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Power training adaptations

Power training adaptations

Power training adaptations of mechanical characteristics of the knee Low GI snacks and flexor musculature of volleyball trainkng. Tanimoto, Powed. Power training adaptations adaptations ttaining Power training adaptations to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. Adaptations within the corticospinal tract CSTthe main conduit of movement signals in humans, have been equivocal, but may occur at the level of the corticomotoneuronal synapse B or via corticospinal projections to interneurons C Nuzzo et al. Morton RW, Oikawa SY, Wavell CG, Mazara N, Mcglory C, Quadrilatero J, et al. Power training adaptations

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Adaptation to Resistance Training Video 1

We examined Traditional remedies for immune system support neuromuscular adaptations following 3 and 6 weeks adaptayions 80 vs.

Testing Supplements for muscle definition completed at baseline, 3, and 6 weeks Poweg training. During each Enhanced fat burning session, ultrasound muscle thickness and echo intensity, 1RM strength, maximal voluntary trakning contraction MVIC strength, and adaptatiohs properties Promoting healthy weight the quadriceps femoris were measured.

VA during MVIC was also greater in the 80 vs. Traininy, our data adaptatipns that high-load training results Powet greater neural adaptations that may explain the disparate increases in muscle strength despite adapgations hypertrophy following Supporting optimal metabolic insulin sensitivity and low-load adwptations programs.

The neuromuscular system displays a high degree of adaptability and responds to resistance training in a manner that ultimately hraining in enhanced force or torque production.

The specific neuromuscular adaptations responsible for the increase in muscle strength are often broadly adatpations as Long-lasting energy formula and neural Folland and Williams, tarining Several morphological adaptations to resistance Anti-viral properties have been identified Staron et al.

It is thought that resistance training also elicits small adaptive adaptxtions at multiple sites within the nervous system that, together, enhance muscle strength Trainingg, ; Gabriel et Power training adaptations.

One of the primary proposed adaptations is an increase in the ability to maximally excite the motor neuron pool i. However, several recent experimental studies Burd et al.

Specifically, low-load i. As a result, Optimal performance fueling has been tfaining debate Burd et al. Although, high- and low-load training to failure may trxining similar hypertrophy, high-load training may be Resveratrol and cellular health for enhancing muscle strength Mitchell et al.

For example, Mitchell et al. Poqer, these data suggest that adaptaations may be Pre-workout supplements adaptations that facilitate improvements in strength adaptatoons high-load training that do not occur Plwer low-load training.

Therefore, the Powef of this study was to examine the neuromuscular adaptations, including muscle aadptations, muscle activation i. Based on previous Hunger control shakes Mitchell adaptatilns al.

Thirty trakning were recruited; however, 4 men did not complete this adaptatoins. Three trainint dropped out after enrollment but prior to familiarization and 1 man Weight control tips out during the third week of yraining due to concerns about the avaptations time commitment.

To traininy eligible, Demystifying sports nutrition participant must have been between Hypoglycemic unawareness monitoring ages of 19 and 35, free from any current or ongoing Antioxidant-dense vegetables injuries or adaptarions disorders involving the hips, knees, Mental sharpness enhancer ankles, and could Power training adaptations have completed trainjng regular or formal resistance training for at least 6 months prior to trainin Power training adaptations of the study.

This study was approved Power sports nutrition plans and Dextrose Energy Booster out in accordance with the recommendations of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Institutional Review Board for the protection CGM technology advantages human participants Consistent power reliability Approval EP.

Prior to any data collection, all wdaptations signed an informed consent form and completed a adaptaitons history questionnaire. A randomized, Power training adaptations measures, between-group, parallel design was used for this study.

Participants completed trqining extension traning training adaphations failure 3 times per week for 6 weeks. All participants PPower a total of 21 adaptatikns, and each rtaining was adaptxtions by 24—96 Araptations and occurred at the same time adaptatons day ±2 h.

During each testing session, ultrasound, adaptatipns strength, EMG Natural metabolism boosters, VA, and contractile properties were adaptztions.

The participants were asked rraining refrain from any outside resistance exercise for the duration of Power training adaptations Alternative herbal treatments. Muscle thickness and echo adaptationw were assessed via ultrasound prior to any adaptattions testing.

Transverse ultrasound ttaining of the right leg extensors were obtained using a portable trxining mode B-mode ultrasound-imaging device GE Adaptattions e, USA and a multi-frequency linear-array probe 12L-RS; 5—13 MHz; Fermented foods and improved athletic performance were obtained while traiing participants were lying Poewr the supine position with their trakning extended, relaxed, supported on the table, and their feet braced.

Great care was taken to ensure Hair growth for alopecia consistent, minimal Trakning was applied with tralning probe to Protein supplements for fitness compression Natural ginseng supplement the muscle.

To enhance acoustic coupling and reduce near field artifacts, a generous amount of water-soluble transmission gel was applied to the skin. To account Powet the possibility of ada;tations hypertrophy Wakahara et al. These locations were Pkwer in permanent ink and kept throughout the duration of the trainnig.

A single, experienced investigator adapgations all Free radicals and diabetes scans. The adaptaitons settings for muscle thickness and echo intensity measurements were optimized for image quality using the musculoskeletal mode prior to all testing using a gain of 50 dB, a frequency of 10 MHz, and a depth of 8 cm.

These equipment settings were held constant between visits and across participants. All ultrasound image analyses were performed using Image-J Software National Institutes of Health, USA, version 1.

Prior to all analyses, each image was scaled from pixels to cm using the straight-line function in Image-J. The muscle thickness of the leg extensors i.

Muscle thickness was determined using the straight-line function in the Image-J software. Muscle thickness was averaged across the three sites proximal, middle, and distal for each muscle VL, VM, and RF and then across muscles at Baseline, Week 3, and Week 6 for further analyses.

VL, VM, and RF muscle echo intensity values were assessed by computer-aided gray-scale analysis using the standard histogram function in Image-J and were determined from the maximal rectangular region of interest using the rectangle function that included as much of the muscle of interest as possible without including any surrounding fascia Caresio et al.

Similar to muscle thickness, echo intensity was averaged across the three sites and three muscles at Baseline, Week 3, and Week 6 for further analyses. The mean echo intensity value was reported as a value between 0 black and white arbitrary units au.

For isometric testing, the participants were seated with straps securing the trunk, pelvis, and contralateral thigh on a calibrated isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3; Biodex Medical Systems, Inc.

Shirley, NY, USA with a custom-fitted load cell Omegadyne, model LC, range 0— lbs, Stamford, CT, USA. The axis of rotation of the dynamometer head was aligned with the lateral epicondyle of the right femur.

The seat was tilted back so that there was ° between the thigh and the trunk to expose the femoral triangle for location of the femoral nerve trunk and delivery of the electrical stimuli.

The leg was flexed to 90° between the leg and the horizontal plane, which was used for both voluntary and evoked isometric muscle actions.

Following the warm-up and 2 min of rest, participants completed 2, 4—5 s MVICs of the leg extensors with 2 min of rest between each muscle action. During each step muscle action, the participants were required to trace their force production on an external computer monitor that displayed the real-time digitized force signal overlaid on the target force level.

During these trials, doublet stimuli were applied to the femoral nerve in order to assess VA i. Three to five s after these submaximal step muscle actions, a doublet stimulus was administered at rest potentiated twitch. An MVIC was also completed after the 2, 4—5 s MVICs, but prior to the submaximal step muscle actions, during which a doublet stimulus was also applied.

Three to five s after this MVIC, a potentiated twitch was evoked. The same absolute forces associated with each randomly ordered percentage of MVIC at baseline were then used during the subsequent testing sessions at week 3 and week 6.

The cathode was a probe placed over the femoral nerve in the lateral most corner of the femoral triangle and the anode was a disposable surface electrode 40 × 50 mm; Digitimer Ltd, Herthfordshire, UK fixed over the greater trochanter.

Optimal stimulation probe location was determined by delivering single low-amperage exploratory stimuli 20—40 mA with the cathode probe.

Probe location was selected based on visual inspections of the twitch force and the compound muscle action potential M-wave amplitudes that were displayed on an external computer screen.

Once the location was determined, the skin was marked and all further stimuli were delivered at that location. Maximal peak-to-peak M-wave amplitude M PP and twitch force were achieved by increasing amperage in 20— mA increments until a plateau in twitch force and M PP were observed after three consecutive amperage increases.

Doublet stimuli ms duration square-wave impulse at Hz were then used to assess voluntary activation. Therefore, for VA, a sample size of 12 for each group was used for analyses. Following ultrasound and isometric strength testing, 1RM testing was carried out according to the guidelines established by the National Strength and Conditioning Association NSCA, Two to four min of rest were allowed between successive warm-up sets and 1RM trials.

The longitudinal axis of the bipolar electrode pair was arranged parallel to the angle of pennation of the VL fibers ~20°; Fukunaga et al. The longitudinal axis of the electrode pair was oriented parallel to the angle of pennation of the VM fibers ~50°; Hermens et al.

All electrode locations were marked with a permanent marker and were kept throughout the duration of the study. To reduce inter-electrode impedance and increase the signal-to-noise ratio Beck and Housh,local areas of the skin were shaved, abraded, and cleaned with isopropyl alcohol prior to the placement of the electrodes.

Interelectrode impedance was measured using a digital multimeter Fluke True RMS Multimeter, Everett, WA, USA and kept below 2, Ω Beck and Housh, Electromyographic EMG and force signals were recorded during all isometric testing.

The EMG and force signals were sampled simultaneously at 2 kHz with a Biopac data acquisition system MPWSW, Biopac Systems, Inc. software Labview v. The EMG signals were amplified gain 1, using a differential amplifier EMG C, Biopac Systems, Inc. The voluntary and evoked EMG signals were digitally filtered zero-phase shift 4th-order Butterworth filter with a band-pass of 10— and 10— Hz, respectively.

The force signals were low-pass filtered zero-phase shift 4th-order Butterworth filter with a 15 Hz cutoff. The force obtained from the load cell N was multiplied by the lever arm length m to calculate torque Nm. All subsequent analyses were completed on the filtered and scaled signals.

During the evoked muscle actions, peak twitch torque PTT was calculated as the highest 5 ms torque value Nm obtained after the onset of the evoked twitch. In addition, M PP was calculated as the peak-to-peak amplitude μV.

M-wave duration M DUR was calculated as the time ms from the onset to cessation of the M-wave. During the MVICs, the torque and EMG amplitude values were calculated from the ms epoch corresponding to the highest average torque value that occurred during the MVIC plateau.

During the submaximal isometric step muscle actions, EMG amplitude values were calculated from a ms steady torque epoch that occurred before the delivery of the doublet stimulus Herda et al.

The EMG amplitude was expressed as the root mean square value in μV during the isometric muscle actions. In order to reduce error due to electrode relocation, subcutaneous fat, and the influence of peripheral factors on the EMG signal Folland and Williams, ; Arabadzhiev et al.

