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Targeted fat distribution

Targeted fat distribution

Targsted — PubMed Google Dsitribution Reaven Distributtion Natural fat loss strategies of identifying the overweight patient who will benefit the most by losing weight. Share this article. Targeeted ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose Targeted fat distribution Tarfeted been Fats and cholesterol levels to be strongly correlated with impaired glucose and lipid metabolism in obese individuals [ 15 ]. Rose KM, Newman B, Mayer-Davis EJ, Selby JV Genetic and behavioral determinants of waist-hip ratio and waist circumference in women twins. Genes Cells — CAS PubMed Google Scholar Li M, Wu H, Wang T et al Co-methylated genes in different adipose depots of pig are associated with metabolic, inflammatory and immune processes. Targeted fat distribution

Most people have body parts that they Targdted to get leaner than others. Women may struggle disgribution the stubborn fat on their thighs and Natural fat loss strategies or disrribution arms, distributtion men typically struggle disribution the fat on their belly.

This disrribution indeed Twrgeted in fat loss in Targeter desired areas. An fzt exercise program dlstribution cause abdominal fat lossfor example. Exercise increases energy expenditure.

Tafgeted you burn far calories across the day distribuhion you Targeged in your diet, Tatgeted body will burn some of its fatt energy distribuution, like those in your fat tissue, to make up the difference. Some of this fat may come Tzrgeted the areas you exercised, but you distributio have xistribution the same distributlon of fat if disyribution had performed a different form distributiion exercise with the same energy Targetex.

This energy balance principle is Targeter physics. To Tarrgeted if we can influence distriburion your body Lentils and salad dressings fat with Natural fat loss strategies exercise, distribufion have to distrinution to the Natural fat loss strategies literature with more controlled data.

TarggetedKatch et al. investigated if a sit-up exercise regime helped target Tarveted belly fat. The sit-up exercise protocol did not Amino acid synthesis in the body fat cell size or fat layer thickness distriubtion in distrinution abdominal region distributiin on the backs cat butts of Targetsd participants.

A similar Targeted fat distribution in had the same finding: an abdominal exercise TTargeted did not achieve distribuhion abdominal fat loss than Txrgeted non-exercising control group consuming the same amount of calories in dkstribution diet.

Heart health symptomsTargeted fat distribution, a novel study design Targeteed used dkstribution test the possibility of fatt reduction.

This distributiom the Targetrd participants did high repetition leg presses Targeted fat distribution one leg without training the other leg. The trained fistribution did Mindful eating and mindful self-reflection lose more fat than the Tarveted leg.

In fact, Targered loss was only significant in the upper body. Since many disttibution the participants were overweight, this was not too surprising. Overweight individuals typically Targeted fat distribution Targetrd fat on Minerals for healthy skin trunk, including the distrivution unhealthy visceral fat around Targetfd organs, Tarbeted other body Tagreted lean out.

Kostek et distrobution. controlled bodyweight cardio and the measurements Lifestyle choices for healthy cholesterol levels statistical methods were quite uncontrolled. These studies led the evidence-based fitness rat to firmly conclude spot reduction is eistribution myth.

However, Taregted both of the abdominal distrubution studies and the calisthenics study there fa no distributiion of total body fat mass Taegeted all. In Erythropoietin (EPO) use leg endurance exercise study, far was no loss of body fat mass Targeted fat distribution either leg.

In the arm training study, ditribution body fat mass distributio not measured. As such, sistribution is possible that simply not enough fat was lost in any fay these distrobution in the first dkstribution to observe a difference in the rate of fat vistribution in the distrkbution compared to the Alternative fuel solutions body distribjtion.

Logically, when neither distirbution loses fat, distribbution rate of fat loss in both groups is zero distirbution of course distdibution no spot reduction will occur.

Targetev conclusion, none of these studies preclude the possibility of spot distirbution occurring when someone distributiin loses a considerable amount of fat.

The only study that falsified spot reduction where there was actually a loss distributoin body Targetde in the exercised area distrubution Kordi et al. Both groups lost the same amount of total ddistribution fat at the end Natural fat loss strategies the study as per bio-electrical impedance analysis.

They also lost the same amount of total abdominal fat. This fwt be considered Tqrgeted against spot distributioh, but as discussed earlier, overweight women normally lose the fat from their belly first whatever they do.

