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Antiviral foods

Here is where viral Gut health and inflammation takes place. Antiviral foods Antivirql. Functional food: Angiviral Antiviral foods Antkviral against COVID Article Open access Antiviral foods March Lemon balm extract is a concentrated source of potent essential oils and plant compounds that have antiviral activity Ling JX, Wei F, Li N, Li JL, Chen LJ, Liu YY, Luo F, Xiong HR, Hou W, Yang ZQ.

Antiviral foods -

Shikimic acid has potent antiviral properties. This spice has a very powerful flavor. A little can go a long way with this Chinese herb. They consume an abundance of natural products, whole foods, and healthy fatty acids. One of their greatest sources of these desirable health habits is the olive.

Olive leaves are one of the most abundant sources of oleuropein. Studies involving this molecule found that it shows significant effects against respiratory syntactical virus and para-influenza type 3 virus 5.

While olive oil has less oleuropein than olive leaf, it has a considerable amount of healthy fatty acids that repair our gut and keep our immune system strong.

Up the antioxidant effects and give free radicals a scare with a delicious garlic oil infusion! Ginger is a staple in Traditional Chinese Medicine. This tangy root can bring life to any stir-fry or give your water a fizzy flavor.

It also has excellent antiviral capabilities that makes this root essential for a healthy daily diet. One study found that ginger helped improve the cells in both the upper respiratory tract HEp-2 cells and lower respiratory tract A cells 6. Furthermore, analysts noted that ginger caused cells to secrete Interferon-beta IFN-β.

IFN-β is a polypeptide that has antiviral capabilities because it regulates DNA encryption 7. So, it can help block a viral attack. An unsung hero in antiviral foods is oregano oil. Oregano plants are one of the most flavorful and effective antiviral herbs in the world.

Extracts from this Italian herb are rich in antioxidants and other healing compounds that fight off free radicals. Namely, carvacrol can stop nonenveloped murine norovirus MNV in its tracks 8. MNV is a precursor to noroviruses.

Researchers noted that antiviral effects can happen within an hour of ingesting oregano oil. Oregano oil is highly abrasive on the skin. Make sure to mix it with a thicker carrier oil if you are using it as a chest rub. Excellent choices for carrier oils include coconut oil and olive oil. Be sure to add in some lemon balm for the scent of citrus fruits and an extra dose of antiviral properties!

The sea-based superfood spirulina is one of the most versatile antiviral foods. You can add spirulina powder to a variety of superfood smoothies.

If you never thought about doing so, it might be time to reconsider. One study looked at the effects of spirulina on three predominant types of influenza 9. Considerable evidence suggests that after one hour, the blue algae inhibited virus replication. Many of the antiviral benefits of spirulina are attributed to its high levels of cyanovirin-N.

This protein has shown promise in slowing down the progression of HIV to AIDS This plant-based food is also a great source of Vitamin E. Vitamin E not only helps fight off free radicals but it helps convert our food to energy.

So, by consuming Vitamin E, we can cut down the inflammatory-causing fat tissues that might cause an adverse immune response. This preventative measure makes our body less susceptible to viral replication.

If you give a shiitake about your health, you should give shiitake mushrooms a try. In fact, shittake mushrooms are so popular that many health food stores sell it in organic teas! Shiitake mushrooms are teeming with beta-glucans.

These are sugars that have antiviral capabilities. In fact, hospitals administer beta-glucans via an IV to prevent infection post-surgery One study on the antiviral benefits of shiitake mushrooms found that these foods had a positive impact on the immune system.

Researchers stated that compounds in shiitake mushrooms increased secretory immunoglobulin A sIgA in the body They noted that this action improved gut motility, which would help with many gastro problems.

sIgA is an antibody. It plays a significant role in protecting the cell membrane. As we mentioned, viruses like to use the cells as hosts so they can carry out their agenda. Eating antiviral foods rich in sIgA can help prevent that attack.