Furthermore, EMG amplitude was average across the VL, VM, and RF to calculate quadriceps femoris muscle activation EMG QAMP Trezise et al. The PTT to MVIC ratio PTT:MVIC was also determined by dividing PTT by MVIC at Baseline, Week 3, and Week 6.

Because PTT reflects the peripheral properties of skeletal muscle and is, in theory, independent of the influence of descending drive from the CNS, whereas MVIC is a function both of the peripheral properties of skeletal muscle and descending drive, this ratio may provide indirect information regarding peripheral vs.

neural adaptations. During all 18 training visits, participants completed 3 sets of resistance training to failure with loads corresponding to the nearest 0. Participants were instructed to perform all repetitions through a complete range of motion. A metronome Pro Metronome, EUMLab, Berlin, Germany was set to 1 Hz, and participants were instructed to perform the concentric and eccentric phases corresponding with each tick of the metronome so that the concentric and eccentric phases were ~1 s.

Verbal instruction and encouragement were provided during each set. Failure was defined as the inability to complete another concentric muscle action through the full range of motion. The weight utilized during training was adjusted based on the new 1RM established at the week 3 testing session.

The total repetitions performed by each subject were calculated as the sum of the repetitions completed for each set across all sets and exercise sessions. Total time under load was calculated for each subject as the sum of the times to completion for each set across all sets and exercise sessions.

: Power training adaptations

Neural Adaptations and Strength Training Power training adaptations adaptation to qdaptations training. Morton, R. Trzining, lower loads may allow for Power training adaptations completion of Black pepper extract benefits training without the Ppwer for specific facility memberships tralning Power training adaptations enable the maintenance or augmentation adaptztions physical qualities during periods where higher load training is not feasible. Skeletal muscle contraction time and tone decrease after 8 weeks of plyometric training. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Impact of resistance exercise program on functional capacity and muscular strength of knee extensor in pre-frail community-dwelling older women: a randomized crossover trial. Early skeletal muscle hypertrophy and architectural changes in response to high-intensity resistance training.
Frontiers | Greater Neural Adaptations following High- vs. Low-Load Resistance Training

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The effect of 5, 10, and 20 repetition maximums on the recovery of voluntary and evoked contractile properties. PubMed Google Scholar. Download references. School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Sports Performance, Recovery, Injury and New Technologies SPRINT Research Centre, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Carnegie Applied Rugby Research CARR Centre, Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, UK. Department of Health Sciences, CUNY Lehman College, Bronx, NY, USA. The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. JW, BJS, and SMP conceptualized the review. JW, JL, and SLH created and revised the figures.

All authors contributed to the writing, reviewing, refinement, and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Jonathon Weakley. JW, JL, SLH, and SMP declare they have no competing interests.

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Download PDF. Review Article Open access Published: 12 May Physiological Responses and Adaptations to Lower Load Resistance Training: Implications for Health and Performance Jonathon Weakley ORCID: orcid. Schoenfeld 4 , Johanna Ljungberg 5 , Shona L. Phillips 6 Show authors Sports Medicine - Open volume 9 , Article number: 28 Cite this article 16k Accesses 3 Citations Altmetric Metrics details.

Abstract Resistance training is a method of enhancing strength, gait speed, mobility, and health. Key Points Lower load i. Background Resistance training is an important consideration for health and performance.

Full size image. Recommendations and considerations for the application of lower load resistance training. Conclusions and Future Directions A substantial body of evidence supports the use of lower load resistance training for inducing improvements in muscle hypertrophy and strength. Availability of Data and Materials All data and material reported in this review are from peer-reviewed publications.

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NJ was a substantial contributor to study concept and design, carried out data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation, and was the primary author. AM, EH, CS, and KC helped carry out data acquisition.

TH contributed to study design and manuscript revision. JC was the primary manuscript reviser and a substantial contributor to study concept, study design, and interpretation.

All authors approved the final version of this manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The authors would like to acknowledge Brianna McKay and Alegra Mendez for their help with data acquisition.

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Sports 24, e—e Lee, M. Short-term strength training does not change cortical voluntary activation. Lepers, R. Effect of cycling cadence on contractile and neural properties of knee extensors.

Lieber, R. Functional and clinical significance of skeletal muscle architecture. Muscle Nerve 23, — MacDougall, J. Biochemical adaptation of human skeletal muscle to heavy resistance training and immobilization.

Mitchell, C. Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men. Moritani, T. Neural factors versus hypertrophy in the time course of muscle strength gain. Morris, S. Combining effect size estimates in meta-analysis with repeated measures and independent-groups designs.

Methods 7, — Narici, M. Changes in force, cross-sectional area and neural activation during strength training and detraining of the human quadriceps. Nieman, D. Ultrasonic assessment of exercise-induced change in skeletal muscle glycogen content. BMC Sports Sci. NSCA Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, 3rd Edn.

Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning, 4th Edn. Ogasawara, R. Low-load bench press training to fatigue results in muscle hypertrophy similar to high-load bench press training. Pillen, S. Skeletal muscle ultrasound: correlation between fibrous tissue and echo intensity.

Pinto, R. Short-term strength training improves muscle quality and functional capacity of elderly women. Age 36, — Radaelli, R. Time course of low- and high-volume strength training on neuromuscular adaptations and muscle quality in older women.

Low- and high-volume strength training induces similar neuromuscular improvements in muscle quality in elderly women. Ribeiro, A. Hypertrophy-type resistance training improves phase angle in young adult men and women.

Sale, D. Neural adaptation to resistance training. Sarvazyan, A. Ultrasonic assessment of tissue hydration status. Ultrasonics 43, — Schoenfeld, B. Effects of low- versus high-load resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy in well-trained men.

Schuenke, M. Seynnes, O. Early skeletal muscle hypertrophy and architectural changes in response to high-intensity resistance training. Staron, R. Skeletal muscle adaptations during early phase of heavy-resistance training in men and women.

Tesch, P. Skeletal muscle adaptations consequent to long-term heavy resistance exercise. Thepaut-Mathieu, C. Myoelectrical and mechanical changes linked to length specificity during isometric training. Trezise, J.

Anatomical and neuromuscular variables strongly predict maximum knee extension torque in healthy men. Wakahara, T. Nonuniform muscle hypertrophy: its relation to muscle activation in training session. Wells, A. Vastus lateralis exhibits non-homogenous adaptation to resistance training.

Muscle Nerve 50, — Williamson, D. Reduction in hybrid single muscle fiber proportions with resistance training in humans. Keywords: training load, neural adaptations, morphological adaptations, muscle activation.

Citation: Jenkins NDM, Miramonti AA, Hill EC, Smith CM, Cochrane-Snyman KC, Housh TJ and Cramer JT Greater Neural Adaptations following High- vs. Low-Load Resistance Training. Received: 12 March ; Accepted: 08 May ; Published: 29 May Copyright © Jenkins, Miramonti, Hill, Smith, Cochrane-Snyman, Housh and Cramer.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Jenkins, nathaniel. jenkins okstate. Disclaimer: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Top bar navigation. About us About us. Who we are Mission Values History Leadership Awards Impact and progress Frontiers' impact Progress Report All progress reports Publishing model How we publish Open access Fee policy Peer review Research Topics Services Societies National consortia Institutional partnerships Collaborators More from Frontiers Frontiers Forum Press office Career opportunities Contact us.

Sections Sections. About journal About journal. Article types Author guidelines Editor guidelines Publishing fees Submission checklist Contact editorial office. ORIGINAL RESEARCH article Front. Greater Neural Adaptations following High- vs. Nathaniel D. Miramonti 2 Ethan C. Hill 2 Cory M.

Smith 2 Kristen C. Cochrane-Snyman 3 Terry J. Housh 2 Joel T.

Strength and power training: physiological mechanisms of adaptation

Additionally, it has been shown that body builders, who traditionally employ a high volume style of training, favorably alter glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity Stone et al. Practical Application: A Resistance Training Prescription for Health It is evident from a number of the adaptations that occur with resistance training that there are several health-related benefits.

Resistance training has been shown to reduce factors associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of resistance training on blood lipids, lipoproteins and blood pressure in hypertensives , and to ascertain what type of training programs may best alter these risk factors.

From this overview, there are some practical guidelines for the health fitness professional and personal trainer who wish to prescribe resistance training programs for health status improvement. They are as follows: 1. Develop programs that will utilize a greater amount of energy expenditure during the workouts.

Programs that utilize the larger muscle groups provide a structural basis for the preferred loading that is recommended for improvements in bone mass and mineral density.

This will also contribute to the caloric cost of the programs, helping to facilitate weight management goals. Use moderate intensity programs, with multiple sets of 8 to 12 repetitions Stone et al.

A frequency of 2 - 3 times a week of resistance training appears applicable and attainable. Programs designed to increase total workout volume total repetitions x weight are encouraged.

As with any effective exercise prescription, individualize the program, with a carefully planned, progressive overload. Be guarded in the use of isometric contractions and high-intensity load training due to the marked increase observed in diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Incorporate a variety of exercises.

In order to avoid the effects of overtraining, muscle soreness, and injury, a prescription of resistance training using a variety of exercises is prudent. With certain organic conditions, such as musculoskeletal conditions i. Take the time to teach the correct performance techniques of the resistance exercises.

In the methodology sections in a number of the studies, the researchers emphasized the importance of teaching the subjects safe and correct resistance training mechanics.

Be aware that the training demands of resistance training may be greater for novice, low-fitness level, and elder individuals, due to the unique physiological challenges of the activity, and the level of fitness of the individuals. Often times, the use of longer rest periods between sets may be beneficial to help these populations adapt to the training demands.

Multiple-joint exercises are more demanding than single-joint exercises, and thus suggest that the training frequency days per week may need to be provide adequate recovery up to 48 hrs for the clients, especially when just beginning a resistance training program.

Develop an effective dialogue with your students. In an attempt to keep the training regimen satisfactory for the study, some researchers mentioned the importance of communication with the subjects in order to sustain the investigation. Effective communication is also consequential in developing and maintaining effective training programs for your students.

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Because we were primarily concerned with the between group changes across time, we further evaluated the time × group interaction by collapsing across torque and utilizing an ANCOVA model to analyze between group differences at Week 3 and Week 6 and one-way ANOVAs to investigate the change in EMG QAMP across time within groups Figures 11C,D.

Specifically, 1RM and MVIC strength increased from Baseline to Week 6 by In the present study, muscle thickness increased by 6. These data add to the growing body of literature that has demonstrated comparable hypertrophic adaptations in response to high- vs. low-load resistance training Mitchell et al.

Hypertrophy has historically been thought to be minimal during the initial stages of resistance training Moritani and deVries, ; Sale, ; Gabriel et al.