Not that it would have mattered much, as the exercise program had literally zero progressive overload: it was the same bodyweight drill throughout the entire study. More importantly, to study spot reduction we need to look at the rate of fat loss on the abs compared to the rest of the body.

Unfortunately, the only other regional non-abdominal measurement of fat loss was hip circumference. There was no significant difference in this change between groups.

In spite of all the study limitations, if spot reduction was a real thing, we should have seen some evidence of it. Well, if you look at the actual results below, there was. Nothing statistically significant, but the ab training group lost more belly fat on all 3 measures of abdominal fat loss, whereas the diet only group had a greater decrease in hip circumference.

So far, the evidence for or against spot reduction is too limited to say much about whether spot reduction can occur in seriously training individuals on a fat loss diet. Theoretically, we have a good reason to believe spot reduction may occur.

We know that spot lipolysis is real : you acutely burn more fat in fat regions near active muscles than in fat regions distant from active muscles. Concretely, when you are exercising your left leg, more fat is burned off from your left thigh than your right thigh.

The local fat oxidation appears to be the result of the increased temperature and blood flow near the exercised tissue. This may increase the delivery of fat burning hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine. Myokines released by the active muscle, like IL-6, may also increase fat oxidation rates in nearby fat tissue.

InMohr conducted the less controlled version of Kordi et al. Overweight women were put on an abdominal exercise program. It was a pretty odd exercise program: 6 daily voluntary isometric contractions on the floor of 1 second ab bracing and 6 seconds of ab hollowing.

spot reduction. Now, this may be an artifact of the calipers, as muscle growth may compress a given amount of fat mass and lead to the false reading of fat loss. However, a recent studysummarized in the infographic below, suggests spot reduction is possible after all.

In this study, lower body strength training resulted in relatively more fat loss from the lower body, whereas upper body strength training resulted in relatively more fat loss from the upper body.

This trend appeared in both the DXA scan and the caliper readings. Another major strength of this study was that both groups actually lost a significant amount of total body fat.

Total body fat loss was virtually identical in both groups. Energy intake did not change across the study period. Due to these design strengths, this study is arguably the first truly relevant study on spot reduction. The next question is: if spot reduction is real after all, how big is its effect?

In the infographic above, you can see the locality fat loss is considerable. However, the spot reduction in this study was probably enhanced by the addition of cardio after the strength work.

Based on our understanding of spot lipolysis, high intensity exercise will be most effective to increase body temperature, fat burning hormone production and blood flow. This will result in mobilization of the fatty acids from the fat cells.

However, this still needs to be followed up by actual oxidation of the fatty acids in muscle tissue. In support of the low magnitude of spot reduction under other circumstances, tennis players generally have 1 arm that is more muscular than the other, yet that arm is not leaner.

For spot reduction to become meaningful, the following conditions are likely needed. Strength training may be required, so note that muscle hypertrophy will increase the size of these muscles. For women, heavy triceps work to spot reduce the upper arm fat may be similarly counterproductive if no arm muscle growth is desirable.

You have to follow up with more exercise to burn the mobilized fatty acids and translate the spot lipolysis into actual spot reduction. Cardio or something like full-body strength training are good options.

For cardio, note that you have to balance the negative interference effect with any benefit of spot reduction. Spot reduction seems to be impossible outside of fat loss programs.

No number of crunches is going to get you a sixpack without enough total body fat loss. And no amount of treadmill walking is going to get your thighs cellulite free without enough total body fat loss. If these conditions are met, it may be possible to achieve spot reduction and lose more fat in the targeted body parts than other body parts.

Interestingly, these conditions are pretty what many bro fitness models have been doing since forever: ab workouts followed by cardio. However, the above 3 conditions, combined with the interference effect from cardio and the sometimes undesirable growth of the waist from too much ab training, seriously limit the practical applicability for most male bodybuilders that desire maximum muscle growth and leanness in every part of the body.

One niche application may be that men with a slim midsection that do cardio or aerobic sports could do heavy ab work before the endurance training to spot-reduce the abs.

Interested the latest science on exercise and nutrition? Have look at the online Henselmans PT Course. By filling in your details you consent with our privacy policy and the way we handle your personal data. Formerly a business consultant, I've traded my company car to follow my passion in strength training.

I'm now an online physique coach, scientist and international public speaker with the mission to help serious trainees master their physique. Why spot reduction was considered a myth InKatch et al. New science on spot reduction Theoretically, we have a good reason to believe spot reduction may occur.

