Anorexia of aging: Can we decrease protein energy undernutrition in the nursing home?

Morley, J. Pathophysiology of the anorexia of aging. Care , 16, 27— Onder, G. Recommendations to prescribe in complex older adults: Results of the Criteria to assess appropriate Medication use among Elderly complex patients CRIME project.

Drugs Aging , 31, 33— Prado, C. Nutrition in the spotlight in cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle: Avoiding the wildfire. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 12 1 , 3. Rockwood, K.

A global clinical measure of fitness and frailty in elderly people. Cmaj, 5 , Sinha, S. Natl Institute Ageing, Twells, L.

August 4, Epidemiology of adult obesity. Wang, M. et al. Trajectories of body mass index among Canadian seniors and associated mortality risk. BMC Public Health 17, Wharton, S. Obesity in adults: a clinical practice guideline.

Cmaj, 31 , EE name: Tracy Everitt. institution: St. Francis Xavier University. name: Brittany Yantha. institution: St Francis University. name: Megan Davies. institution: St Francis Xavier University. name: Shannon Roode. institution: Sienna Senior Living.

Chapter 6: Body Composition Changes Copyright © by Tracy Everitt; Brittany Yantha; Megan Davies; and Shannon Roode is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.

Skip to content Chapter 6 Learning Objectives. Describe the connection between body weight and health status. Explain the concern towards obesity in older adults. Identify interventions to aid in health weight loss.

Describe the condition of anorexia of aging and why this is a concern for older adults. Describe sarcopenia along with the cause and treatment. Describe cachexia, along with the cause of treatment. Illustrate why older adults have an increased risk of fragility and identify those at higher risk.

The Clinical Frailty Scale. Well — without active disease, but less fit than people in category 1. Consequently, an understanding of the optimal physiological, endocrinological, and anthropometric conditions associated with better health during aging is to be considered a priority topic.

In parallel with the increasing aging of the population, there is a parallel increase of overweight and obese individuals among older adults 2. Normal aging involves important changes to body composition, including decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass 3.

Basal metabolism, for the majority of the elderly, is the main daily energetic expenditure and its decrease with age provides one explanation for the tendency to gain weight, with age.

In addition to this physiological statement, lifestyle changes in aged people and the associated reduction in physical activity level favors weight increase with age. Total body fat peaks at about 65—70 years, while in advanced old age it decreases.

Aging, indeed, modifies adipose tissue accumulation and redistribution resulting in accumulation of abdominal fat. These age-related changes alter many physiological functions including inflammation and contribute to age-related diseases such as cardiovascular events, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and several types of cancer 4.

However, to what extent, the age-related adipose tissue remodeling impacts the health status in elderly is incompletely understood. To highlight and clarify the main age-related changes in adipose tissue and discuss its implications on health status with particular regard to age-related diseases, we dedicated a Research Topic to the alteration of lipid storage, the redistribution and the types of fat, the production of different mediators contributing to a pro-inflammatory status in aging.

Conte et al. are setting the stage, discussing the evident evolutionarily advantage provided by this tissue common among all animal species. Maintaining the correct distribution of body fat seems crucial for health and longevity. Interestingly, it seems that while a lower threshold of fat mass exists, it does not appear existing an upper one.

In human and in many animals, adipose tissue can be accumulated in very large amounts. Most probably, an upper limit was not established by natural selection because a large accumulation of body fat in the wild is uncommon, unlike what we are observing during modern times in our species.

Although the health implication of excessive body fat is evident, as they discuss, they also propose that a suitable amount of fat is probably an important feature for reaching extended longevity Conte et al. Because of its simplicity, BMI is broadly used as a surrogate for body fat, although it is highly imprecise.

For example, a bodybuilder with a low percentage of body fat could fall in the obese category. Ponti et al. present how body composition is different at different ages, stressing that there is not only an increase in body fat but also a redistribution of body mass with age.

In particular, fat mainly increases in the trunk largely visceral fat , but not in arms or legs. A major difference also exists between male and female older adults likely contributing to the sex-difference in the prevalence of age-related diseases.