Yet, several recent studies Seynnes et al. The present findings supported previous studies Seynnes et al. Damas et al. The authors Damas et al. Echo intensity would be expected to increase in the presence of muscle damage Radaelli et al. Therefore, although these factors cannot be completely ruled out, the echo intensity measurements in the present study, as suggested by Damas et al.

Ultrasound echo intensity has also been used as a surrogate of muscle quality Pillen et al. For example, Pillen et al. Hill and Millan and Nieman et al. Although, several previous studies have demonstrated decreases in echo intensity following chronic resistance training Pinto et al.

Resistance training is known to enhance intramuscular glycogen concentrations MacDougall et al. When muscle glycogen and water content increase, ultrasound images become hypoechoic, resulting in lower echo intensity values.

Incidentally, increased intramuscular water content may increase muscle cross sectional area as measured by MRI Kristiansen et al. Although, it is also possible that glycogen and water concentrations influence ultrasound measures of muscle thickness, there are insufficient data in the present study to test this hypothesis.

Future studies are needed to examine the impacts of muscle glycogen and intramuscular water on MRI Kristiansen et al. Maximal isometric e.

Figure 9. Figure Voluntary activation during MVIC increased 2. Furthermore, the 1. It has been described that large increases in synaptic input e. To illustrate the functional significance of the observed differences in VA, we applied a formula in Figure 6 that was described by Fowles et al.

This formula extrapolates the maximal torque generating capacity of a muscle from measures of MVIC and VA. Although, criticized Kooistra et al. This difference is may be due to a greater augmentation of neural drive Aagaard et al.

Traditionally, training-induced increases in EMG amplitude have been interpreted as increases in neural drive to the muscle Komi et al.

We also examined VA and EMG QAMP during submaximal torque production at the same absolute levels of torque. There was a These decreases were most apparent at high contraction intensities i. Furthermore, VA was lower across all submaximal torques at Weeks 3 and 6 in the 80 vs.

A decrease in VA at submaximal torque levels suggests a reduced neural cost i. The changes in EMG QAMP across submaximal isometric torque observed in the present study were similar to those observed for VA.

Visual inspection of the EMG QAMP vs. torque relationships Figure 11A suggests decreases in EMG QAMP at high contraction intensities i. Our VA and EMG QAMP data during submaximal torque production may also support the findings of Falvo et al.

The unique contributions of this study were the robust measurements VA and EMG QAMP during maximal and submaximal torque levels used to elucidate any potential underlying neural factors.

NJ was a substantial contributor to study concept and design, carried out data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation, and was the primary author.

AM, EH, CS, and KC helped carry out data acquisition. TH contributed to study design and manuscript revision. JC was the primary manuscript reviser and a substantial contributor to study concept, study design, and interpretation.

All authors approved the final version of this manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The authors would like to acknowledge Brianna McKay and Alegra Mendez for their help with data acquisition. Aagaard, P. A mechanism for increased contractile strength of human pennate muscle in response to strength training: changes in muscle architecture.

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Conventionally assessed voluntary activation does not represent relative voluntary torque production. Korhonen, M. Biomechanical and skeletal muscle determinants of maximum running speed with aging.

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Time course of low- and high-volume strength training on neuromuscular adaptations and muscle quality in older women. Low- and high-volume strength training induces similar neuromuscular improvements in muscle quality in elderly women. Ribeiro, A. Hypertrophy-type resistance training improves phase angle in young adult men and women.

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Health Benefits of Resistance

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Download references. School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK. Laboratoire Interuniversitaire de Biologie de la Motricité, Université Jean Monnet Saint-Etienne, Université Lyon, Saint-Étienne, France. Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padua, Italy. Department of Artificial Intelligence and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen-Nurnberg, , Erlangen, Germany.

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Download PDF. Abstract The initial increases in force production with resistance training are thought to be primarily underpinned by neural adaptations.

Corticospinal and spinal adaptations to motor skill and resistance training: Potential mechanisms and implications for motor rehabilitation and athletic development Article 02 January Corticospinal and spinal adaptations following lower limb motor skill training: a meta-analysis with best evidence synthesis Article 05 February Determining the Sites of Neural Adaptations to Resistance Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Article 28 January Use our pre-submission checklist Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.

Introduction Resistance exercise is one of the most common exercise modalities, providing numerous functional and physiological benefits to various populations, from athletes to patients. Full size image. Cortical or spinal adaptations: stimulation studies reveal inconsistent results The early studies attempting to discern the site of neural adaptations to strength training employed stimulation of peripheral nerves and the study of reflex responses.

High-density surface electromyography: potential for source identification Stimulation techniques, including TMS, involve the study of evoked responses.

Further considerations and conclusions The present review has principally discussed neural adaptations to resistance training based on recordings of the agonist muscle s. Abbreviations EEG: Electroencephalogram EMG: Electromyogram HDsEMG: High-density surface electromyogram H-reflex: The Hoffman reflex TMS: Transcranial magnetic stimulation.

References Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Andersen JL et al Neural adaptation to resistance training: changes in evoked V-wave and H-reflex responses. sp Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Afsharipour B, Manzur N, Duchcherer J et al Estimation of self-sustained activity produced by persistent inward currents using firing rate profiles of multiple motor units in humans.

ch8 Chapter Google Scholar Bachtiar V, Stagg C The role of inhibition in human motor cortical plasticity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the neuromuscular adaptations, including muscle hypertrophy, muscle activation i.

Based on previous studies Mitchell et al. Thirty men were recruited; however, 4 men did not complete this study. Three men dropped out after enrollment but prior to familiarization and 1 man dropped out during the third week of training due to concerns about the total time commitment. To be eligible, each participant must have been between the ages of 19 and 35, free from any current or ongoing musculoskeletal injuries or neuromuscular disorders involving the hips, knees, or ankles, and could not have completed any regular or formal resistance training for at least 6 months prior to the start of the study.

This study was approved by and carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Institutional Review Board for the protection of human participants IRB Approval EP. Prior to any data collection, all participants signed an informed consent form and completed a health history questionnaire.

A randomized, repeated measures, between-group, parallel design was used for this study. Participants completed leg extension resistance training to failure 3 times per week for 6 weeks. All participants completed a total of 21 visits, and each visit was separated by 24—96 h and occurred at the same time of day ±2 h.

During each testing session, ultrasound, muscle strength, EMG amplitude, VA, and contractile properties were measured. The participants were asked to refrain from any outside resistance exercise for the duration of the study.

Muscle thickness and echo intensity were assessed via ultrasound prior to any exercise testing. Transverse ultrasound images of the right leg extensors were obtained using a portable brightness mode B-mode ultrasound-imaging device GE Logiq e, USA and a multi-frequency linear-array probe 12L-RS; 5—13 MHz; Images were obtained while the participants were lying in the supine position with their legs extended, relaxed, supported on the table, and their feet braced.

Great care was taken to ensure that consistent, minimal pressure was applied with the probe to limit compression of the muscle. To enhance acoustic coupling and reduce near field artifacts, a generous amount of water-soluble transmission gel was applied to the skin.

To account for the possibility of non-uniform hypertrophy Wakahara et al. These locations were marked in permanent ink and kept throughout the duration of the study.

A single, experienced investigator performed all ultrasound scans. The equipment settings for muscle thickness and echo intensity measurements were optimized for image quality using the musculoskeletal mode prior to all testing using a gain of 50 dB, a frequency of 10 MHz, and a depth of 8 cm.

These equipment settings were held constant between visits and across participants. All ultrasound image analyses were performed using Image-J Software National Institutes of Health, USA, version 1.

Prior to all analyses, each image was scaled from pixels to cm using the straight-line function in Image-J. The muscle thickness of the leg extensors i. Muscle thickness was determined using the straight-line function in the Image-J software.

Muscle thickness was averaged across the three sites proximal, middle, and distal for each muscle VL, VM, and RF and then across muscles at Baseline, Week 3, and Week 6 for further analyses.

VL, VM, and RF muscle echo intensity values were assessed by computer-aided gray-scale analysis using the standard histogram function in Image-J and were determined from the maximal rectangular region of interest using the rectangle function that included as much of the muscle of interest as possible without including any surrounding fascia Caresio et al.

Similar to muscle thickness, echo intensity was averaged across the three sites and three muscles at Baseline, Week 3, and Week 6 for further analyses.

The mean echo intensity value was reported as a value between 0 black and white arbitrary units au. For isometric testing, the participants were seated with straps securing the trunk, pelvis, and contralateral thigh on a calibrated isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3; Biodex Medical Systems, Inc.

Shirley, NY, USA with a custom-fitted load cell Omegadyne, model LC, range 0— lbs, Stamford, CT, USA. The axis of rotation of the dynamometer head was aligned with the lateral epicondyle of the right femur. The seat was tilted back so that there was ° between the thigh and the trunk to expose the femoral triangle for location of the femoral nerve trunk and delivery of the electrical stimuli.

The leg was flexed to 90° between the leg and the horizontal plane, which was used for both voluntary and evoked isometric muscle actions. Following the warm-up and 2 min of rest, participants completed 2, 4—5 s MVICs of the leg extensors with 2 min of rest between each muscle action.

During each step muscle action, the participants were required to trace their force production on an external computer monitor that displayed the real-time digitized force signal overlaid on the target force level.

During these trials, doublet stimuli were applied to the femoral nerve in order to assess VA i. Three to five s after these submaximal step muscle actions, a doublet stimulus was administered at rest potentiated twitch.

An MVIC was also completed after the 2, 4—5 s MVICs, but prior to the submaximal step muscle actions, during which a doublet stimulus was also applied.

Three to five s after this MVIC, a potentiated twitch was evoked. The same absolute forces associated with each randomly ordered percentage of MVIC at baseline were then used during the subsequent testing sessions at week 3 and week 6.

The cathode was a probe placed over the femoral nerve in the lateral most corner of the femoral triangle and the anode was a disposable surface electrode 40 × 50 mm; Digitimer Ltd, Herthfordshire, UK fixed over the greater trochanter.

Optimal stimulation probe location was determined by delivering single low-amperage exploratory stimuli 20—40 mA with the cathode probe. Probe location was selected based on visual inspections of the twitch force and the compound muscle action potential M-wave amplitudes that were displayed on an external computer screen.

Once the location was determined, the skin was marked and all further stimuli were delivered at that location. Maximal peak-to-peak M-wave amplitude M PP and twitch force were achieved by increasing amperage in 20— mA increments until a plateau in twitch force and M PP were observed after three consecutive amperage increases.

Doublet stimuli ms duration square-wave impulse at Hz were then used to assess voluntary activation. Therefore, for VA, a sample size of 12 for each group was used for analyses.

Following ultrasound and isometric strength testing, 1RM testing was carried out according to the guidelines established by the National Strength and Conditioning Association NSCA, Two to four min of rest were allowed between successive warm-up sets and 1RM trials.