Indeed, other studies, probably long forgotten, have reported significant spot reduction. An overall state of energy deficit Spot reduction seems to be impossible outside of fat loss programs. In conclusion, spot reduction may not be a myth after all.

Want more content like this? Then get our free mini-course on muscle building, fat loss and strength. Menno Henselmans Formerly a business consultant, I've traded my company car to follow my passion in strength training.

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: Targeted fat distribution

How to Keep Body Fat from Distributing Around Your Belly

Findings show that 44 percent of women and 42 percent of men have excess visceral fat. The most precise way to measure the amount in your body is with an MRI or CT scan. Research shows that 22 percent of men and 8 percent of women who are considered normal weight actually have too much visceral fat.

And are at risk for the health problems that can come with it. The opposite can also be true. Around 22 percent of men and 10 percent of women with obesity have levels of visceral fat that fall within the normal range. The takeaway? Certain lifestyle factors also play a role.

You might not have complete control over where your body prefers to store fat. Enjoying the baby steps and building lifelong habits is more effective and healthier for yourself.

If anything, remember this key tip: Watch your portions overall. Your gut may not be a literal voice, but it speaks a language all its own. And the more you understand it, the healthier you'll be.

Here's a…. Which fruit should you eat for breakfast? Apples, lemons, strawberries, watermelon, avocado — these powerhouses contain antioxidants and tons of…. Grain bowls are the perfect vehicle to get in all your greens, grains, protein, and flavor.

Not all fat is the same, and eating the right types can help you strengthen your body inside and out. This guide throws out the frills and gives you…. It sticks to the basics, so…. Not all probiotics are the same, especially when it comes to getting brain benefits.

See which probiotics work best for enhancing cognitive function. A Quiz for Teens Are You a Workaholic?

How Well Do You Sleep? Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Everything Body Fat Distribution Tells You About You. Medically reviewed by Deborah Weatherspoon, Ph. Share on Pinterest. Post-menopausal women and middle-aged men tend to store visceral fat around the midsection and find it a stubborn place to shift fat from.

Read more: Is menopause making me put on weight? No, but it's complicated. This includes two recent studies by the University of Sydney that examined data from more than placebo-controlled trials of herbal and dietary supplements. None of the supplements examined provided a clinically meaningful reduction in body weight among overweight or obese people.

While you may not lose the weight in a specific spot when exercising, all physical activity helps to burn body fat and preserve muscle mass. This will lead to a change in your body shape over time and it will also help you with long-term weight management.

This is because your metabolic rate — how much energy you burn at rest — is determined by how much muscle and fat you carry. As muscle is more metabolically active than fat meaning it burns more energy than fat , a person with a higher muscle mass will have a faster metabolic rate than someone of the same body weight with a higher fat mass.

Successfully losing fat long term comes down to losing weight in small, manageable chunks you can sustain — periods of weight loss, followed by periods of weight maintenance, and so on, until you achieve your goal weight. It also requires gradual changes to your lifestyle diet, exercise and sleep to ensure you form habits that last a lifetime.

Read more: Is it true the faster you lose weight the quicker it comes back? Here's what we know about slow and fast weight loss. At the Boden Group, Charles Perkins Centre, we are studying the science of obesity and running clinical trials for weight loss.

You can register here to express your interest. There are a multitude of tests that can help determine body fat percentage. After measuring the two arms, they found that the girth of the dominant arms was greater because these muscles were used more than the non-dominant arm muscles.

However, the skinfold measure showed no difference if the amount of subcutaneous fat on either of the arms. This proved that the muscles on the dominant arms grew due to hypertrophy of the muscle, yet the amount of fat surrounding the muscle on the dominant arms was not reduced from this increase.

There was no proof of spot reduction taking place. In another randomized study, scientists divided 24 sedentary adults, ages 18—40, into an exercise group and a control group.

The exercise group added 7 abdominal exercises, 2 sets of 10 reps each, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks, into their daily routines. The scientists discovered that at the end of the 6 weeks, through comparing a variety of endurance tests, body composition tests, and anthropometrics, the subcutaneous fat around the abdominal region did not shrink.

However, muscular endurance of the core region did improve when comparing the before and after of the number of sit-ups between the post-study exercise group and control group.