We are big proponents of drinking tea in a healthy gut diet plan. Green tea is one of the many reasons why tea time is always on our agenda. Our tasty brew is enriched with catechins. In particular, green tea has an abundance of epigallocatechin gallate EGCG.

Furthermore, EGCG and ECG inhibited the activity of viral RNA ribonucleic acid , which suppressed virus propagation Suffice to say, if you are showing some symptoms of the flu, get the tea flowing. Add some star anise to your green tea. If not, try the next item on our list of top antiviral foods.

Elderberries are finally getting the credit they deserve in the world of flu prevention. These things got more Vitamin C than the ever-popular orange!

Compounds in this superfruit bind onto the little spikes found on virus proteins. As a result, these viruses are unable to leech onto healthy cells and overtake the system.

One study administered treatment to 60 influenza patients Half received elderberry syrup, while the other group had a placebo. Those who consumed elderberry felt better on an average of four days sooner than their counterparts. It should be noted that elderberries are one of the best foods for flu and preventative measures against viral attacks.

In fact, many Vitamin C supplements contain elderberry. However, if you have COVID, Dr. Weil suggests to stop using this immune booster. He noted that cases of the coronavirus may experience an adverse immune response from elderberry.

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Research in Veterinary Science. Ide K, Kawasaki Y, Kawakami K, Yamada H. Anti-influenza virus effects of catechins: A molecular and clinical review. Current Medicinal Chemistry.

Ikuta K, Hashimoto K, Kaneko H, Mori S, Ohashi K, Suzutani T. Anti-viral and anti-bacterial activities of an extract of blackcurrants Ribes nigrum L.

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Exopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus plantarum LRCC offers protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea and regulates inflammatory response. Journal of Dairy Science. Kim M, Kim SY, Lee HW, Shin JS, Kim P, Jung YS, Jeong HS, Hyun JK, Lee CK.

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Anti-influenza virus effects of elderberry juice and its fractions. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry. Knox YM, Hayashi K, Suzutani T, Ogasawara M, Yoshida I, Shiina R, Tsukui A, Terahara N, Azuma M. Activity of anthocyanins from fruit extract of Ribes nigrum L.

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Anti-influenza virus activity of crude extract of Ribes nigrum L. Phytotherapy Research. Kumar P, Khanna M, Srivastava V, Tyagi YK, Raj HG, Ravi K.

Effect of quercetin supplementation on lung antioxidants after experimental influenza virus infection. Experimental Lung Research. Kumar P, Sharma S, Khanna M, Raj HG.

Effect of Quercetin on lipid peroxidation and changes in lung morphology in experimental influenza virus infection. International Journal of Experimental Pathology. Kwok HH, Poon PY, Fok SP, Ying-Kit Yue P, Mak NK, Chan MC, Peiris JS, Wong RN.

Anti-inflammatory effects of indirubin derivatives on influenza A virus-infected human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Scientific Reports. Laconi S, Madeddu MA, Pompei R.

Autophagy activation and antiviral activity by a licorice triterpene. Lee SY, Kim YK, Park NI, Kim CS, Lee CY, Park SU. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the berry of Panax ginseng. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. CAS Google Scholar.

Lee W, Kim M, Lee SH, Jung HG, Oh JW. Prophylactic efficacy of orally administered Bacillus poly-gamma-glutamic acid, a non-LPS TLR4 ligand, against norovirus infection in mice. Li S, Hattori T, Kodama EN.

Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits the HIV reverse transcription step. Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy. Li Y, Wang J, Liu Y, Luo X, Lei W, Xie L. Antiviral and virucidal effects of curcumin on transmissible gastroenteritis virus in vitro. Ling JX, Wei F, Li N, Li JL, Chen LJ, Liu YY, Luo F, Xiong HR, Hou W, Yang ZQ.

Amelioration of influenza virus-induced reactive oxygen species formation by epigallocatechin gallate derived from green tea. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica.

Liu YS, Liu Q, Jiang YL, Yang WT, Huang HB, Shi CW, Yang GL, Wang CF. Surface-displayed porcine IFN-lambda 3 in Lactobacillus plantarum inhibits porcine enteric coronavirus infection of porcine intestinal epithelial cells. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. Lyu SY, Rhim JY, Park WB.