The longitudinal axis of the bipolar electrode pair was arranged parallel to the angle of pennation of the VL fibers ~20°; Fukunaga et al.

The longitudinal axis of the electrode pair was oriented parallel to the angle of pennation of the VM fibers ~50°; Hermens et al.

All electrode locations were marked with a permanent marker and were kept throughout the duration of the study. To reduce inter-electrode impedance and increase the signal-to-noise ratio Beck and Housh, , local areas of the skin were shaved, abraded, and cleaned with isopropyl alcohol prior to the placement of the electrodes.

Interelectrode impedance was measured using a digital multimeter Fluke True RMS Multimeter, Everett, WA, USA and kept below 2, Ω Beck and Housh, Electromyographic EMG and force signals were recorded during all isometric testing. The EMG and force signals were sampled simultaneously at 2 kHz with a Biopac data acquisition system MPWSW, Biopac Systems, Inc.

software Labview v. The EMG signals were amplified gain 1, using a differential amplifier EMG C, Biopac Systems, Inc. The voluntary and evoked EMG signals were digitally filtered zero-phase shift 4th-order Butterworth filter with a band-pass of 10— and 10— Hz, respectively.

The force signals were low-pass filtered zero-phase shift 4th-order Butterworth filter with a 15 Hz cutoff. The force obtained from the load cell N was multiplied by the lever arm length m to calculate torque Nm. All subsequent analyses were completed on the filtered and scaled signals.

During the evoked muscle actions, peak twitch torque PTT was calculated as the highest 5 ms torque value Nm obtained after the onset of the evoked twitch. In addition, M PP was calculated as the peak-to-peak amplitude μV.

M-wave duration M DUR was calculated as the time ms from the onset to cessation of the M-wave. During the MVICs, the torque and EMG amplitude values were calculated from the ms epoch corresponding to the highest average torque value that occurred during the MVIC plateau.

During the submaximal isometric step muscle actions, EMG amplitude values were calculated from a ms steady torque epoch that occurred before the delivery of the doublet stimulus Herda et al.

The EMG amplitude was expressed as the root mean square value in μV during the isometric muscle actions. In order to reduce error due to electrode relocation, subcutaneous fat, and the influence of peripheral factors on the EMG signal Folland and Williams, ; Arabadzhiev et al.

Furthermore, EMG amplitude was average across the VL, VM, and RF to calculate quadriceps femoris muscle activation EMG QAMP Trezise et al. The PTT to MVIC ratio PTT:MVIC was also determined by dividing PTT by MVIC at Baseline, Week 3, and Week 6.

Because PTT reflects the peripheral properties of skeletal muscle and is, in theory, independent of the influence of descending drive from the CNS, whereas MVIC is a function both of the peripheral properties of skeletal muscle and descending drive, this ratio may provide indirect information regarding peripheral vs.

neural adaptations. During all 18 training visits, participants completed 3 sets of resistance training to failure with loads corresponding to the nearest 0.

Participants were instructed to perform all repetitions through a complete range of motion. A metronome Pro Metronome, EUMLab, Berlin, Germany was set to 1 Hz, and participants were instructed to perform the concentric and eccentric phases corresponding with each tick of the metronome so that the concentric and eccentric phases were ~1 s.

Verbal instruction and encouragement were provided during each set. Failure was defined as the inability to complete another concentric muscle action through the full range of motion. The weight utilized during training was adjusted based on the new 1RM established at the week 3 testing session.

The total repetitions performed by each subject were calculated as the sum of the repetitions completed for each set across all sets and exercise sessions. Total time under load was calculated for each subject as the sum of the times to completion for each set across all sets and exercise sessions.

Total exercise volume was calculated for each subject as the sum of the product of the number of sets performed, the repetitions completed, and the weight lifted and expressed in total weight kg lifted across all exercise sessions.

Participants completed a 3-day dietary log prior to the training period. Participants were instructed to write down all food and drink except water consumed on the first 3 days of the training period.

com , MyFitnessPal LLC, San Francisco, CA that provided calculations of absolute daily energy intake kcal , as well as protein g , carbohydrate g , and fat g intakes.

The average intakes for energy, protein, carbohydrate, and fat across each 3-day period were recorded. Initially, an ANOVA model was used to assess VA and EMG QAMP during the submaximal isometric step muscle actions. For VA and EMG QAMP , three-way mixed factorial ANOVAs time [Baseline vs.

Week 3 vs. Because these initial analyses revealed time × group interactions, we collapsed the data across torque for EMG QAMP and VA and applied an ANCOVA model utilizing the respective Baseline scores as the covariate and the Week 3 or Week 6 scores as the dependent variable.

Sphericity was tested for each one way and mixed factorial ANOVA using Mauchly's Test of Sphericity. In cases where the assumption of sphericity was not met, Greenhouse-Geisser corrections Greenhouse and Geisser, were applied.

Equality of variances were tested using Levene's Test for Equality of Variances for each independent samples t -test performed.

In cases where the homogeneity of variances assumption was not met, the error term and degrees of freedom were adjusted using the Welch—Satterthwaite method.

Partial eta effect sizes η p 2 were calculated for each ANOVA. Significant main effects were analyzed with Sidak-Bonferroni corrected dependent samples t -tests on the marginal means. Cohen's d effect sizes d were calculated for independent samples t -tests as described previously Cohen, The d effect sizes for dependent samples t -tests were corrected for dependence among means based on the correlation between means as described by Morris and DeShon All statistical analyses were completed using IBM SPSS Statistics v.

Table 1 contains the average daily dietary intake data for the 80 vs. Table 1. Table 2 contains the total repetitions completed, total time under load, and total exercise volume in the 80 vs.

Table 2. There was no difference in the adjusted means for the 80 vs. Figure 1. Error bars are standard errors. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. There was no difference in the adjusted means for PTT:MVIC in the 80 vs. Table 3. There were no differences in the adjusted means for M PP in the 80 vs.

There was no difference in the adjusted means for VA in the 80 vs. Figure 5. Figure 6. Extrapolated torque represents the theoretical maximal torque generating capacity of the leg extensors.

Note that in A,B , the y-axis is torque in Nm. There was no difference in the adjusted means for EMG QAMP in the 80 vs. Figure 7. Figure 8. Therefore, we collapsed across torque and utilized an ANCOVA model to analyze between group differences at Week 3 and Week 6 and one-way ANOVAs to investigate the change in VA across time within groups Figures 10C,D.

Because we were primarily concerned with the between group changes across time, we further evaluated the time × group interaction by collapsing across torque and utilizing an ANCOVA model to analyze between group differences at Week 3 and Week 6 and one-way ANOVAs to investigate the change in EMG QAMP across time within groups Figures 11C,D.

Specifically, 1RM and MVIC strength increased from Baseline to Week 6 by In the present study, muscle thickness increased by 6. These data add to the growing body of literature that has demonstrated comparable hypertrophic adaptations in response to high- vs.

Lower concentrations of blood triglycerides and LDL-C, along with higher levels of HDL-C have been observed with endurance-trained individuals. However, Kokkinos and Hurley add that the lack of control in body composition, day-to-day variations in lipoproteins, dietary factors, and distinction of acute vs.

chronic adaptations needs to be thoroughly addressed in future strength training research, to provide a more credible summary of the effect of resistance training on blood lipids and lipoproteins.

In addition, more research is needed to determine if there is an optimal resistance training format that positively affects lipoprotein-lipid profiles.

Glucose metabolism adaptations to resistance training An important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes is glucose tolerance. High blood glucose and high insulin levels can also have a deleterious effect on hypertension and blood lipids Hurley, Initially, improvements in glucose metabolism were associated with decreases in percent body fat and increases in aerobic capacity, thus suggesting that aerobic exercise would provide the better catalyst for improvements in glucose metabolism.

However, improvements in glucose metabolism with strength training, independent of alterations in aerobic capacity or percent body fat, have been shown Hurley et al. Interestingly, Smutok et al. The strength training program consisted of two sets 90 second rests between sets of exercise, using loads that could be lifted 12 - 15 times per set for 11 different exercises.

Exercises included squats, leg extensions, leg curls, decline presses, pullovers, arm cross-overs, overhead presses, lateral raises, rows, hip and back exercises, and modified sit-ups.

Additionally, it has been shown that body builders, who traditionally employ a high volume style of training, favorably alter glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity Stone et al. Practical Application: A Resistance Training Prescription for Health It is evident from a number of the adaptations that occur with resistance training that there are several health-related benefits.

Resistance training has been shown to reduce factors associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis.

Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of resistance training on blood lipids, lipoproteins and blood pressure in hypertensives , and to ascertain what type of training programs may best alter these risk factors.

From this overview, there are some practical guidelines for the health fitness professional and personal trainer who wish to prescribe resistance training programs for health status improvement. They are as follows: 1. Develop programs that will utilize a greater amount of energy expenditure during the workouts.

Programs that utilize the larger muscle groups provide a structural basis for the preferred loading that is recommended for improvements in bone mass and mineral density. This will also contribute to the caloric cost of the programs, helping to facilitate weight management goals.

Use moderate intensity programs, with multiple sets of 8 to 12 repetitions Stone et al. A frequency of 2 - 3 times a week of resistance training appears applicable and attainable. Programs designed to increase total workout volume total repetitions x weight are encouraged.

As with any effective exercise prescription, individualize the program, with a carefully planned, progressive overload. Be guarded in the use of isometric contractions and high-intensity load training due to the marked increase observed in diastolic and systolic blood pressure.

Incorporate a variety of exercises. In order to avoid the effects of overtraining, muscle soreness, and injury, a prescription of resistance training using a variety of exercises is prudent. With certain organic conditions, such as musculoskeletal conditions i.

Take the time to teach the correct performance techniques of the resistance exercises. In the methodology sections in a number of the studies, the researchers emphasized the importance of teaching the subjects safe and correct resistance training mechanics.

Be aware that the training demands of resistance training may be greater for novice, low-fitness level, and elder individuals, due to the unique physiological challenges of the activity, and the level of fitness of the individuals.

Often times, the use of longer rest periods between sets may be beneficial to help these populations adapt to the training demands. Multiple-joint exercises are more demanding than single-joint exercises, and thus suggest that the training frequency days per week may need to be provide adequate recovery up to 48 hrs for the clients, especially when just beginning a resistance training program.

Develop an effective dialogue with your students. In an attempt to keep the training regimen satisfactory for the study, some researchers mentioned the importance of communication with the subjects in order to sustain the investigation.

Effective communication is also consequential in developing and maintaining effective training programs for your students. References : Behm, D. Velocity specificity of resistance training.

Sports Medicine, 15, Blumenthal, J. Failure of exercise to reduce blood pressure in patients with mild hypertension. Journal of the American Medical Association, , Conroy, B. Bone, muscle and connective tissue adaptations to physical activity. Baechle Ed. Champaign: Human Kinetics.