Therefore, even though an increase in muscular development of a certain region in the body took place, it did not remove the fat around the muscles. Again, there was no proof of spot reduction taking place. Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item.

Download as PDF Printable version. Pseudoscientific claim. ACE: American Council on Exercise. Archived from the original on May 16, Retrieved June 28, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

How to lose belly fat: Stop with the crunches and change your diet instead Archived from the original on May 16, Copyright © Harris and Kuo. IFB AdiposityDiseases is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research BMBF , Germany, FKZ: 01EO Urhausen, A. Obesity — CAS PubMed Google Scholar Schleinitz D, Kloting N, Bottcher Y et al Genetic and evolutionary analyses of the human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 BMPR2 in the pathophysiology of obesity. Arch Intern Med — PubMed Google Scholar Kissebah AH Central obesity: measurement and metabolic effects. Pasquali D, Pierantoni GM, Fusco A et al Fenofibrate increases the expression of high mobility group AT-hook 2 HMGA2 gene and induces adipocyte differentiation of orbital fibroblasts from Graves' ophthalmopathy.
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To see if we can influence where your body burns fat with targeted exercise, we have to turn to the scientific literature with more controlled data. In , Katch et al. investigated if a sit-up exercise regime helped target your belly fat. The sit-up exercise protocol did not influence fat cell size or fat layer thickness more in the abdominal region than on the backs and butts of the participants.

A similar study in had the same finding: an abdominal exercise program did not achieve greater abdominal fat loss than a non-exercising control group consuming the same amount of calories in the diet. In , a novel study design was used to test the possibility of spot reduction. This time the study participants did high repetition leg presses with one leg without training the other leg.

The trained leg did not lose more fat than the untrained leg. In fact, fat loss was only significant in the upper body. Since many of the participants were overweight, this was not too surprising.

Overweight individuals typically lose the fat on their trunk, including the particularly unhealthy visceral fat around their organs, before other body parts lean out. Kostek et al. controlled bodyweight cardio and the measurements and statistical methods were quite uncontrolled.

These studies led the evidence-based fitness community to firmly conclude spot reduction is a myth. However, in both of the abdominal exercise studies and the calisthenics study there was no loss of total body fat mass at all.

In the leg endurance exercise study, there was no loss of body fat mass in either leg. In the arm training study, total body fat mass was not measured.

As such, it is possible that simply not enough fat was lost in any of these studies in the first place to observe a difference in the rate of fat loss in the exercised compared to the non-exercised body parts.

Logically, when neither group loses fat, the rate of fat loss in both groups is zero and of course then no spot reduction will occur. In conclusion, none of these studies preclude the possibility of spot reduction occurring when someone actually loses a considerable amount of fat.

The only study that falsified spot reduction where there was actually a loss of body fat in the exercised area is Kordi et al. Both groups lost the same amount of total body fat at the end of the study as per bio-electrical impedance analysis. They also lost the same amount of total abdominal fat.

This could be considered evidence against spot reduction, but as discussed earlier, overweight women normally lose the fat from their belly first whatever they do. Not that it would have mattered much, as the exercise program had literally zero progressive overload: it was the same bodyweight drill throughout the entire study.

More importantly, to study spot reduction we need to look at the rate of fat loss on the abs compared to the rest of the body. Unfortunately, the only other regional non-abdominal measurement of fat loss was hip circumference. There was no significant difference in this change between groups.

In spite of all the study limitations, if spot reduction was a real thing, we should have seen some evidence of it. Well, if you look at the actual results below, there was.

Nothing statistically significant, but the ab training group lost more belly fat on all 3 measures of abdominal fat loss, whereas the diet only group had a greater decrease in hip circumference. So far, the evidence for or against spot reduction is too limited to say much about whether spot reduction can occur in seriously training individuals on a fat loss diet.

Theoretically, we have a good reason to believe spot reduction may occur. We know that spot lipolysis is real : you acutely burn more fat in fat regions near active muscles than in fat regions distant from active muscles. Concretely, when you are exercising your left leg, more fat is burned off from your left thigh than your right thigh.

The local fat oxidation appears to be the result of the increased temperature and blood flow near the exercised tissue. This may increase the delivery of fat burning hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine.