Antiherpetic activities of flavonoids against herpes simplex virus type 1 HSV-1 and type 2 HSV-2 in vitro. Archives of Pharmacal Research.

Mathew D, Hsu WL. Antiviral potential of curcumin. Journal of Functional Foods. Matsumoto Y, Matsuura T, Aoyagi H, Matsuda M, Hmwe SS, Date T, Watanabe N, Watashi K, Suzuki R, Ichinose S, Wake K, Suzuki T, Miyamura T, Wakita T, Aizaki H. Antiviral activity of glycyrrhizin against hepatitis C virus in vitro.

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SARS-CoV 3CL protease cleaves its C-terminal autoprocessing site by novel subsite cooperativity. Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nieman DC, Heinz SA, Henson DA, Austin M, Jin FX.

Quercetin supplementation and upper respiratory tract infection: a randomized community clinical trial. Pharmacological Research. Nikolaeva-Glomb L, Mukova L, Nikolova N, Badjakov I, Dincheva I, Kondakova V, Doumanova L, Galabov AS.

In vitro antiviral activity of a series of wild berry fruit extracts against representatives of Picorna-, Orthomyxo- and Paramyxoviridae.

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Park EH, Yum J, Ku KB, Kim HM, Kang YM, Kim JC, Kim JA, Kang YK, Seo SH. Red Ginseng-containing diet helps to protect mice and ferrets from the lethal infection by highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus. Park MK, Ngo V, Kwon YM, Lee YT, Yoo S, Cho YH, Hong SM, Hwang HS, Ko EJ, Jung YJ, Moon DW, Jeong EJ, Kim MC, Lee YN, Jang JH, Oh JS, Kim CH, Kang SM.

Lactobacillus plantarum DK as a probiotic confers protection against influenza virus by modulating innate immunity. Praditya D, Kirchhoff L, Bruning J, Rachmawati H, Steinmann J, Steinmann E.

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This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea NRF grant funded by the Korean government MSIP NRFR1A2C Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, , Korea.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Sanguine Byun. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Reprints and permissions. Kim, D. et al. Functional foods with antiviral activity. Food Sci Biotechnol 31 , — Download citation. Received : 24 December Revised : 13 March Accepted : 22 March Published : 13 April Issue Date : May Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Download PDF. Abstract Viruses are known to cause a variety of diseases, ranging from mild respiratory diseases, such as the common cold, to fatal illnesses.

Functional food: complementary to fight against COVID Article Open access 07 March Bioactive metabolites in functional and fermented foods and their role as immunity booster and anti-viral innate mechanisms Article 24 June Potential Inhibitors for SARS-CoV-2 and Functional Food Components as Nutritional Supplement for COVID A Review Article 10 October Use our pre-submission checklist Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

Introduction Viruses are small infectious agents which can reproduce only in living cells. Red ginseng Ginseng Panax ginseng C.

Chlorella Chlorella Chlorella , as a famous unicellular green algae belonging to the division Chlorophyta, has been considered as a functional food material due to their various physiological activities. Berries Berries contain various phenolic compounds and have been reported to exert various physiological activities Szajdek and Borowska, Licorice Licorice, the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra , is an herb that has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine due to its rich flavonoids and triterpenoids contents Fu et al.

Bacillus subtilis chungkookjang Poly-γ-glutamate, γ-PGA Bacillus subtilis subsp. Epigallocatechin gallate EGCG The antiviral potential of tea and its constituents have been extensively researched. Quercetin Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid abundant in many fruits and vegetables such as onion, asparagus, and berries, has been widely studied for its diverse bioactivities Farrand and Byun, ; Shin et al.

Curcumin Curcumin, a polyphenolic component of Curcuma longa L. Lactobacillus plantarum With continuous scientific findings, probiotics have been reported to have many antiviral properties Cryan and Dinan, ; Kalliomaki et al. Conclusion In this review, we summarized food materials and food-derived compounds reported to possess antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A viruses, HIV, or HCV Table 1.

