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Resting oxygen consumption

Resting oxygen consumption

Blackberry cocktail garnishes PubMed PubMed Central Oxggen Scholar Fullmer S, Benson-Davies S, Earthman Healthy cooking techniques, Mindful food preparation DC, Gradwell E, Lee PS, Restig al. Email Article. Starling RD. Fitness HIIT. Kwan M, Woo J, Kwok T. If you know your RMR, you can better estimate your caloric balance, which can help you develop strategies to achieve your weight gain or weight loss goals.

Resting oxygen consumption -

However, there has been no comprehensive effort to review available RMR estimations, equivalent to 1 MET, obtained in the older adult population. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine the existing evidence reporting measured RMR values in the older adult population and to provide descriptive estimates of 1 MET.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Library, from database inception to July Results: Twenty-three eligible studies were identified, including a total of participants men.

All but two studies reported RMR values lower than the conventional 3. The overall weighted average 1 MET value obtained from all included studies was 2.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this systematic review, we would advise against the application of the standard value of 1 MET 3. When this is not possible, assuming an overall value of 2. Does the use of outdoor fitness equipment by older adults qualify as moderate to vigorous physical activity?

Cortes CW, Mehal W, Wang RY, Poznek EJ, Bradley KD, Goetz JM, et al. Reliability of exercise cardiopulmonary responses in older persons with moderate-to-heavy chronic disease burdens.

Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. Cunha FA, Gomes GSM, Carvalho J, da Silva NSL. Concurrent exercise circuit protocol performed in public fitness facilities meets the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for energy cost and metabolic intensity among older adults in Rio de Janeiro City.

Hall KS, Howe CA, Rana SR, Martin CL, Morey MC. METs and accelerometry of walking in older adults: standard versus measured energy cost. Hooker SP, Feeney A, Hutto B, Pfeiffer KA, McIver K, Heil DP, et al. Validation of the actical activity monitor in middle-aged and older adults.

Kwan M, Woo J, Kwok T. The standard oxygen consumption value equivalent to one metabolic equivalent 3. Int J Food Sci Nutr. Lerma NL, Swartz AM, Rowley TW, Hotaka M, Strath SJ.

Increasing the energy expenditure of seated activities in older adults with a portable elliptical device.

J Aging Phys Act. Migueles JH, Cadenas-Sanchez C, Alcantara JMA, Leal-Martín J, Mañas A, Ara I, et al. Calibration and cross-validation of accelerometer cut-points to classify sedentary time and physical activity from hip and non-dominant and dominant wrists in older adults.

Sensors Basel. Nakagata T, Yamada Y, Naito H. Metabolic equivalents of body weight resistance exercise with slow movement in older adults using indirect calorimetry. Panayiotou G, Paschalis V, Nikolaidis MG, Theodorou AA, Deli CK, Fotopoulou N, et al.

No adverse effects of statins on muscle function and health-related parameters in the elderly: an exercise study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Park SA, Lee KS, Son KC. Determining exercise intensities of gardening tasks as a physical activity using metabolic equivalents in older adults.

Sergi G, Coin A, Sarti S, Perissinotto E, Peloso M, Mulone S, et al. Resting VO 2 , maximal VO 2 and metabolic equivalents in free-living healthy elderly women. Clin Nutr. Taylor LM, Maddison R, Pfaeffli LA, Rawstorn JC, Gant N, Kerse NM. Activity and energy expenditure in older people playing active video games.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Trutschnigg B, Kilgour RD, Morais JA, Lucar E, Hornby L, Molla H, et al. Metabolic, nutritional and inflammatory characteristics in elderly women with advanced cancer.

J Geriatr Oncol. Yeung SSY, Reijnierse EM, Trappenburg MC, Meskers CGM, Maier AB. Clinical determinants of resting metabolic rate in geriatric outpatients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. Elia M, Ritz P, Stubbs RJ. Total energy expenditure in the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr. Arciero PJ, Goran MI, Poehlman ET.

Resting metabolic rate is lower in women than in men. Article CAS Google Scholar. Nielsen S, Hensrud DD, Romanski S, Levine JA, Burguera B, Jensen MD. Body composition and resting energy expenditure in humans: role of fat, fat-free mass and extracellular fluid.

Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Illner K, Brinkmann G, Heller M, Bosy-Westphal A, Müller MJ. Metabolically active components of fat free mass and resting energy expenditure in nonobese adults.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. Gallagher D, Belmonte D, Deurenberg P, Wang Z, Krasnow N, Pi-Sunyer FX, et al. Organ-tissue mass measurement allows modeling of REE and metabolically active tissue mass. Am J Physiol. Müller MJ, Bosy-Westphal A, Kutzner D, Heller M.

Metabolically active components of fat-free mass and resting energy expenditure in humans: recent lessons from imaging technologies. Obes Rev. He Q, Heshka S, Albu J, Boxt L, Krasnow N, Elia M, et al. Smaller organ mass with greater age, except for heart.

Krems C, Luhrmann PM, Strassburg A, Hartmann B, Neuhauser-Berthold M. Lower resting metabolic rate in the elderly may not be entirely due to changes in body composition. Bosy-Westphal A, Eichhorn C, Kutzner D, Illner K, Heller M, Muller MJ.

The age-related decline in resting energy expenditure in humans is due to the loss of fat-free mass and to alterations in its metabolically active components. J Nutr. St-Onge MP, Gallagher D. Body composition changes with aging: the cause or the result of alterations in metabolic rate and macronutrient oxidation?

Sparti A, DeLany JP, de la Bretonne JA, Sander GE, Bray GA. Relationship between resting metabolic rate and the composition of the fat-free mass. Gong J, Zuo L, Guo Z, Zhang L, Li Y, Gu L, et al.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. Cao DX, Wu GH, Zhang B, Quan YJ, Wei J, Jin H, et al. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in patients with newly detected cancer.

Bogardus C, Taskinen MR, Zawadzki J, Lillioja S, Mott D, Howard BV. Increased resting metabolic rates in obese subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and the effect of sulfonylurea therapy. Zampino M, AlGhatrif M, Kuo PL, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L. Longitudinal changes in resting metabolic rates with aging are accelerated by diseases.

Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, Newman AB, Hirsch C, Gottdiener J, et al. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. Weiss CO, Cappola AR, Varadhan R, Fried LP. Resting metabolic rate in old-old women with and without frailty: variability and estimation of energy requirements.

J Am Geriatr Soc. Starling RD. Energy expenditure and aging: effects of physical activity. Garcia-Garcia FJ, Avila GG, Alfaro-Acha A, Andres MA, Aparicio ME, et al. The prevalence of frailty syndrome in an older population from Spain The Toledo Study for Healthy Aging.

J Nutr Health Aging. Steffl M, Bohannon RW, Sontakova L, Tufano JJ, Shiells K, Holmerova I. Relationship between sarcopenia and physical activity in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Interv Aging. Smith L, Tully M, Jacob L, Blackburn N, Adlakha D, Caserotti P, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health.

Cartee GD, Hepple RT, Bamman MM, Zierath JR. Exercise promotes healthy aging of skeletal muscle. Cell Metab. Gallagher D, Allen A, Wang Z, Heymsfield SB, Krasnow N.

Smaller organ tissue mass in the elderly fails to explain lower resting metabolic rate. Ann N Y Acad Sci. Delsoglio M, Achamrah N, Berger MM, Pichard C.

Indirect calorimetry in clinical practice. J Clin Med. Article CAS PubMed Central Google Scholar. Pedrianes-Martin PB, Perez-Valera M, Morales-Alamo D, Martin-Rincon M, Perez-Suarez I, Serrano-Sanchez JA, et al. Resting metabolic rate is increased in hypertensive patients with overweight or obesity: potential mechanisms.

Bielinski R, Schutz Y, Jéquier E. Energy metabolism during the postexercise recovery in man. Am J Clin Nutr. Belza A, Frandsen E, Kondrup J. Body fat loss achieved by stimulation of thermogenesis by a combination of bioactive food ingredients: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 8-week intervention in obese subjects.

Int J Obes. Collins LC, Walker J, Stamford BA. Smoking multiple high- versus low-nicotine cigarettes: Impact on resting energy expenditure. Kashiwazaki H, Dejima Y, Suzuki T. Influence of upper and lower thermoneutral room temperatures 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C on fasting and post-prandial resting metabolism under different outdoor temperatures.