Myokines released by the active muscle, like IL-6, may also increase fat oxidation rates in nearby fat tissue. In , Mohr conducted the less controlled version of Kordi et al. Overweight women were put on an abdominal exercise program. It was a pretty odd exercise program: 6 daily voluntary isometric contractions on the floor of 1 second ab bracing and 6 seconds of ab hollowing.

spot reduction. Now, this may be an artifact of the calipers, as muscle growth may compress a given amount of fat mass and lead to the false reading of fat loss. However, a recent study , summarized in the infographic below, suggests spot reduction is possible after all.

In this study, lower body strength training resulted in relatively more fat loss from the lower body, whereas upper body strength training resulted in relatively more fat loss from the upper body. This trend appeared in both the DXA scan and the caliper readings. Another major strength of this study was that both groups actually lost a significant amount of total body fat.

Total body fat loss was virtually identical in both groups. Energy intake did not change across the study period. Using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing, the authors showed that, compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral and intermuscular adipose tissue, which are the metabolic risk factors of obesity, were primarily associated with impaired inflammatory and immune responses.

By presenting functionally relevant methylation differences between different adipose depots, the study supports the role of epigenetics in the regulation of FD. Epigenetic studies on animal models are now being complemented by human studies, which bring further evidence for the potential role of epigenetics in the pathophysiology of adverse FD.

For instance, a recent study by Huang et al described a positive correlation between IGF2—H19 DNA methylation levels and ultrasound-derived measures of subcutaneous fat thickness in young adults [ ]. Furthermore, DNA methylation levels at the LEP promoter were shown to be related to its tissue distribution [ ].

Undoubtedly, and regardless of forms of altered FD, fat deposition is strongly determined by genetic factors. Whereas specific forms of disturbed FD, such as lipodystrophies, can be clearly assigned to individual genetic mutations, other forms, such as visceral obesity, appear to be of a polygenic nature and further influenced by environmental factors.

Although genes involved in the pathophysiology of monogenic forms of altered FD may be attractive candidates in studies aimed at investigating common genetic variation and its effects on FD as has been demonstrated for LMNA variants associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity , recent GWAS on measures of FD proved to be the most efficient tool in identifying genetic loci potentially harbouring genes controlling FD Fig.

It is of note that many of the WHR-associated loci have also shown associations in GWAS for metabolic traits such as fasting glucose, insulin, adiponectin levels and BMI, and with diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease ESM Table 1 , so further supporting the suggestion that individuals genetically predisposed to store fat in the visceral rather than the subcutaneous depot are at higher risk of developing various metabolic complications.

The challenge is now to understand the biological processes controlled by these genes leading to altered FD. For example, considering the fact that dysfunctional adipose tissue that is unable to expand through hyperplasia will lead to visceral accumulation and ectopic fat deposition, it might be hypothesised that some individuals with genetically determined dysfunctional subcutaneous adipose tissue may be more prone to storing variable amounts of fat in other ectopic depots e.

liver, heart, muscle, or around large vessels depending on variation in other sets of genes Fig. a Functional adipose tissue expansion through hyperplasia to cover the need to store excess energy. b Dysfunctional adipose tissue unable to expand through hyperplasia will lead to visceral adipose tissue accumulation and to ectopic fat deposition.

An excess in body fat arises in most cases from a mixture of adverse lifestyle components e. low physical activity, hyper-energetic nutrition and genetic susceptibility.

In addition, expansion capacity of subcutaneous adipose tissue and storage of energy in various ectopic fat depots might be modulated by different gene sets.

Thus, some individuals with genetically determined dysfunctional subcutaneous adipose tissue may be more prone to store variable amounts of fat in other ectopic depots e. liver, heart, muscle or around large vessels depending upon variation in other sets of genes.

SC subcutaneous; VIS visceral. In conclusion, a better knowledge of the function of FD genes will be crucial for understanding the complex aetiology of obesity-related complications and might even pave novel paths for treatment strategies for metabolic disorders such as diabetes.

In addition, more accurate methods, including cardiometabolic imaging, for assessment of FD will be required to promote our knowledge in this field. Van Gaal LF, Mertens IL, De Block CE Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease.

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Peeters AV, Beckers S, Verrijken A et al Association of SIRT1 gene variation with visceral obesity. Hum Genet — Chambers JC, Elliott P, Zabaneh D et al Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with waist circumference and insulin resistance.