Table 1 Food components with antivirus function Full size table. References Anand David AV, Arulmoli R, Parasuraman S. Academic Press, Amsterdam Google Scholar Sant AJ, McMichael A.

Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea NRF grant funded by the Korean government MSIP NRFR1A2C Author information Author notes Da Hyun Kim and Jae Hwan Kim have contributed equally to this work.

View author publications. Ethics declarations Conflict of interest The authors declare no competing interests.

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Turmeric has powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. This spice could help eliminate certain viruses and cut down the risk of infection. You can use turmeric powder or the root to add more of this nutrient-rich spice to your diet.

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: Antiviral foods

Introduction reveals that EGCG displays anti-HBV effects by inhibiting the transcription of HBV promoter by interacting with a nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor alpha FXRα in HBV-infected HEK cells Xu et al. Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the most studies probiotic species. Im K, Kim J, Min H. However, light cooking makes it easier to absorb the vitamin A and allows other nutrients to be released from oxalic acid , an antinutrient. For example, since its emergence in late , the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 SARS-CoV-2 epidemic has spread rapidly across the world, reaching more than countries.
5 anti-viral natural foods to include in the diet to boost immunity However, keep in mind that most research has been conducted in test tubes and animals using concentrated extracts. Video: Sushmita Sen's simple yoga poses for better health and flexibility. Moreover, the number of infiltrating cells decreased, and protective effect was observed in lung morphology, indicating that quercetin may act as antioxidant during H3N2 infection. Rojas A, Del Campo JA, Clement S, Lemasson M, Garcia-Valdecasas M, Gil-Gomez A, Ranchal I, Bartosch B, Bautista JD, Rosenberg AR, Negro F, Romero-Gomez M. Immunity and immunopathology to viruses: what decides the outcome? Kim K, Lee G, Thanh HD, Kim JH, Konkit M, Yoon S, Park M, Yang S, Park E, Kim W.
1. Black Tea

COVID: Study says this technique can find new variants a week more quickly than traditional methods. Refrain from posting comments that are obscene, defamatory or inflammatory, and do not indulge in personal attacks, name calling or inciting hatred against any community. Help us delete comments that do not follow these guidelines by marking them offensive.

Let's work together to keep the conversation civil. Whether it is the common cold or the raging threat of coronavirus, building your immune health is always a good idea.

A strong immune system protects you from all kinds of viral, fungal and bacterial infection and cuts down the risk of illness. This makes it vital to follow some easy immunity-boosting tips. There are more than different types of viruses that can cause serious illnesses.

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside a living cell and can infect all forms of life. We all know that COVID is a viral infection of the upper respiratory system. So, to reduce the risk of infection it is crucial to add some anti-viral foods to the diet.

Noshing on anti-viral foods will supercharge your immune system and also help in speed recovery post-covid. The holy basil or Tulsi is commonly found in every Indian household. There are several varieties of basil, found in different parts of the country, all of them have antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.

Chewing a few tulsi leaves every day can provide your body with immunity to fight several kinds of infection. A small test-tube study revealed that basil extracts contain compounds like apigenin and ursolic acid that can prove to be effective against herpes viruses, hepatitis B, and enterovirus.

The tiny fennel seeds contain trans-anethole, a compound that has proven to be quite effective against herpes viruses. It is a liquorice-flavoured plant that can help to boost your immunity and decrease inflammation in the body and combat viral infection.

Fennel seeds are also loaded with vitamin A, vitamin C and Beta Carotene, components are known for their immunity-boosting properties. Adding fennel seeds to the diet can clear the sinus and respiratory system. Throughout history, garlic has been used to treat different kind of health ailment.

Studies suggest that garlic can be effective against influenza A and B, HIV, HSV-1, viral pneumonia, and rhinovirus. The potent health benefits of garlic are due to the presence of a compound called allicin, which gives garlic a distinct smell and strong taste. Garlic is a natural and rich source of organosulfur compounds like quercetin and allicin that inhibit antiviral infection properties and cut down the risk of infection.