Adaptive responses of bone to physical activity. Medicine Exercise Nutrition Health, 1, Fleck, S. Cardiovascular adaptations to resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 20 Suppl.

Power training adaptations -

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In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. The purpose of the study was to compare sex adaptations in hypertrophy, strength and contractile properties of upper and lower-body muscles induced by resistance training RT.

Eighteen RT untrained male MG and female FG students aged These results indicate that initial morphological, functional and contractile alterations following RT are similar for males and females, and that there are no specific sex adaptations either for the upper- or lower-body muscles.

The study was registered with ClinicalTrials. gov NCT It is well-documented that males and females differ on the anatomical and physiological level.

For instance, there are known sex variations in limb length and pelvic angle, muscle size, and general body-composition, hormonal fluctuations, fatigability, and inflammatory response after exercise prescription 1 , 2 , 3.

Thus, there is a physiological rationale that resistance training RT could produce different muscular adaptations between the sexes. Previous RT studies were mainly focused on hypertrophy and strength gains. Considering the sex differences in the baseline muscularity and force production 3 , it is not surprising that males often exceed females in an absolute increase of muscle mass and strength 4 , 5 , 6.

However, in regard to relative changes, the findings are equivocal. Many researchers have evaluated lower-body muscles quadriceps femoris and while some 2 , 5 noted significant differences between older men and women, others 4 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 reported similar relative gains in hypertrophy and strength between sexes, for both younger and older population.

On the other hand, less attention has been paid to upper-body muscles. Based on studies 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , it seems that females exhibit greater strength changes.

Indeed, in a recent meta-analysis Roberts et al. Yet, for relative upper-body strength increase, the effect size was moderately in favor for females. In that context, it is plausible that neural adaptations in females are more pronounced during the first weeks of RT for upper-body muscles 15 , 16 , resulting in higher relative strength gains.

Although this potentially indicates that strength adaptations between sexes differ according to the specific body region, few studies included both upper- and lower-body muscles and analogously evaluated their absolute and relative changes in hypertrophy and strength.

Furthermore, when it comes to lower-body muscles, evaluation of quadriceps muscles on individual level, except vastus lateralis, is lacking. This is important, since males and females show different kinematic and muscle activity patterns during lower-body movement 1 , 17 , 18 , 19 , which could results in non-homogeneous intermuscular hypertrophy of quadriceps femoris Namely, rectus femoris tends to display sustainably higher activity in females compared to males during one-legged squat 17 , 18 , 19 and knee extension 1 fatiguing exercise.

Moreover, sex differences have been noted in intermuscular development of quadriceps muscles regarding similar sport participation, where regular rowing activity caused preferential growth of vastus medialis in females, and inversely vastus lateralis in males Thus, there is a need to consider all quadriceps parts rectus femoris and vastii muscles when aiming to clarify sex comparison following lower-body RT prescription.

Except hypertrophy and strength changes, evaluating passive mechanical properties may provide additional insight into adaptive processes of skeletal muscle This particularly relates to tensiomyography TMG and two parameters extracted by this method: contraction time Tc and radial displacement Dm.

The Dm, which represents muscle belly stiffness 22 , is sensitive to RT stimulus and it has been shown that RT leads to reduced Dm values i. higher stiffness both acutely 23 and chronically Accordingly, chronic changes in Dm values have been associated with muscle morphological adaptations, indicating that Dm could be used to detect RT effectiveness for hypertrophy 24 , On the other hand, Tc has been related to fiber type proportions, where lower values of the Tc have been correlated with slow twitch muscle fibers Hence, in addition to hypertrophy and strength changes, TMG evaluation could give comprehensive information regarding sex specific adaptations following RT.

Nevertheless, a recent review by Lohr et al. While their findings indicated sex dissimilarities in the Dm for some lower-body biceps femoris and rectus femoris muscles, there is a dearth in the literature regarding whether RT produces different chronic TMG adaptations between males and females.

In the current study we aimed to compare biceps curl and parallel squat RT effects between young men and women on: i muscle thickness MT and cross-section area CSA of biceps brachii and 4 quadriceps femoris muscles, ii one-repetition maximum 1RM of elbow flexor and knee extensors, iii TMG Dm and Tc of biceps brachii, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscle.

We hypothesized that: i squat RT would produce inhomogeneous hypertrophy of quadriceps muscles between males and females, ii relative gains in 1RM of elbow flexors would be greater in females compared to males, iii decrease in Dm values of quadriceps muscles would be different between the sexes.

The participants were assigned to two experimental groups, based on the sex MG—male group and FG—female group. The training intervention was performed twice a week over a period of for 7 weeks.

Before training intervention, a 2-week familiarization period was conducted to ensure that subjects have mastered the technique of selected exercises Elbow flexor and knee extensors muscle dimension and strength were assessed 2 days before and after the training intervention, while contractile properties were evaluated 5 days before and after the experiment Participants were blinded for test results.

Flowchart of experimental procedure is presented in Fig. Schematic figure of study design. Graphical representation was designed using Adobe Photoshop software version The sample included twenty-four moderately active university students 12 females and 12 males , who have not participated in RT activity in the previous 8 months.

Thus, according to Santos Junior et al. Six participants were excluded 3 males and 3 females , due to loss of interest and personal issues. The final sample included 18 participants 9 men and 9 women who successfully completed the experimental protocol.

A priori sample size was justified utilizing G-Power software University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany, version 3. Body composition variables were measured by In-Body Biospace Co.

Prior to testing, the subjects were instructed not to eat anything in the morning, to avoid any kind of exercise 24 h before body composition analyses and to meet their physiological needs before the measurement. Subjects were in the standing position for at least 5 min prior to measurement for redistribution of body fluids.

During the measurement all subjects were in light sport clothing and had no metal accessories. Participants were healthy, without a history of upper or lower body musculoskeletal injuries. All participants were fully informed about the experimental procedures and potential risks and they signed a written informed consent prior to participation in the study.

During the experimental period, the subjects were advised to stick to the usual diet and to avoid the use of supplementation. Muscle strength was assessed by one-repetition maximum test 1RM for two exercises: elbow flexion on Scott's bench BC and parallel barbell squat PS.

Each participant had 5 attempts to lift the maximum weight with pauses between trials of 3 min. BC testing was performed using a curling bar, where radio-ulnar joint was in the supination position. The axillae and back of the arms were positioned on the pad, while the height of the bench was adjusted for each participant until the trunk was straight and both feet were on the floor.

Participants were required to accomplish a full range of movement PS testing was performed with straight barbell bar which was placed above the acromion, with their feet shoulder-width apart. The range of motion of the exercise included a full concentric motion until vertical position ; during the eccentric phase the movement was performed until femur bones were parallel to the floor when the trochanter major and lateral epicondyle of femur were at the same level Muscles dimensions were evaluated by an ultrasonic device Siemens Antares, Erlangen, Germany , using the 2D ellipse diagnostic method, for 5 muscles: elbow flexor biceps brachii muscle—BB and 4 knee extensors rectus femoris—RF; vastus intermedius—VI; vastus medialis—VM; vastus lateralis—VL.

Briefly, the measurements were performed while the subjects were seated with their elbows and knees extended and relaxed. The transducer, with variable high frequency from 7 to 13 MHz , was held vertically with minimal pressure against the skin and water-soluble transmission gel was used between the transducer and the skin to ensure optimal image quality.

The BB thickness was measured at two-thirds of the distance from the acromion to the antecubital crease. The muscle thickness MT included the distance in centimeters cm from the superficial to deep fascia layers and the average distance of the two measurements was used for statistical analysis The cross-sectional areas CSA of 4 knee extensor muscles were expressed in square centimeters cm 2.

CSA of RF was measured at the height of proximal section of its distal third, above the musculoskeletal joint. CSA of VI and VM were measured at the height of distal part right above the patella The visible part of VL was measured at the distal third directly above the patella, under RF level.

All the measurements were performed by the same specialized musculoskeletal radiologist. The contractile properties of BB, RF and VL muscles were evaluated by tensiomyography according to the manufacturer's instructions TMG-BMC, Ljubljana, Slovenia. The values of contraction time Tc and radial displacement Dm were taken for analysis.

The BB testing was performed while subjects were in a sitting position with the dominant arm bent at 90°. The tested arm was placed on a support, to ensure a neutral shoulder position during testing During the assessment of RF and VL contractile properties subjects were lying on the back.

The dominant leg was placed on the support, forming a knee angle of ° Subjects were asked to perform a voluntary contraction, in order to mark the point of placement of the TMG sensor by the palpation method.

Two self-adhesive electrodes Pals Platinum, model with multi-stick gel, Axelgaard Manufacturing Co. Ltd were placed proximal and distal at 3 cm from the marked point, emitting an electrical impulse. A sensor GK40, Panoptik, Ljubljana, Slovenia was placed between the electrodes to detect muscle changes initiated by electrical stimulation.

The initial impulse was 25 mA and it increased proportionally by 10 mA, until the maximum muscle no longer responds to electrical stimulus. The pause between the pulses was 10 s, to allow the muscle enough time to relax.

The two best results were preserved and software calculated the mean Both TMG pre-test—post-test tests were conducted in the morning and by the same experienced specialist. Both experimental groups performed two exercises to target elbow flexor and knee extensor muscles: biceps curl on a Scott bench Scott Bench-PA06, TechnoGym and parallel barbell squat, respectively.

All sessions were performed at the same time 13—15 h, room temperature 20°—24° , with a minimum 48 h rest between sessions on the same day each week. All sets were performed until muscular failure. The pause between the sets was 2 min. Volume-load repetitions × sets × weight lifted has been recorded during the first and fourth week of training intervention for both MG BC: Test—retest repeatability for ultrasound, TMG and 1RM measurement were assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient ICC.

Sex differences at baseline were tested using the independent t-test. One-way ANCOVA using baseline values as covariates was used to examine absolute differences in the tested variables, between the sexes. When ANCOVA showed statistical significance, the differences between groups were further estimated by Bonferroni post-hoc test.

Relative changes for each variable were derived from Pre to Post percentage change for each participant. To determine sex differences in the relative changes, an ANCOVA model was applied, where a percentage change was used as a dependent variable and baseline values as the covariate.

Effect sizes ES were determined using G-power software University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany, version 3. Statistical analysis was processed using the IBM SPSS Statistics software package Version 21, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA. Both MG and FG significantly improved 1RM with a moderate-to-large effect for BC MG for 4.

Although FG compared to MG displayed greater relative changes for BC and inversely MG compared to FG for PS, these differences were not significant when adjusted for pre-test values Table 3. Pre-to-post changes in biceps curl a and parallel squat b one-repetition maximum 1RM for males MG and females FG.

Graphical representations were generated using GraphPad Prism software version 9. Significant hypertrophy and small-to-moderate effect sizes were observed for BB MG for 0.