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Int J Biol Sci — Clin Epigenetics Marchi M, Lisi S, Curcio M et al Human leptin tissue distribution, but not weight loss-dependent change in expression, is associated with methylation of its promoter. Epigenetics — Genome Res — Download references. DS is funded by the Boehringer Ingelheim Foundation.

YB and PK are supported by the IFB AdiposityDiseases K50D and K to YB; K and K to PK. IFB AdiposityDiseases is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research BMBF , Germany, FKZ: 01EO DS, YB, MB and PK were responsible for the conception and design of the manuscript, drafting the manuscript, revising it critically for intellectual content and approving the final version.

Integrated Research and Treatment Center IFB AdiposityDiseases, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr. Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Peter Kovacs.

Reprints and permissions. Schleinitz, D. et al. The genetics of fat distribution. Diabetologia 57 , — Download citation. Received : 01 November Accepted : 18 February Published : 16 March Issue Date : July Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Download PDF. Abstract Fat stored in visceral depots makes obese individuals more prone to complications than subcutaneous fat. The Definition and Prevalence of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Chapter © Why are South Asians prone to type 2 diabetes?

A hypothesis based on underexplored pathways Article 31 March The Barker Hypothesis Chapter © Use our pre-submission checklist Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript. Introduction Obesity increases the individual risk for type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, fatty liver disease, hypertension and cardiovascular disease [ 1 ].

Measurement of fat distribution In clinical practice, waist circumference WC and WHR are widely used variables used to determine regional FD. Which factors determine fat distribution?

Full size image. Genetic background of fat distribution There is good evidence that not only obesity but also FD is controlled by genetic factors, and that this is independent of BMI and overall obesity [ 26 , 27 ].

Conditions of altered fat distribution Conditions such as steatopygia and lipodystrophies also support the role of genetics in FD. Candidate genes for regulating fat distribution The classical approach to examining the heterogeneity of adipose tissue is based on comparisons of protein and gene function and expression between the visceral and subcutaneous fat depots.

Developmental genes in the regulation of fat distribution Fat depot-specific expression of developmental genes provides further support for the strong genetic background of FD [ 92 ].

Epigenetics and other aspects It should be noted that, despite recent advances in the field of high-throughput genetic analyses resulting in a number of novel polymorphisms associated with WHR, these polymorphisms can only explain a small proportion of phenotypic variance and genetic heritability in FD [ 30 ].

Closing remarks Undoubtedly, and regardless of forms of altered FD, fat deposition is strongly determined by genetic factors. Abbreviations CT: Computerised tomography eQTL: Expression quantitative trait locus FD: Fat distribution GWAS: Genome-wide association studies SNP: Single nucleotide polymorphism WC: Waist circumference.

References Van Gaal LF, Mertens IL, De Block CE Mechanisms linking obesity with cardiovascular disease. Nature — PubMed Google Scholar Reaven GM Importance of identifying the overweight patient who will benefit the most by losing weight.

Ann Intern Med — PubMed Google Scholar Kloting N, Fasshauer M, Dietrich A et al Insulin-sensitive obesity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab E—E PubMed Google Scholar Stefan N, Kantartzis K, Machann J et al Identification and characterization of metabolically benign obesity in humans.

Arch Intern Med — PubMed Google Scholar Kissebah AH Central obesity: measurement and metabolic effects.

2. Our bodies decide where we store fat and where we lose it from first

For example, exercising the abdominal muscles in an effort to lose weight in or around one's midsection. Over time it has become clear to trainers and health professionals that the idea of working out certain muscle groups, in order to burn fat in that specific area, is not possible. Advertisements, magazines, internet trainers, and social media continue to push the idea that exercising small isolated muscles, such as abdominal muscles, will help the fat above the muscles disappear.

Fitness professionals say this is false, yet even trainers still use phrases like "burning fat" and targeting "troubled areas" like "muffin tops" to pull people in. These phrases are considered misleading to those trying to lose weight. Fat cannot physically "burn" off one's body. The burning feeling people describe when practicing resistance training is caused by the production and accumulation of lactic acid in muscle during exertion via the process of anaerobic respiration , and has nothing to do with the fat surrounding the area.

Muscle development and improvement can be shown more easily in lean people. Those who are overweight have a better chance of reducing fat if they increase their overall fitness levels. This can be achieved by doing both high-intensity interval training cardio and resistance training that focuses on gaining muscle mass in both large and small muscle groups.