Ginger is a helpful superfood that treats different kinds of health ailments. The impressive antiviral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of this root herb can be effective in avian influenza, RSV, and feline calicivirus FCV. Besides, ginger also contains compounds such as gingerols and zingerone that curbs the growth of the virus in the body.

Ginger tea and ginger shots can be an amazing relaxant for the throat and also helps relieve tension headaches. The yellow spice commonly used in Indian curry contains several compounds with medicinal properties, the most important of which is curcumin.

Turmeric has powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. This spice could help eliminate certain viruses and cut down the risk of infection. You can use turmeric powder or the root to add more of this nutrient-rich spice to your diet. Please Click Here to subscribe other newsletters that may interest you, and you'll always find stories you want to read in your inbox.

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Elderberry Sambucus nigra L. has also displayed antiviral effect against human influenza A virus in a mouse model Kinoshita et al. In influenza A virus-infected mice, treatment with the elderberry fraction suppressed viral replication in bronchoalveolar lavage.

In addition, the levels of neutralizing antibodies specific for influenza A virus in serum and secreted IgA in feces were increased by elderberry administration. Among various berries, elderberry, in particular, has been reported in clinical studies on influenza virus.

In Norway, a clinical study of elderberry for Influenza was conducted in sixty patients of various ages suffering from influenza-like symptoms Zakay-Rones et al. These patients consumed elderberry syrup 4 times a day for a total of 5 days.

As a result, the patients who received the elderberry showed relief of symptoms an average of 4 days earlier than the placebo-treated group. Licorice, the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra , is an herb that has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine due to its rich flavonoids and triterpenoids contents Fu et al.

Among the major active components of licorice, glycyrrhizin GL is the most studied compound concerning the antiviral activity. GL has been found to exert antiviral effects by various mechanisms. Several studies demonstrated that GL can directly target the viruses at different stages of their life cycles.

Wolkerstorfer et al. revealed that GL suppressed influenza A virus by inhibiting the entry of virus into the host cell Wolkerstorfer et al. Researchers showed that the treatment of 2. However, since the study used a concentration of GL that is not physiologically relevant, it is believed that further validation is required.

In addition, Matsumoto et al. confirmed that GL can interfere in the release step of HCV Matsumoto et al. In the same study, HCV core antigens were accumulated on endoplasmic reticulum, known as the platform for viral assembly, showing that GL inhibited the release of HCV from infected cells.

However, most of the concentration used in these studies appear to be too high to be achieved in actual human conditions. GL also exhibited antiviral activity by regulating the response of the host cell. The study by Michaelis et al. Sasaki et al. also investigated the effect of GL on HIV replication in cultures of PBMCs from HIV-infected patients Sasaki et al.

GL dose-dependently increased the production of CCL4 and CCL5, indicating that GL inhibited HIV replication by inducing the expression of beta-chemokines in PBMC cultures.

Another study showed that GL inhibited herpes simplex virus type 1 HSV1 activity by inducing autophagy in host cells Laconi et al. Licorice or its active compounds GL has been examined in multiple studies for their antiviral effect, however, due to the high concentration used, it requires further evaluation to confirm their potential use as an antiviral functional food agent.

Bacillus subtilis subsp. chungkookjang is a Bacillus mainly found in Cheonggukjang, a traditional Korean food, and is known to produce poly-gamma-glutamic acid γ-PGA , which is known for its various bioactivities. γ-PGA produced by Bacillus subtilis subsp. chungkookjang has been identified as having antiviral function against norovirus Lee et al.

According to the previous study, γ-PGA was shown to stimulate the production of IFN-β, inhibiting norovirus replication in RAW In addition, oral administration of γ-PGA in a mouse model increased the production of IFN-β levels in the serum without any noticeable effect on other inflammatory cytokines, whereas it reduced norovirus loads in the ileum.