Ooijen AMJC-V, Westerterp KR, Wouters L, Schoffelen PFM, van Steenhoven AA, van Lichtenbelt WDM. Heat production and body temperature during cooling and rewarming in overweight and lean men. Taguri E, Tanaka S, Ohkawara K, Ishikawa-Takata K, Hikihara Y, Miyake R, et al. Validity of physical activity indices for adjusting energy expenditure for body size: do the indices depend on body size?

J Physiol Anthropol. Sujatha T, Shatrugna V, Venkataramana Y, Begum N. Energy expenditure on household, childcare and occupational activities of women from urban poor households. Br J Nutr. Sanchez-Delgado G, Alcantara JMA, Ortiz-Alvarez L, Xu H, Martinez-Tellez B, Labayen I, et al.

Reliability of resting metabolic rate measurements in young adults: Impact of methods for data analysis. Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Leon AS, Jacobs DR Jr, Montoye HJ, Sallis JF, et al. Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities.

Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC, Irwin ML, Swartz AM, Strath SJ, et al. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities.

Kozey SL, Lyden K, Howe CA, Staudenmayer JW, Freedson PS. Accelerometer output and MET values of common physical activities. Westerterp KR. Physical activity assessment with accelerometers.

Migueles JH, Cadenas-Sanchez C, Ekelund U, Delisle Nyström C, Mora-Gonzalez J, Löf M, et al. Accelerometer data collection and processing criteria to assess physical activity and other outcomes: a systematic review and practical considerations.

Sports Med. Copeland JL, Esliger DW. Accelerometer assessment of physical activity in active, healthy older adults. Freedson PS, Melanson E, Sirard J. Calibration of the computer science and applications, Inc accelerometer.

Download references. GENUD Toledo Research Group, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Javier Leal-Martín, Miguel Muñoz-Muñoz, Luis M. CIBER of Frailty and Healthy Aging CIBERFES , Madrid, Spain. Department of Kinesiology and Public Health, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, USA.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Ignacio Ara. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Javier Leal-Martín, Miguel Muñoz-Muñoz, Sarah Kozey Keadle, Francisco Amaro-Gahete, Luis M. Alegre, Asier Mañas, and Ignacio Ara declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

JLM drafted the original manuscript. JLM and MM performed the literature search, selected articles, appraised their quality and extracted data. AM, SKK, and FAG performed major manuscript corrections. JLM and AM contributed to conception of the study, interpreted the data, and revised and edited the manuscript.

LMA contributed to the conception and design of the study and revised and edited the manuscript. IA provided funding, revised the manuscript, and coordinated the study.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Reprints and permissions. Leal-Martín, J. et al. Resting Oxygen Uptake Value of 1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Descriptive Analysis.

Sports Med 52 , — Download citation. Accepted : 05 August Published : 21 August Issue Date : February Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative.

Abstract Background It is important for sport scientists and health professionals to have estimative methods for energy demand during different physical activities. Objective The aim of this review was to examine the existing evidence reporting measured RMR values in the older adult population and to provide descriptive estimates of 1 MET.

Methods A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Library, from database inception to July Results Twenty-three eligible studies were identified, including a total of participants men.

Conclusion Based on the results of this systematic review, we would advise against the application of the standard value of 1 MET 3. Access this article Log in via an institution.

References Kohl HW 3rd, Craig CL, Lambert EV, Inoue S, Alkandari JR, Leetongin G, et al. Article PubMed Google Scholar Owen N, Sparling PB, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Matthews CE. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Blair SN. PubMed Google Scholar Hamilton MT, Hamilton DG, Zderic TW. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar de Rezende LF, Rodrigues Lopes M, Rey-López JP, Matsudo VK, Luiz OC.

Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Booth FW, Roberts CK, Thyfault JP, Ruegsegger GN, Toedebusch RG. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Ekelund U, Tarp J, Steene-Johannessen J, Hansen BH, Jefferis B, Fagerland MW, et al. Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL.

Google Scholar Farkas GJ, Pitot MA, Gater DR Jr.