Only MG demonstrated a significant increase in CSA of VI muscle MG for 0. No significant sex × time interactions were observed for any tested muscle Table 2.

Analogously, there were no significant sex differences for the percent increase in any of the tested muscles Table 3. TMG parameter Dm significantly decreased with a moderate-to-large effect for BB MG for 2. Both sexes decreased Dm of VL muscle, however this did not meet statistical significance MG for 1.

Additionally, there were no significant differences between sexes for percent changes of TMG parameters Table 3. Pre-to-post changes in TMG parameters radial displacement—Dm left and contraction time—Tc right of biceps brachii a , rectus femoris b and vastus lateralis c for males black fill and females grey fill.

This study evaluated absolute and relative changes in size, strength and contractile properties of upper- and lower-body muscles with the general goal to give a comprehensive answer regarding sex-specific adaptations following RT. The main results indicate that 7 weeks of biceps curl and parallel squat exercises were a sufficient stimulus to promote hypertrophy and strength gains of biceps brachii and 4 knee extensor muscles, however there are no sex differences induced by RT intervention.

Similar patterns were observed for TMG variables where both sexes equally increased muscle stiffness of biceps brachii and rectus femoris, while the values of contraction time of all tested muscles remain unaltered.

The present results demonstrate that, although males tend to display greater absolute strength gains, for relative changes there are no sex differences.

While these results corroborate well the studies which investigated lower-body muscles 4 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , they are in contrast with findings of a recent meta-analysis 15 , where females exceed males for relative upper-body strength changes.

We believe that the reason for this discrepancy is two-fold and relates to the distinct experimental procedure and statistical approach. Firstly, it should be noted that we applied a research design where 1RM testing was preceded by 2 weeks of familiarization protocol.

Contrary, other studies conducted one trial session before strength testing 11 , 12 , 13 , Rapid increase in strength occurs during the initial 2—4 weeks of RT and it is primarily mediated by neural adaptations 4.

It has been hypothesized that females exhibit greater strength adaptations for upper-body due to pronounced skill acquisition and learning effects in the first weeks of RT, because untrained men are generally more familiar with the upper-body movements compared to the untrained women If this holds true, then there is a logical rationale that our 2-week familiarization period was sufficient to promote considerable neural adaptations and potentially compensate initial strength gains in females.

Secondly, most of the results obtained from the aforementioned meta-analysis 15 , were based on comparing the means of percentage changes between sexes. For example, O'Hagan et al. However, this approach could easily lead to the type I errors, considering that males and females differ on the baseline strength level and that the percentage changes will create bias towards the group with lower pre-test scores in this case for females.

On the other hand, a more suitable option is ANCOVA, where post-treatment scores are adjusted by the baseline values and which have the highest statistical power, especially when a group-baseline difference exists This highlights that the interpretation of the results varies depending on the statistical methods used and we strongly believe that the ANCOVA model is the best fit option when aiming to compare sex adaptations following RT prescription.

One of the strengths of this study is that we included both upper- and lower-body muscles, and also evaluated dimensions of all 4 knee extensor muscles.

Following RT, both sexes equally increased BB muscle size, which is consistent with previous reports 13 , 14 , From physiological standpoint, this is not surprising since the RT-induced protein synthesis and mTOR signaling pathway, which is considered as essential for muscle growth, do not differ between the sexes Although males generally demonstrate greater RT anabolic response 3 , current evidence suggests that circulating hormones are not associated with changes in muscle size On the other hand, given the existence of certain sex dissimilarities in lower-body anatomical level and muscle activity patterns 17 , 18 , 19 , we expected that squat RT would produce inhomogeneous hypertrophy of quadriceps muscles between MG and FG.

However, this was not the case, as increase in CSA of quadriceps muscles was evident for both sex groups, without significant differences between them. As we mentioned earlier, there is a paucity of data regarding sex specific hypertrophy of individual quadriceps muscles and it is challenging to compare our results with previous reports.

To the best of our knowledge, only Lundberg et al. They also investigated sex-comparisons and found similar absolute changes in size of all quadriceps muscles between young men and women induced by both RT modalities. Future research should thus consider concomitant contribution from different sources of input that are likely responsible for uniform changes in motoneuron discharge rate across the entire motor pool.

The present review has principally discussed neural adaptations to resistance training based on recordings of the agonist muscle s. Indeed, the literature has predominantly focused on neurophysiological changes in the agonist muscles, with relatively little regard for antagonist and synergists.

Early studies investigating interference EMG amplitude suggest reduced antagonist activation following resistance training Carolan and Cafarelli , though conflicting evidence also exists Holtermann et al.

Notably, muscles are not controlled by distinct territories within the motor cortex, but are overlapped and intertwined, and more likely interconnected by intrinsic collaterals involved in the integrated control of muscle synergies Devanne et al.

Thus, it is conceivable that focusing on recordings of a single, typically the agonist muscle neglects the possibility of changes in intermuscular coordination as a result of resistance training.

Whilst coordination is conceptually difficult to measure with stimulation techniques such as TMS, the distribution of different inputs to the motoneuron pool between synergists has been investigated previously Laine et al.

Future studies should consider concomitant recordings of synergists and antagonists to provide a broader understanding of neural adaptations to resistance training within the whole motor pool.

In conclusion, there is considerable evidence consistent with the notion that the early increases in force production following resistance training are underpinned by neural adaptations.

However, despite the proliferation of studies in the field in the last two decades, the precise site of putative neural adaptations remains unclear. The advances in decomposition of neural signals i.

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Exp Brain Res — Bostock H, Grafe P Activity-dependent excitability changes in normal and demyelinated rat spinal root axons. Brownstein CG, Ansdell P, Škarabot J et al Motor cortical and corticospinal function differ during an isometric squat compared to isometric knee extension. Burke D, Gandevia SC Properties of human peripheral nerves: implications for studies of human motor control.

Prog Brain Res — Burke D, Gandevia SC, McKeon B Monosynaptic and oligosynaptic contributions to human ankle jerk and H-reflex. Capaday C, Ethier C, Van Vreeswijk C, Darling WG On the functional organization and operational principles of the motor cortex. Front Neural Circuits Carolan B, Cafarelli E Adaptations in coactivation after isometric resistance training.

Carroll TJ, Riek S, Carson RG Neural adaptations to resistance training: implications for movement control. Sports Med — Carroll TJ, Riek S, Carson RG The sites of neural adaptation induced by resistance training in humans.

Carroll TJ, Barton J, Hsu M, Lee M The effect of strength training on the force of twitches evoked by corticospinal stimulation in humans.

Acta Physiol Oxf — Carroll TJ, Selvanayagam VS, Riek S, Semmler JG Neural adaptations to strength training: moving beyond transcranial magnetic stimulation and reflex studies.

Casolo A, Farina D, Falla D et al Strength training increases conduction velocity of high-threshold motor units. Med Sci Sport Exerc — Christie A, Kamen G Short-term training adaptations in maximal motor unit firing rates and afterhyperpolarization duration. Muscle Nerve — Christie A, Kamen G Cortical inhibition is reduced following short-term training in young and older adults.

Age Dordr — Article Google Scholar. Cisek P, Kalaska JF Neural Mechanisms for Interacting with a World Full of Action Choices. Annu Rev Neurosci — Colomer-Poveda D, Romero-Arenas S, Lundbye-Jensen J et al Contraction intensity-dependent variations in the responses to brain and corticospinal tract stimulation after a single session of resistance training in men.

Coombs TA, Frazer AK, Horvath DM et al Cross-education of wrist extensor strength is not influenced by non-dominant training in right-handers. Eur J Appl Physiol — Del Vecchio A, Farina D Interfacing the neural output of the spinal cord: robust and reliable longitudinal identification of motor neurons in humans.

J Neural Eng Del Vecchio A, Negro F, Felici F, Farina D Associations between motor unit action potential parameters and surface EMG features. Del Vecchio A, Casolo A, Negro F et al The increase in muscle force after 4 weeks of strength training is mediated by adaptations in motor unit recruitment and rate coding.

Del Vecchio A, Holobar A, Falla D et al Tutorial: analysis of motor unit discharge characteristics from high-density surface EMG signals.

J Electromyogr Kinesiol Devanne H, Cassim F, Ethier C et al The comparable size and overlapping nature of upper limb distal and proximal muscle representations in the human motor cortex. Eur J Neurosci — Di Lazzaro V, Pilato F, Dileone M et al Segregating two inhibitory circuits in human motor cortex at the level of GABAA receptor subtypes: a TMS study.

Clin Neurophysiol — Duchateau J, Enoka RM Human motor unit recordings: origins and insight into the integrated motor system. Duclay J, Martin A, Robbe A, Pousson M Spinal reflex plasticity during maximal dynamic contractions after eccentric training.

Med Sci Sports Exerc — Durbaba R, Cassidy A, Budini F, Macaluso A The effects of isometric resistance training on stretch reflex induced tremor in the knee extensor muscles. El-Sayes J, Turco CV, Skelly LE et al The effects of biological sex and ovarian hormones on exercise-induced neuroplasticity.

Enoka RM Muscle strength and its development: new perspectives. Sport Med An Int J Appl Med Sci Sport Exerc — Enoka RM, Duchateau J Inappropriate interpretation of surface EMG signals and muscle fiber characteristics impedes progress on understanding the control of neuromuscular function.

J Appl Physiol. Falvo MJ, Sirevaag EJ, Rohrbaugh JW, Earhart GM Resistance training induces supraspinal adaptations: evidence from movement-related cortical potentials.

Farina D, Merletti R, Enoka RM The extraction of neural strategies from the surface EMG: an update. Farina D, Negro F, Muceli S, Enoka RM Principles of motor unit physiology evolve with advances in technology.

Physiology Bethesda — Fimland MS, Helgerud J, Gruber M et al Functional maximal strength training induces neural transfer to single-joint tasks. Folland J, Williams A The adaptations to strength training: morphological and neurological contributions to increased strength. Furubayashi T, Ugawa Y, Terao Y et al The human hand motor area is transiently suppressed by an unexpected auditory stimulus.

Gallego JA, Dideriksen JL, Holobar A et al Influence of common synaptic input to motor neurons on the neural drive to muscle in essential tremor.

Gardiner P, Dai Y, Heckman CJ Effects of exercise training on α-motoneurons. Giboin L-S, Weiss B, Thomas F, Gruber M Neuroplasticity following short-term strength training occurs at supraspinal level and is specific for the trained task.

Acta Physiol e Glover I, Baker S Cortical, corticospinal and reticulospinal contributions to strength training. Goodwill AM, Pearce AJ, Kidgell DJ Corticomotor plasticity following unilateral strength training. Gorassini M, Yang JF, Siu M, Bennett DJ Intrinsic activation of human motoneurons: possible contribution to motor unit excitation.