Other studies have also shown that high molecular weight γ-PGA has been reported to have antiviral function against Newcastle disease virus NDV Talactac et al. High molecular weight γ-PGA inhibited NDV replication and decreased apoptosis mediated by virus infection in RAW Also, high molecular weight γ-PGA treatment produced inflammatory cytokines IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL in RAW In addition, γ-PGA has been reported to have inhibitory efficacy against influenza virus infection Kim et al.

In an influenza A virus infected mouse study, the group administered intranasally with γ-PGA for 5 days showed higher survival rates and higher production of antiviral cytokines e.

γ-PGA also stimulated NK cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte CTL activity against influenza A. The effect of γ-PGA on human papilloma virus HPV clearance was observed in a short-term clinical study Cho et al. Taken together, γ-PGA might be a promising functional material with antiviral effects against various type of viruses, such as norovirus, NDV, influenza virus, and HPV.

The antiviral potential of tea and its constituents have been extensively researched. Tea including black tea and green tea Camellia sinensis has been found to improve metabolic conditions and protect against infectious diseases Khan and Mukhtar, Among the many constituents commonly found in both black tea and green tea, studies have suggested catechins to be majorly responsible for the virus inactivating effects Ide et al.

A recent study revealed that EGCG derived from green tea significantly inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Ohgitani et al. Upon treatment with tea extracts, the viral titers were reduced to undetectable levels and viral infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 was significantly decreased.

The active tea constituent involved and responsible for this antiviral activity was found to be EGCG. Pretreatment of 1 mM of EGCG on SARS-CoV-2 reduced the infectious activity with no effect on cell viability.

Ohgitani et al. also reported that μM of EGCG inhibited the interaction between the recombinant angiotensin converting enzyme 2 ACE2 and the receptor binding domain RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and hence significantly suppressed viral attachment onto cells Ohgitani et al.

As the antiviral effects of EGCG were notable only at high concentrations, the clinical significance and applications should be thoroughly examined in future studies. The inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by tea catechins suggests the potential use of tea for the protection and prevention of human-to-human transmission of the novel coronavirus.

An in vitro study revealed that EGCG inhibits the activity of SARS-CoV-2 3CL-protease at a half inhibitory concentration IC 50 of Chymotrypsin-like protease 3CLpro is an essential enzyme for SARS-CoV-2 replication which is responsible for cleaving 11 sites in the polyprotein to ensure the release of individual proteins with a functional substrate-binding pocket during the maturation stage of the virus Hegyi et al.

The activity of SARS-CoV-2 3CL-pro was shown to be inhibited dose-dependently in EGCG-treated-HEKT human embryonic kidney cells. The inhibition of 3CL-pro activity and the increase in abnormal protein conformations may alter RNA replication and transmission of SARS-CoV The results from these in vitro studies highlight the antiviral potential of EGCG and suggest that EGCG may be a useful natural compound for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections.

Further studies are required to prove whether the antiviral effects of EGCG is observed in animal models as well. Influenza is a major cause of respiratory illness worldwide.

Among the four types of influenza viruses A, B, C and D, influenza A virus is the most virulent and has been the cause of global pandemics with persistent transmission. Since the global pandemic caused by a subtype H1N1 influenza A virus, antigenic evolution of the virus has coincided with the circulating seasonal epidemics of influenza A virus Rambaut et al.

The pre-treatment of EGCG was found to inhibit plaque formation by influenza A and B viruses and significantly suppressed virus replication in MDCK cells within 8 h of exposure. With the understanding that influenza A virus adsorbs onto chicken red blood cells and result in hemagglutination, Song et al.

confirmed that EGCG also restricted adsorption of viruses on red blood cells and inhibited hemagglutination with a minimum inhibition concentration of 5—10 μM Song et al. Kim et al. investigated the molecular mechanism of EGCG to better understand how EGCG inhibits viral activities.

As a result, EGCG was responsible for the loss of cell penetration capacity of influenza viruses and significantly inhibited the hemifusion process between virus particles and the cellular membrane of MDCK cells Kim et al. The antiviral effects of EGCG were comparable and almost equal to the effects of the antiviral drug Oseltamivir Ling et al.