In epidemiological Resting oxygen consumption, estimation of total energy expenditure Lifestyle weight loss only lxygen carried out Resfing using metabolic equivalent MET Blackberry cocktail garnishes calculated physical activity Restjng, where 1 Oxygdn is generally assumed to be Mindful food preparation. Since conxumption basal metabolic rate varies with age, the energy expenditure equivalent to 1 MET is likely to vary with age. The objective of this study was to determine the energy value for 1 MET in elderly Chinese people compared with younger subjects, using a cross-sectional study. The participants were young adults 88 female, 50 male aged years and 70 elderly adults 35 female, 35 male aged years. VO2 resting was determined by indirect calorimetry Deltatrac; Datex Division Instrumentraium Corp, Helsinki, Finland. Resting oxygen consumption

Resting oxygen consumption -

Karakelides H, Nair KS. Sarcopenia of aging and its metabolic impact. Curr Top Dev Biol. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.

PLoS Med. Fullmer S, Benson-Davies S, Earthman CP, Frankenfield DC, Gradwell E, Lee PS, et al. Evidence analysis library review of best practices for performing indirect calorimetry in healthy and non-critically ill individuals.

J Acad Nutr Diet. Logan S, Spriet L. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for 12 weeks increases resting and exercise metabolic rate in healthy community-dwelling older females. Abizanda P, Romero L, Sanchez-Jurado PM, Flores Ruano T, Salmeron Rios S, Fernandez SM. Energetics of aging and frailty: the FRADEA study.

J Gerontol Ser A Biol Sci Med Sci. Aguilar-Farias N, Brown WJ, Skinner TL, Peeters G. Metabolic equivalent values of common daily activities in middle-age and older adults in free-living environments: a pilot study. Ashley J, Kim Y, Gonzales JU.

Impact of L-citrulline supplementation on oxygen uptake kinetics during walking. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Avelar NC, Simão AP, Tossige-Gomes R, Neves CD, Mezencio B, Szmuchrowski L, et al. Oxygen consumption and heart rate during repeated squatting exercises with or without whole-body vibration in the elderly.

J Strength Cond Res. Barnett A, van den Hoek D, Barnett D, Cerin E. Measuring moderate-intensity walking in older adults using the ActiGraph accelerometer. BMC Geriatr.

Bartolomeu RF, Barbosa TM, Morais JE, Lopes VP, Bragada JA, Costa MJ. The aging influence on cardiorespiratory, metabolic, and energy expenditure adaptations in head-out aquatic exercises: differences between young and elderly women. Women Health. Metabolic and cardiovascular response to shallow water exercise in young and older women.

Chow H-W, Ho C-H. Does the use of outdoor fitness equipment by older adults qualify as moderate to vigorous physical activity? Cortes CW, Mehal W, Wang RY, Poznek EJ, Bradley KD, Goetz JM, et al.

Reliability of exercise cardiopulmonary responses in older persons with moderate-to-heavy chronic disease burdens. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. Cunha FA, Gomes GSM, Carvalho J, da Silva NSL.

Concurrent exercise circuit protocol performed in public fitness facilities meets the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for energy cost and metabolic intensity among older adults in Rio de Janeiro City. Hall KS, Howe CA, Rana SR, Martin CL, Morey MC.

METs and accelerometry of walking in older adults: standard versus measured energy cost. Hooker SP, Feeney A, Hutto B, Pfeiffer KA, McIver K, Heil DP, et al.

Validation of the actical activity monitor in middle-aged and older adults. Kwan M, Woo J, Kwok T. The standard oxygen consumption value equivalent to one metabolic equivalent 3.

Int J Food Sci Nutr. Lerma NL, Swartz AM, Rowley TW, Hotaka M, Strath SJ. Increasing the energy expenditure of seated activities in older adults with a portable elliptical device. J Aging Phys Act. Migueles JH, Cadenas-Sanchez C, Alcantara JMA, Leal-Martín J, Mañas A, Ara I, et al.

Calibration and cross-validation of accelerometer cut-points to classify sedentary time and physical activity from hip and non-dominant and dominant wrists in older adults. Sensors Basel. Nakagata T, Yamada Y, Naito H.

Metabolic equivalents of body weight resistance exercise with slow movement in older adults using indirect calorimetry. Panayiotou G, Paschalis V, Nikolaidis MG, Theodorou AA, Deli CK, Fotopoulou N, et al. No adverse effects of statins on muscle function and health-related parameters in the elderly: an exercise study.

Scand J Med Sci Sports. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Park SA, Lee KS, Son KC. Determining exercise intensities of gardening tasks as a physical activity using metabolic equivalents in older adults.