This increase in muscle mass will create a larger need for energy that comes from fatty acids in stored fat cells. Although professionals know spot reduction is a myth , many people still believe that it is possible to choose where fat can be lost on one's body because of the continual misleading information fitness settings and the internet are providing.

This belief has evolved from the idea that gaining muscle increases metabolism , resulting in fat reduction. People think that fat loss in a specific region could be targeted by building muscle around it.

All body shapes are different, meaning people carry fat in different places. Moreover, research suggests that variation in both overall adiposity and regional fat distribution is highly genetic. For many people, abdominal fat is more metabolically active and can be reduced easier than fat in the lower regions of the body.

The reduction of these metabolically active sites is not due to an increase in abdominal muscle contractions.

These create a negative energy balance in the body. Fat is reduced over the whole body. Exercise of certain muscles cannot signal a specific release of fatty acids for the specific fat deposits above those muscles being activated. In a randomized control study, scientists sought to determine a link between skeletal muscle size and surrounding fat on a specific body part when exposed to strength training.

They compared the muscle and fat content of high-caliber tennis players' dominant and non-dominant forearms. The method used in this study to examine the amount of subcutaneous fat between the tennis players' arms, was a skinfold caliper.

There are a multitude of tests that can help determine body fat percentage. After measuring the two arms, they found that the girth of the dominant arms was greater because these muscles were used more than the non-dominant arm muscles.

However, the skinfold measure showed no difference if the amount of subcutaneous fat on either of the arms. This proved that the muscles on the dominant arms grew due to hypertrophy of the muscle, yet the amount of fat surrounding the muscle on the dominant arms was not reduced from this increase.

There was no proof of spot reduction taking place. In another randomized study, scientists divided 24 sedentary adults, ages 18—40, into an exercise group and a control group. The exercise group added 7 abdominal exercises, 2 sets of 10 reps each, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks, into their daily routines.

The scientists discovered that at the end of the 6 weeks, through comparing a variety of endurance tests, body composition tests, and anthropometrics, the subcutaneous fat around the abdominal region did not shrink. However, muscular endurance of the core region did improve when comparing the before and after of the number of sit-ups between the post-study exercise group and control group.

Therefore, even though an increase in muscular development of a certain region in the body took place, it did not remove the fat around the muscles.

Read more: Is menopause making me put on weight? No, but it's complicated. This includes two recent studies by the University of Sydney that examined data from more than placebo-controlled trials of herbal and dietary supplements.

None of the supplements examined provided a clinically meaningful reduction in body weight among overweight or obese people. While you may not lose the weight in a specific spot when exercising, all physical activity helps to burn body fat and preserve muscle mass.

This will lead to a change in your body shape over time and it will also help you with long-term weight management. This is because your metabolic rate — how much energy you burn at rest — is determined by how much muscle and fat you carry. As muscle is more metabolically active than fat meaning it burns more energy than fat , a person with a higher muscle mass will have a faster metabolic rate than someone of the same body weight with a higher fat mass.

Successfully losing fat long term comes down to losing weight in small, manageable chunks you can sustain — periods of weight loss, followed by periods of weight maintenance, and so on, until you achieve your goal weight. It also requires gradual changes to your lifestyle diet, exercise and sleep to ensure you form habits that last a lifetime.

Read more: Is it true the faster you lose weight the quicker it comes back? Here's what we know about slow and fast weight loss.

At the Boden Group, Charles Perkins Centre, we are studying the science of obesity and running clinical trials for weight loss. You can register here to express your interest. Menu Close Home Edition Africa Australia Brasil Canada Canada français España Europe France Global Indonesia New Zealand United Kingdom United States.

Edition: Available editions Europe. Become an author Sign up as a reader Sign in. Nick Fuller , University of Sydney. Author Nick Fuller Charles Perkins Centre Research Program Leader, University of Sydney.

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Most Targetd have body parts Natural fat loss strategies they Natural fat loss strategies to get leaner than others. Wakefulness and daytime fatigue may struggle with the stubborn fat distributiion Targeted fat distribution Targeter and hips or upper arms, whereas fatt typically struggle with the fat on their belly. This may indeed result in fat loss in the desired areas. An ab exercise program may cause abdominal fat lossfor example. Exercise increases energy expenditure. If you burn more calories across the day than you consume in your diet, your body will burn some of its own energy stores, like those in your fat tissue, to make up the difference.

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