In addition, co-administration of EGCG with influenza hemagglutinin antigen enhanced the level of neutralizing antibodies and improved protection against influenza PR8 virus lethal challenge, showing promising vaccine adjuvant effects in vivo Cheong et al.

EGCG has also been found to interfere with the viral attachment of HIV-1 by disassembling the HIV-1 virion directly Yamaguchi et al.

Li et al. further investigated the mechanism of action of EGCG on HIV-1 and HIV In this study, EGCG was found to significantly suppress HIV transmission by acting as an allosteric inhibitor of the reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Li et al. He et al.

studied the antiviral effects of EGCG using HepG2. EGCG significantly downregulated the mRNA levels of HBV and impaired the expression of HBV replicative intermediates for DNA synthesis. In another study, Xu et al. reveals that EGCG displays anti-HBV effects by inhibiting the transcription of HBV promoter by interacting with a nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor alpha FXRα in HBV-infected HEK cells Xu et al.

These studies indicate that the antiviral mechanism of action of EGCG is to downregulate the expression of HBV antigens and reduce the transcriptional activation of HBV promoters. These results encourage the application of EGCG as a potential agent for inhibiting viral infections.

Quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid abundant in many fruits and vegetables such as onion, asparagus, and berries, has been widely studied for its diverse bioactivities Farrand and Byun, ; Shin et al.

The antiviral potential of quercetin has been studied in vivo against various viruses including HSV, canine distemper virus CDV , HCV and dengue virus DENV Gonzalez-Burquez et al. In particular, quercetin has shown antiviral effect against several respiratory viruses. Kumar et al. revealed that quercetin has antioxidant effects during influenza virus infection in animal study Kumar et al.

Quercetin significantly restored the pulmonary concentrations of catalase, reduced glutathione, and superoxide dismutase that had been decreased after H3N2 infection. Moreover, the number of infiltrating cells decreased, and protective effect was observed in lung morphology, indicating that quercetin may act as antioxidant during H3N2 infection.

Also, it has been reported that quercetin treatment significantly inhibited rhinovirus RV load in vivo Ganesan et al. According to the study, viral RNA levels in RV-infected mice significantly decreased at both 1- and 4-days post-infection when 0.

Quercetin also reduced RV-stimulated chemokines and cytokines CXCL-1, CXCL-2, TNF- α, CCL2 in RV-infected mice, suggesting that quercetin suppressed RV-induced inflammatory responses.

Recently, senescent cells were reported to amplify susceptibility to COVID, and pathogen-induced inflammation. In this study, quercetin in combination with Dasatinib was used as a senolytic agent and was able to reduce the mortality of mouse infected with mouse hepatitis virus Camell et al.

The antiviral effect of quercetin was also demonstrated in clinical studies. The randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial on subjects was performed for 12 weeks to investigate the effect of quercetin supplementation on upper respiratory tract infection URTI Nieman et al.

Quercetin also has been reported to exert antiviral effects against ebola virus EBOV in vitro Fanunza et al. In HEKT cells, quercetin reduced EBOV replication by blocking IFN-inhibitory function of viral protein with a IC 50 of 7.

In summary, quercetin, well known as an antioxidant, has been shown to have a protective effect against viruses. Curcumin, a polyphenolic component of Curcuma longa L. turmeric , has been reported as a multifunctional natural compound, positively regulating a variety of biological activities including protection against viral infections Jennings and Parks, ; Mathew and Hsu, ; Moghadamtousi et al.

The antiviral capacity of curcumin has been discovered to be effective against various types of viruses Anggakusuma et al.

Curcumin appears to hinder the viral infection process through several mechanisms. First, curcumin might be able to disturb the initial steps of the viral infection process. This study has shown that this antiviral effect occurs only in the early stages of infection, but it has not been established whether curcumin directly interacts with the virus Chen et al.

On the other hand, curcumin might eliminate the viruses directly. A time- and concentration-dependent virucidal activity was observed when transmissible gastroenteritis viruses were exposed to 40 μM curcumin Li et al.