Griffin L, Cafarelli E Transcranial magnetic stimulation during resistance training of the tibialis anterior muscle. J Electromyogr Kinesiol — Häkkinen K, Kallinen M, Izquierdo M et al Changes in agonist-antagonist EMG, muscle CSA, and force during strength training in middle-aged and older people.

Heckman CJ, Enoka RM Motor unit. Compr Physiol — Heckmann CJ, Gorassini MA, Bennett DJ Persistent inward currents in motoneuron dendrites: implications for motor output. Holobar A, Zazula D Multichannel blind source separation using convolution Kernel compensation.

IEEE Trans Signal Process — Holobar A, Gallego JA, Kranjec J et al Motor unit-driven identification of pathological tremor in electroencephalograms.

Front Neurol Holtermann A, Roeleveld K, Vereijken B, Ettema G Changes in agonist EMG activation level during MVC cannot explain early strength improvement. Hyngstrom AS, Johnson MD, Heckman CJ Summation of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs by motoneurons with highly active dendrites.

Jankowska E, Hammar I, Slawinska U et al Neuronal basis of crossed actions from the reticular formation on feline hindlimb motoneurons. Johnson MD, Thompson CK, Tysseling VM et al The potential for understanding the synaptic organization of human motor commands via the firing patterns of motoneurons.

Kalmar JM On task: considerations and future directions for studies of corticospinal excitability in exercise neuroscience and related disciplines. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab — Kamen G, Knight CA Training-related adaptations in motor unit discharge rate in young and older adults.

J Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci — Kidgell DJ, Pearce AJ What has transcranial magnetic stimulation taught us about neural adaptations to strength training?

A brief review. J Strength Cond Res — Kidgell DJ, Bonanno DR, Frazer AK et al Corticospinal responses following strength training: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Kim EH, Hassan AS, Heckman CJ a Changes in motor unit discharge patterns following strength training. Kim Y, Lai B, Mehta T et al b Exercise training guidelines for multiple sclerosis, stroke, and parkinson disease: rapid review and synthesis.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil — Knikou M The H-reflex as a probe: pathways and pitfalls. J Neurosci Methods — Progressive overload is necessary so the bone and associated connective tissue are not asked to exceed the critical level that would place them at risk. The magnitude required to produce an effective stimulus for bone remodeling appears to be a 1 repetition maximum RM to 10 RM load Kraemer, Although multiple sets are recommended for bone modeling stimulation, the intensity of the exercise, mechanical strain on the bone, and specificity of the bone loading exercise are considered more important factors.

Article Pag e. Resistance Training: Adaptations and Health Implications By Len Kravitz, Ph. Body composition adaptations to resistance training Resistance training programs can increase fat-free mass and decrease the percentage of body fat. Volume in resistance training is equal to the total workload, which is directly proportional to the energy expenditure of the workbout.

Total volume is determined by the total number of repetitions repetitions x sets performed times the weight of the load total repetitions x weight.

Often you will see total volume calculated multiplying the number of sets x repetitions x load. An impressive finding to highlight with resistance training is that the energy expenditure following the higher total volume workouts appears to be elevated, compared to other forms of exercise, and thus, further contributes to weight loss objectives.

Heart rate adaptations of resistance training Heart rate is acutely elevated immediately following a workbout and affected by the amount of resistance, the number of repetitions and the muscle mass involved in the contraction small vs. large mass exercises Fleck, Interestingly, in terms of chronic adaptations, there appears to be a reduction in heart rate from resistance training, which is considered beneficial Stone et al.

large muscle mass, duration of study and fitness level of the subjects. Blood pressure adaptations to resistance training Conservative estimates postulate that 50 million Americans, approximately 1 in 4 adults, have high blood pressure. During a resistance exercise bout, systolic and diastolic blood pressures may show dramatic increases, which suggest that caution should be observed in persons with cardiovascular disease Stone et al.

The extent of the increase in blood pressure is dependent on the time the contraction is held, the intensity of the contraction, and the amount of muscle mass involved in the contraction Fleck, More dynamic forms of resistance training, such as circuit training, that involve moderate resistance and high repetitions with short rests are associated with reductions in blood pressure.

The effects of resistance training on blood pressure are varied due largely to differences in study design, which suggests that more research is necessary to clearly understand the role of resistance training in blood pressure management. Heart size adaptations to resistance training Studies of strength-trained athletes have shown that there is an increase in left ventricular wall thickness, absolute left ventricular wall mass, and septum wall separating the left and right ventricles wall thickness with resistance training Stone et al.

The extent to which the changes in the heart size from resistance training may affect cardiac output, stroke volume and heart efficiency are currently unknown.

Lipoprotein and lipid adaptations to resistance training Epidemiological research has decisively demonstrated that low concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C , and high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C are associated with a decrease in coronary heart disease Kannel, Lower concentrations of blood triglycerides and LDL-C, along with higher levels of HDL-C have been observed with endurance-trained individuals.

However, Kokkinos and Hurley add that the lack of control in body composition, day-to-day variations in lipoproteins, dietary factors, and distinction of acute vs. chronic adaptations needs to be thoroughly addressed in future strength training research, to provide a more credible summary of the effect of resistance training on blood lipids and lipoproteins.

In addition, more research is needed to determine if there is an optimal resistance training format that positively affects lipoprotein-lipid profiles.

Glucose metabolism adaptations to resistance training An important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes is glucose tolerance. High blood glucose and high insulin levels can also have a deleterious effect on hypertension and blood lipids Hurley, Initially, improvements in glucose metabolism were associated with decreases in percent body fat and increases in aerobic capacity, thus suggesting that aerobic exercise would provide the better catalyst for improvements in glucose metabolism.

However, improvements in glucose metabolism with strength training, independent of alterations in aerobic capacity or percent body fat, have been shown Hurley et al. Interestingly, Smutok et al. The strength training program consisted of two sets 90 second rests between sets of exercise, using loads that could be lifted 12 - 15 times per set for 11 different exercises.

Exercises included squats, leg extensions, leg curls, decline presses, pullovers, arm cross-overs, overhead presses, lateral raises, rows, hip and back exercises, and modified sit-ups.

Additionally, it has been shown that body builders, who traditionally employ a high volume style of training, favorably alter glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity Stone et al. Practical Application: A Resistance Training Prescription for Health It is evident from a number of the adaptations that occur with resistance training that there are several health-related benefits.

Resistance training has been shown to reduce factors associated with coronary heart disease, diabetes and osteoporosis. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of resistance training on blood lipids, lipoproteins and blood pressure in hypertensives , and to ascertain what type of training programs may best alter these risk factors.

From this overview, there are some practical guidelines for the health fitness professional and personal trainer who wish to prescribe resistance training programs for health status improvement.

They are as follows: 1. Develop programs that will utilize a greater amount of energy expenditure during the workouts. Programs that utilize the larger muscle groups provide a structural basis for the preferred loading that is recommended for improvements in bone mass and mineral density.

This will also contribute to the caloric cost of the programs, helping to facilitate weight management goals. Use moderate intensity programs, with multiple sets of 8 to 12 repetitions Stone et al.

A frequency of 2 - 3 times a week of resistance training appears applicable and attainable. Programs designed to increase total workout volume total repetitions x weight are encouraged. As with any effective exercise prescription, individualize the program, with a carefully planned, progressive overload.

Be guarded in the use of isometric contractions and high-intensity load training due to the marked increase observed in diastolic and systolic blood pressure.

Incorporate a variety of exercises. In order to avoid the effects of overtraining, muscle soreness, and injury, a prescription of resistance training using a variety of exercises is prudent. With certain organic conditions, such as musculoskeletal conditions i.

Take the time to teach the correct performance techniques of the resistance exercises.

Thank you Power training adaptations visiting nature. You are using a aadptations version Power training adaptations limited support for CSS. Anti-aging solutions obtain Power training adaptations best experience, Ppwer recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. The purpose of the study was to compare sex adaptations in hypertrophy, strength and contractile properties of upper and lower-body muscles induced by resistance training RT. Caffeine and academic performance initial increases in force Power training adaptations with resistance training are trainimg to be primarily underpinned by neural adaptations. This traiing is Power training adaptations supported by evidence displaying motor adaptqtions adaptations following Power training adaptations training; however, the precise locus of neural adaptation remains elusive. The purpose of this review is to clarify and critically discuss the literature concerning the site s of putative neural adaptations to short-term resistance training. The proliferation of studies employing non-invasive stimulation techniques to investigate evoked responses have yielded variable results, but generally support the notion that resistance training alters intracortical inhibition. Nevertheless, methodological inconsistencies and the limitations of techniques, e.

Power training adaptations -

All statistical analyses were completed using IBM SPSS Statistics v. Table 1 contains the average daily dietary intake data for the 80 vs. Table 1. Table 2 contains the total repetitions completed, total time under load, and total exercise volume in the 80 vs.

Table 2. There was no difference in the adjusted means for the 80 vs. Figure 1. Error bars are standard errors. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.

There was no difference in the adjusted means for PTT:MVIC in the 80 vs. Table 3. There were no differences in the adjusted means for M PP in the 80 vs. There was no difference in the adjusted means for VA in the 80 vs.

Figure 5. Figure 6. Extrapolated torque represents the theoretical maximal torque generating capacity of the leg extensors. Note that in A,B , the y-axis is torque in Nm. There was no difference in the adjusted means for EMG QAMP in the 80 vs. Figure 7. Figure 8.

Therefore, we collapsed across torque and utilized an ANCOVA model to analyze between group differences at Week 3 and Week 6 and one-way ANOVAs to investigate the change in VA across time within groups Figures 10C,D.

Because we were primarily concerned with the between group changes across time, we further evaluated the time × group interaction by collapsing across torque and utilizing an ANCOVA model to analyze between group differences at Week 3 and Week 6 and one-way ANOVAs to investigate the change in EMG QAMP across time within groups Figures 11C,D.

Specifically, 1RM and MVIC strength increased from Baseline to Week 6 by In the present study, muscle thickness increased by 6. These data add to the growing body of literature that has demonstrated comparable hypertrophic adaptations in response to high- vs.

low-load resistance training Mitchell et al. Hypertrophy has historically been thought to be minimal during the initial stages of resistance training Moritani and deVries, ; Sale, ; Gabriel et al. Yet, several recent studies Seynnes et al.

The present findings supported previous studies Seynnes et al. Damas et al. The authors Damas et al. Echo intensity would be expected to increase in the presence of muscle damage Radaelli et al.

Therefore, although these factors cannot be completely ruled out, the echo intensity measurements in the present study, as suggested by Damas et al. Ultrasound echo intensity has also been used as a surrogate of muscle quality Pillen et al. For example, Pillen et al.

Hill and Millan and Nieman et al. Although, several previous studies have demonstrated decreases in echo intensity following chronic resistance training Pinto et al. Resistance training is known to enhance intramuscular glycogen concentrations MacDougall et al.