Sergi G, Coin A, Sarti S, Perissinotto E, Peloso M, Mulone S, et al. Resting VO 2 , maximal VO 2 and metabolic equivalents in free-living healthy elderly women. Clin Nutr. Taylor LM, Maddison R, Pfaeffli LA, Rawstorn JC, Gant N, Kerse NM.

Activity and energy expenditure in older people playing active video games. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Trutschnigg B, Kilgour RD, Morais JA, Lucar E, Hornby L, Molla H, et al. Metabolic, nutritional and inflammatory characteristics in elderly women with advanced cancer.

J Geriatr Oncol. Yeung SSY, Reijnierse EM, Trappenburg MC, Meskers CGM, Maier AB. Clinical determinants of resting metabolic rate in geriatric outpatients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. Elia M, Ritz P, Stubbs RJ.

Total energy expenditure in the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr. Arciero PJ, Goran MI, Poehlman ET. Resting metabolic rate is lower in women than in men. Article CAS Google Scholar. Nielsen S, Hensrud DD, Romanski S, Levine JA, Burguera B, Jensen MD. Body composition and resting energy expenditure in humans: role of fat, fat-free mass and extracellular fluid.

Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. Illner K, Brinkmann G, Heller M, Bosy-Westphal A, Müller MJ. Metabolically active components of fat free mass and resting energy expenditure in nonobese adults.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. Gallagher D, Belmonte D, Deurenberg P, Wang Z, Krasnow N, Pi-Sunyer FX, et al. Organ-tissue mass measurement allows modeling of REE and metabolically active tissue mass. Am J Physiol. Müller MJ, Bosy-Westphal A, Kutzner D, Heller M. Metabolically active components of fat-free mass and resting energy expenditure in humans: recent lessons from imaging technologies.

Obes Rev. He Q, Heshka S, Albu J, Boxt L, Krasnow N, Elia M, et al. Smaller organ mass with greater age, except for heart. Krems C, Luhrmann PM, Strassburg A, Hartmann B, Neuhauser-Berthold M.

Lower resting metabolic rate in the elderly may not be entirely due to changes in body composition. Bosy-Westphal A, Eichhorn C, Kutzner D, Illner K, Heller M, Muller MJ.

The age-related decline in resting energy expenditure in humans is due to the loss of fat-free mass and to alterations in its metabolically active components. J Nutr. St-Onge MP, Gallagher D. Body composition changes with aging: the cause or the result of alterations in metabolic rate and macronutrient oxidation?

Sparti A, DeLany JP, de la Bretonne JA, Sander GE, Bray GA. Relationship between resting metabolic rate and the composition of the fat-free mass. Gong J, Zuo L, Guo Z, Zhang L, Li Y, Gu L, et al. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. Cao DX, Wu GH, Zhang B, Quan YJ, Wei J, Jin H, et al. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in patients with newly detected cancer.

Bogardus C, Taskinen MR, Zawadzki J, Lillioja S, Mott D, Howard BV. Increased resting metabolic rates in obese subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and the effect of sulfonylurea therapy.

Zampino M, AlGhatrif M, Kuo PL, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L. Longitudinal changes in resting metabolic rates with aging are accelerated by diseases. Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, Newman AB, Hirsch C, Gottdiener J, et al. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.

Weiss CO, Cappola AR, Varadhan R, Fried LP. Resting metabolic rate in old-old women with and without frailty: variability and estimation of energy requirements. J Am Geriatr Soc. Starling RD. Energy expenditure and aging: effects of physical activity. Garcia-Garcia FJ, Avila GG, Alfaro-Acha A, Andres MA, Aparicio ME, et al.

The prevalence of frailty syndrome in an older population from Spain The Toledo Study for Healthy Aging. J Nutr Health Aging. Steffl M, Bohannon RW, Sontakova L, Tufano JJ, Shiells K, Holmerova I. Relationship between sarcopenia and physical activity in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Interv Aging. Smith L, Tully M, Jacob L, Blackburn N, Adlakha D, Caserotti P, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health.

Cartee GD, Hepple RT, Bamman MM, Zierath JR. Incorporating HIIT into your routine should be done in a periodized fashion.

A fashion in which a base of conditioning is established stabilization and then progressively periodized to more intense blocks strength and power - HIIT.

From a cardiorespiratory perspective, this is known as Stage Training. The time needed to transition to Stage III training is variable. It may require months or longer and should involve a progressive overload.