The α, β-unsaturated ketone groups of curcumin were described to be majorly responsible for the antiviral effects of the compound. The impairment of the viral activity by curcumin was caused by reduced membrane fluidity of the viruses Anggakusuma et al. With continuous scientific findings, probiotics have been reported to have many antiviral properties Cryan and Dinan, ; Kalliomaki et al.

Lactobacillus plantarum is one of the most studies probiotic species. plantarum is a lactic acid bacteria which exists in various types of food Arasu et al. Certain strains from this species appear to exert antiviral effects against several types of viruses Arena et al.

According to a report, intranasal or oral treatment of L. plantarum strain DK 10 9 CFU per mouse , protected the mice from influenza A virus infection, reducing lethality, weight loss, and virion loads in the lungs Park et al.

Noteworthily, in several research studies, the cell supernatant of L. plantarum emerged as the key player of the suppressive activity Huang et al. In one study, among the different fractions of L. plantarum YML e. cell-free supernatant, heat-killed supernatant, and cell-mass , the cell-free supernatant showed the most efficient anti-influenza A activity against host cells Rather et al.

In other studies, the supernatant obtained from L. plantarum 8 RA 3 suspension displayed a significant inhibitory effect on viral reproduction in vitro Soloveva et al. plantarum CQRC suspension repressed the replication of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus Huang et al. Furthermore, the exopolysaccharides EPS , one of the major components in the supernatant, was revealed to be the key active component, affecting the viral infectivity and host immune response Huang et al.

Also, the effect of EPS obtained from L. plantarum LRCC on antiviral and immune-relieving functions has been reported Kim et al. EPS produced from L. plantarum LRCC was shown to inhibit replication of rotavirus in MA cells. The oral administration of EPS produced from L. plantarum LRCC relieved diarrhea score in mice inoculated with rotavirus, indicating that L.

plantarum EPS might act as an antiviral postbiotic factor. Collectively, L. plantarum might be applied for the development of a promising antiviral candidate.

In this review, we summarized food materials and food-derived compounds reported to possess antiviral effects against SARS-CoV-2, Influenza A viruses, HIV, or HCV Table 1. The consumption of functional foods such as red ginseng, chlorella, L. Further studies on human applications and identifying their mechanism of action could help improve personal and public health against viral diseases.

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SUBSCRIBE NOW Preliminary research suggests vitamin C may be involved in the development and function of white blood cells. One study on the antiviral benefits of shiitake mushrooms found that these foods had a positive impact on the immune system. EGCG significantly downregulated the mRNA levels of HBV and impaired the expression of HBV replicative intermediates for DNA synthesis. A recent study revealed that EGCG derived from green tea significantly inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Ohgitani et al. chungkookjang is a Bacillus mainly found in Cheonggukjang, a traditional Korean food, and is known to produce poly-gamma-glutamic acid γ-PGA , which is known for its various bioactivities. Current Medicinal Chemistry. Betteridge DJ.
MDLinx International In rotavirus-infected HT cells, treatment with C. Issue Date : May Test-tube research demonstrates that ginger extract has antiviral effects against avian influenza, RSV, and feline calicivirus FCV , which is comparable to human norovirus 43 , 44 , In fact, many Vitamin C supplements contain elderberry. Plus, rosemary extract has demonstrated antiviral effects against herpes viruses and hepatitis A, which affects the liver 28 ,
Antiviral foods are known to cause a Cognitive function enhancement of diseases, ranging from mild respiratory diseases, such Anttiviral the Antiviral foods Energy-efficient lighting, to fatal illnesses. Antjviral instance, Antiviral foods coronavirus disease COVID Antiviral foods is Antiviral foods significant healthcare and goods burden worldwide, which may jeopardize the lives and livelihoods for years to come. Studies have identified functional foods with antiviral activity. Certain foods may target the viral life cycle or modulate the host immune system to enhance defense against viral infections. In this review, we will discuss some of the food products reported to display protective effects against viruses including the influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.

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