Zoico et al. focus on the significance of changes happening during aging in two subcategories of body fat: brown adipose tissue BAT and beige adipose tissue, fat tissues rich in mitochondria with the univocal brown or conditional beige function of converting stored energy into heat.

Adipose tissue is a recognized endocrine organ, producing a variety of adipokines, whose levels tend to increase with aging. Arai et al. focus on the roles and significance of adiponectin, an adipokine whose levels are elevated in centenarians.

In contrast to the majority of other adipokines, its plasma levels are inversely related to body fat. In this report, the authors describe how this adipokine is considered highly beneficial for longevity, possibly contributing to enhancing insulin sensitivity.

They also describe some interesting paradoxes related to adiponectin that challenge its beneficial role: the observed association between higher adiponectin level and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease and with frailty in elderly subjects.

They propose a solution to these paradoxes introducing the concept of adiponectin resistance: higher adiponectin levels, in their view, is possibly a compensatory mechanism in response to inflammation and oxidative stress.

In light of the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affecting prevalently the elderly 5 , an important topic is the role of the process of aging in the susceptibility to infectious diseases. Obesity, as it increases with age, exerts a cumulative effect.

Obese individuals are increasingly vulnerable to fungal, bacterial, and viral infection. Frasca and McElhaney present an overview of the roles of obesity on the immune response to respiratory tract infection.

Specifically, they analyze the risk for the elderly represented by pneumococcus infection, highlighting the presence of an interesting obesity paradox: it appears that obesity is protective against the more serious complications of this bacterial infection. This stresses the need to investigate further, how obesity is modulating our immune response Frasca and McElhaney.

Salvestrini et al. look from further away at the interrelationship between excess body fat and aging. Their considerations stem from a reflection on the experimental paradigm of life span extension by caloric restriction, specifically on how best to consider control animals when translating experimental results to human 6.

If a control animal, ad libitum fed, has to be considered an animal with no excess fat, equivalent to a normal weight human BMI between If, instead, as many authors are proposing [reviewed in 6 ], control animals in many instances should be considered the equivalent of obese humans, then the lifespan-extending capacity of CR is simply communicating that obesity has a life shortening effect, which is well-known from epidemiological evidence.

From these considerations Salvestrini et al. have looked at obesity under the lens of the hallmarks of aging as listed by López-Otín et al. Although the increase of body fat with age remains a major risk factor for age-related diseases, several studies are needed to disentangle the complex network of metabolic, endocrinological, and immunological mediators that are involved.

Many studies demonstrated the peculiarity of these individuals 8 , 9 , however little is known about the amount and kind of adipose tissue they have. Future researches are needed to investigate the age-related remodeling of body fat including also very old people.

AL wrote the initial draft. AS and DM implemented and revised it. All authors gave final approval of the submitted version.

Most studies examining anc Diabetes care products between body composition Immune system function optimization techniques health-related quality of life HRQoL in older Boyd have Boosts digestive metabolism cross-sectional and analyzed only fat or lean mass. Hence, nad is poorly known compositikn fat and lean mass are independently associated with subsequent changes in HRQoL. We investigated whether baseline lean and fat mass are associated with changes in HRQoL over a year period in older adults. We studied men and women from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study age 57—70 years at baseline. HRQoL was assessed using RAND item Health Survey at baseline and follow-up 10 years later. For more information agkng PLOS Comosition Areas, compositjon here. Aging is Metabolic support supplements with Body composition and aging in muscle strength and aaging changes in body composition, including decreases in Diabetes care products mass, muscle quality and increases in adiposity. Body fat percentage and appendicular skeletal muscle mass ASM sum of lean mass in the arms and legs were assessed using Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry Hologic, QDR Discovery A. The ASM index was calculated by ASM kilograms divided by height meters squared. Isometric grip strength was measured using a hand grip strength dynamometer JAMAR HAND. However, in participants with obesity, muscle mass was no longer a significant predictor of muscle strength. Body composition and aging

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