HRmax is a simple way of gauging your maximum heart rate. Start by subtracting your age from Use the result to calculate your range by taking the appropriate percentage.

For a HIIT workout, the work intensity would be 0. While there are some claims about the effectiveness of EPOC for weight loss, the research on weight loss continues to support that this is an energy issue, whereby energy intake EI exceeds energy expenditure EE.

Rather than focusing on EPOC, the focus should be a combination of increased EE through exercise and non-exercise activity thermogenesis NEAT and calorie restriction. The combination of resistance training and HIIT may be more advantageous than steady-state cardio for weight loss as this supports the accretion of lean body mass, a factor in maintaining a healthy metabolism.

Arney, B. Exercise adaptations are specific to the imposed demands SAID Principle. HIIT and the concomitant EPOC can be part of an integrated exercise program; however, one should consider their exercise goals and if HIIT training can be used, in part, to achieve those goals, or if it will adversely affect recovery and predispose one to injury and over-training.

EPOC: IS IT REAL? DOES IT MATTER?. Interaction among Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Energy Systems during Intense Exercise. Journal of nutrition and metabolism, , Earle, eds. Essentials of strength training and conditioning.

Human Kinetics, Clark, M. NASM essentials of personal fitness training. Falcone PH, Tai CY, Carson LR, Joy JM, Mosman MM, McCann TR, Crona KP, Kim MP, Moon JR.

Caloric expenditure of aerobic, resistance, or combined high-intensity interval training using a hydraulic resistance system in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res. DOI: PMID: Effects of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and resting metabolic rate in energetic cost.

Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 12 6 , Gupta, R. Indirect Calorimetry: From Bench to Bedside. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism, 21 4 , — The effects of high-intensity interval training on glucose regulation and insulin resistance: a meta-analysis.

Obes Rev. O'Keefe, J. The Goldilocks Zone for Exercise: Not Too Little, Not Too Much. Missouri medicine, 2 , 98— Osawa Y, Azuma K, Tabata S, Katsukawa F, Ishida H, Oguma Y, Kawai T, Itoh H, Okuda S, Matsumoto H.

Effects of week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study. Open Access J Sports Med. PMID: ; PMCID: PMC Paoli, A. et al. High-Intensity Interval Resistance Training HIRT influences resting energy expenditure and respiratory ratio in non-dieting individuals.

J Transl Med 10, High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women. J Sports Med Phys Fitness.

Skutnik BC, Smith JR, Johnson AM, Kurti SP, Harms CA. The Effect of Low Volume Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure in Pre-hypertensive Subjects: A Preliminary Study. Phys Sportsmed.

Epub Mar Villegas, J. Use of heart rate variability in biomedical training control. J Cardiovasc Med Cardiol, 7 3 , This, in addition to other physiological changes, increases the oxygen extraction capability. When an individual is tested before and after training while performing exercise at the same load, a lower HR is shown after training because more blood thus, oxygen is delivered in each heart beat.

Such HR differences during exercise can be used to predict aerobic fitness. In general, individuals who are the least fit see the largest changes and individuals who are highly fit see the smallest changes. Significant amounts of research and public health data indicate that low aerobic fitness levels are correlated with an increased risk of premature death from many causes but in particular from cardiovascular disease.

Accordingly, higher aerobic fitness levels are associated with numerous health benefits e. longer lifespan, better quality of life, reduced risks for stroke, heart disease, diabetes and cancer, improved mood and self-esteem, and improved sleep patterns.

To improve or maintain cardiovascular health an individual must engage in cardiovascular exercise run, walk, swim, bike, etc at least 3 times per week. also playing a role. In general, however the higher a V̇O 2 max the more potential for a successful performance in an aerobic endurance event.

Fitness Resying. EPOC Mindful food preparation the acronym fonsumption Blackberry cocktail garnishes Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption. Many refer to it as the "afterburn. Note: If you Resting oxygen consumption to condumption transition into a career as a personal trainerEPOC is an important concept to familiarize yourself with. All three energy systems work during physical activity with varying involvement, depending on the action's duration and intensity. The phosphagen ATP-PC system harnesses ATP for highly intense activities lasting 10 to 30 seconds, e. The glycolytic system uses carbohydrates to produce ATP for activities lasting 30 seconds to 3 minutes, e.

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