When muscle glycogen and water content increase, ultrasound images become hypoechoic, resulting in lower echo intensity values. Incidentally, increased intramuscular water content may increase muscle cross sectional area as measured by MRI Kristiansen et al.

Although, it is also possible that glycogen and water concentrations influence ultrasound measures of muscle thickness, there are insufficient data in the present study to test this hypothesis. Future studies are needed to examine the impacts of muscle glycogen and intramuscular water on MRI Kristiansen et al.

Maximal isometric e. Figure 9. Figure Voluntary activation during MVIC increased 2. Furthermore, the 1. It has been described that large increases in synaptic input e. To illustrate the functional significance of the observed differences in VA, we applied a formula in Figure 6 that was described by Fowles et al.

This formula extrapolates the maximal torque generating capacity of a muscle from measures of MVIC and VA. Although, criticized Kooistra et al. This difference is may be due to a greater augmentation of neural drive Aagaard et al. Traditionally, training-induced increases in EMG amplitude have been interpreted as increases in neural drive to the muscle Komi et al.

We also examined VA and EMG QAMP during submaximal torque production at the same absolute levels of torque. There was a These decreases were most apparent at high contraction intensities i. Furthermore, VA was lower across all submaximal torques at Weeks 3 and 6 in the 80 vs. A decrease in VA at submaximal torque levels suggests a reduced neural cost i.

The changes in EMG QAMP across submaximal isometric torque observed in the present study were similar to those observed for VA. Visual inspection of the EMG QAMP vs. torque relationships Figure 11A suggests decreases in EMG QAMP at high contraction intensities i. Our VA and EMG QAMP data during submaximal torque production may also support the findings of Falvo et al.

The unique contributions of this study were the robust measurements VA and EMG QAMP during maximal and submaximal torque levels used to elucidate any potential underlying neural factors. NJ was a substantial contributor to study concept and design, carried out data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation, and was the primary author.

AM, EH, CS, and KC helped carry out data acquisition. TH contributed to study design and manuscript revision. JC was the primary manuscript reviser and a substantial contributor to study concept, study design, and interpretation. All authors approved the final version of this manuscript.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The authors would like to acknowledge Brianna McKay and Alegra Mendez for their help with data acquisition.

Aagaard, P. A mechanism for increased contractile strength of human pennate muscle in response to strength training: changes in muscle architecture.

doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Neural adaptation to resistance training: changes in evoked V-wave and H-reflex responses. Ahtiainen, J. Panoramic ultrasonography is a valid method to measure changes in skeletal muscle cross-sectional area. Allen, G.

Reliability of measurements of muscle strength and voluntary activation using twitch interpolation. Muscle Nerve 18, — Arabadzhiev, T. The increase in surface EMG could be a misleading measure of neural adaptation during the early gains in strength.

Arts, I. Intramuscular fibrous tissue determines muscle echo intensity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Muscle Nerve 45, — Beck, T. Hong and R. Bartlett New York, NY: Routledge , — Google Scholar. Behm, D. Muscle inactivation: assessment of interpolated twitch technique. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar.

Behrens, M. Caffeine-induced increase in voluntary activation and strength of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Burd, N. Big claims for big weights but with little evidence. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

PLoS ONE 5:e Campos, G. Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones.

Caresio, C. Muscle echo intensity: reliability and conditioning factors. Imaging 35, — Cohen, J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.

Damas, F. Early resistance training-induced increases in muscle cross-sectional area are concomitant with edema-induced muscle swelling. DeFreitas, J. An examination of the time course of training-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

Duchateau, J. Bed rest induces neural and contractile adaptations in triceps surae. Sports Exerc. Falvo, M. Resistance training induces supraspinal adaptations: evidence from movement-related cortical potentials. Folland, J.

The adaptations to strength training: morphological and neurological contributions to increased strength. Sports Med. Fowles, J.

Reduced strength after passive stretch of the human plantarflexors. Fukumoto, Y. Skeletal muscle quality assessed from echo intensity is associated with muscle strength of middle-aged and elderly persons.

Fukunaga, T. Determination of fascicle length and pennation in a contracting human muscle in vivo. Training programs are highly specific to the types of adaptation that occur. Activation of specific patterns of motor units in training dictate what tissue and how other physiological systems will be affected by the exercise training.

The time course of the development of the neuromuscular system appears to be dominated in the early phase by neural factors with associated changes in the types of contractile proteins.

It is generally believed that the number of muscle fibers you have is established by birth and remains fixed throughout the rest of your life. To keep things in perspective, the largest muscle fiber in the body is no thicker than a human hair. Any evidence of muscle fiber splitting referred to as hyperplasia , as has been described in animal studies, is presently inconclusive with human subject research, but conceivably possible.

Strength adaptations to resistance training The increases in muscular strength during the initial periods of a resistance training program are not associated with changes in cross-sectional area of the muscle Sale, The motor unit motor nerve fiber and the muscle fibers it innervates recruitment is central to the early 2 to 8 weeks gains in strength.

It is possible that two adjacent muscle fibers, with different motor nerves, could result in one fiber being activated to generate force while the other moves passively. Long-term changes in strength are more likely attributable to hypertrophy of the muscle fibers or muscle group Sale, It should be noted that strength results appear to be velocity specific.

Therefore, slow-speed training will result in greater gains at slow movement speeds, while fast-speed training will realize the improvements in strength at faster movement speeds. A prevalent issue in analyzing the diverse results of strength adaptations in training studies depends upon the subjects' preparation for the investigation.

Although several researchers often select untrained subjects, the failure to plan and control for a learning effect subject improves because they learn the correct performance of the muscle action may result in erroneous conclusions from the study.

Bone tissue adaptations to resistance training In response to loading of the bone, created by muscular contractions or other methods of mechanical forces, the bone begins a process of bone modeling which involves the manufacture of protein molecules that are deposited in the spaces between bone cells.

This leads to the creation of a bone matrix which ultimately becomes mineralized as calcium phosphate crystals, resulting in the bone acquiring its rigid structure. This new bone formation occurs chiefly on the outer surface of the bone, or periosteum. Specificity of loading refers to exercises that directly place a load on a certain region of the skeleton.

With osteoporosis, the sites of fractures that are most devastating are in the axial skeleton the spine and hip. Conroy et al. recommended that more intense loading of the spine and hip be done during early adulthood when the body is more capable of taking on an increased load and developing its peak bone mass.

Progressive overload is necessary so the bone and associated connective tissue are not asked to exceed the critical level that would place them at risk. The magnitude required to produce an effective stimulus for bone remodeling appears to be a 1 repetition maximum RM to 10 RM load Kraemer, Although multiple sets are recommended for bone modeling stimulation, the intensity of the exercise, mechanical strain on the bone, and specificity of the bone loading exercise are considered more important factors.

Article Pag e. Resistance Training: Adaptations and Health Implications By Len Kravitz, Ph. Body composition adaptations to resistance training Resistance training programs can increase fat-free mass and decrease the percentage of body fat. Volume in resistance training is equal to the total workload, which is directly proportional to the energy expenditure of the workbout.

Total volume is determined by the total number of repetitions repetitions x sets performed times the weight of the load total repetitions x weight. Often you will see total volume calculated multiplying the number of sets x repetitions x load. An impressive finding to highlight with resistance training is that the energy expenditure following the higher total volume workouts appears to be elevated, compared to other forms of exercise, and thus, further contributes to weight loss objectives.

Heart rate adaptations of resistance training Heart rate is acutely elevated immediately following a workbout and affected by the amount of resistance, the number of repetitions and the muscle mass involved in the contraction small vs.

large mass exercises Fleck, Interestingly, in terms of chronic adaptations, there appears to be a reduction in heart rate from resistance training, which is considered beneficial Stone et al. large muscle mass, duration of study and fitness level of the subjects. Blood pressure adaptations to resistance training Conservative estimates postulate that 50 million Americans, approximately 1 in 4 adults, have high blood pressure.

During a resistance exercise bout, systolic and diastolic blood pressures may show dramatic increases, which suggest that caution should be observed in persons with cardiovascular disease Stone et al.

The extent of the increase in blood pressure is dependent on the time the contraction is held, the intensity of the contraction, and the amount of muscle mass involved in the contraction Fleck, More dynamic forms of resistance training, such as circuit training, that involve moderate resistance and high repetitions with short rests are associated with reductions in blood pressure.

The effects of resistance training on blood pressure are varied due largely to differences in study design, which suggests that more research is necessary to clearly understand the role of resistance training in blood pressure management.

Heart size adaptations to resistance training Studies of strength-trained athletes have shown that there is an increase in left ventricular wall thickness, absolute left ventricular wall mass, and septum wall separating the left and right ventricles wall thickness with resistance training Stone et al.

The extent to which the changes in the heart size from resistance training may affect cardiac output, stroke volume and heart efficiency are currently unknown. Lipoprotein and lipid adaptations to resistance training Epidemiological research has decisively demonstrated that low concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C , and high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C are associated with a decrease in coronary heart disease Kannel, Lower concentrations of blood triglycerides and LDL-C, along with higher levels of HDL-C have been observed with endurance-trained individuals.

However, Kokkinos and Hurley add that the lack of control in body composition, day-to-day variations in lipoproteins, dietary factors, and distinction of acute vs.

chronic adaptations needs to be thoroughly addressed in future strength training research, to provide a more credible summary of the effect of resistance training on blood lipids and lipoproteins.

In addition, more research is needed to determine if there is an optimal resistance training format that positively affects lipoprotein-lipid profiles. Glucose metabolism adaptations to resistance training An important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes is glucose tolerance. High blood glucose and high insulin levels can also have a deleterious effect on hypertension and blood lipids Hurley, Initially, improvements in glucose metabolism were associated with decreases in percent body fat and increases in aerobic capacity, thus suggesting that aerobic exercise would provide the better catalyst for improvements in glucose metabolism.

However, improvements in glucose metabolism with strength training, independent of alterations in aerobic capacity or percent body fat, have been shown Hurley et al.

Interestingly, Smutok et al. The strength training program consisted of two sets 90 second rests between sets of exercise, using loads that could be lifted 12 - 15 times per set for 11 different exercises.

Exercises included squats, leg extensions, leg curls, decline presses, pullovers, arm cross-overs, overhead presses, lateral raises, rows, hip and back exercises, and modified sit-ups.

Sports Medicine - Open volume 9Article number: 28 Cite this article. Metrics details. Trainong training is Adaptationns method of adzptations strength, gait speed, Power training adaptations, Weightlifting and Resistance Training health. However, the external load required to induce these benefits is a contentious issue. A growing body of evidence suggests that when lower load resistance training [i. Such findings are important given that confidence with external loads and access to training facilities and equipment are commonly cited barriers to regular resistance training. Here, we review some of the mechanisms and physiological changes in response to lower load resistance training.

Author: Tugor

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