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Glucose metabolism disorders

Glucose metabolism disorders

Accepted : 14 Metaboliem More Information. You are using Glucose metabolism disorders Glicose version Glucose metabolism disorders limited support for CSS. This disease, characterized by absolute or relative insulin deficiency, has several forms and several stages, which must be distinguished for both prognostic and therapeutic reasons.

Glucose metabolism disorders -

Authors: William J Craigen, MD, PhD Basil T Darras, MD Section Editor: Sihoun Hahn, MD, PhD Deputy Editor: Elizabeth TePas, MD, MS Literature review current through: Jan This topic last updated: Jan 30, Those disorders that result in abnormal storage of glycogen are known as glycogen storage diseases GSDs.

They are largely categorized by number according to the chronology of recognition of the responsible enzyme defect table 1. The age of onset varies from in utero to adulthood. It is composed of long polymers of a linked glucose, interrupted by a linked branch point every 4 to 10 residues.

Glycogen is formed during periods of dietary carbohydrate loading and broken down when glucose demand is high or dietary availability is low figure 1. To continue reading this article, you must sign in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription.

Subscribe Sign in. It does NOT include all information about conditions, treatments, medications, side effects, or risks that may apply to a specific patient. It is not intended to be medical advice or a substitute for the medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment of a health care provider based on the health care provider's examination and assessment of a patient's specific and unique circumstances.

Open in new tab Download slide. Table 1 Evidence for and against the notion that human immunodeficiency virus HIV protease inhibitors PIs are primarily responsible for glucose metabolism abnormalities in antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected patients.

Open in new tab. Figure 2. Table 2 Drugs other than protease inhibitors that are commonly used in the treatment of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and may alter glucose metabolism.

Agent Mechanism Glucocorticoid Insulin resistance Megesterol acetate Insulin resistance Human growth hormone Insulin resistance Androgenic steroid a Insulin resistance Pentamidine B-cell dysfunction Didanosine B-cell dysfunction. a May increase or ameliorate insulin resistance, depending on the setting.

Table 3 Major risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Reports of diabetes and hyperglycemia in patients receiving protease inhibitors for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus HIV. Google Scholar Google Preview OpenURL Placeholder Text.

Google Scholar Crossref. Search ADS. Hyperglycemia associated with protease inhibitors in an urban HIV-infected minority patient population. Treatment with protease inhibitors associated with peripheral insulin resistance and impaired oral glucose tolerance in HIVinfected patients.

Hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance are induced by protease inhibitors independent of changes in body composition in patients with HIV infection. A syndrome of peripheral lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, and insulin resistance due to HIV protease inhibitors.

Impaired glucose tolerance, beta cell function and lipid metabolism in HIV patients under treatment with protease inhibitors. Effect of initiating indinavir therapy on glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients: results of minimal model analysis.

Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text. Fasting hyperinsulinemia and changes in regional body composition in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. Google Scholar PubMed.

OpenURL Placeholder Text. Fasting hyperinsulinemia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men: relationship to body composition, gonadal function, and protease inhibitor use. Fasting hyperinsulinemia and increased waist-to-hip ratios in non-wasting individuals with AIDS.

Preliminary guidelines for the evaluation and management of dyslipidemia in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy: recommendations of the Adult ACTG Cardiovascular Disease Focus Group.

Insulin resistance implications for type II diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Diagnosis, prediction, and natural course of HIV-1 protease-inhibitor-associated lipodystrophy, hyperlipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus: a cohort study.

Diabetes and hyperglycemia in patients receiving protease inhibitors [abstract ]. Program and abstracts of the 5th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections Chicago.

Reversion of metabolic abnormalities after switching from HIV-1 protease inhibitors to nevirapine. The short insulin tolerance test for determination of insulin sensitivity: a comparison with the euglycemic clamp. The pathophysiology of type II noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus: implications for treatment.

Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and B-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Endocrine and metabolic evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with evidence of protease inhibitor-associated lipodystrophy. Lipodystrophy defined by a clinical score in HIV-infected men on highly active antiretroviral therapy: correlation between dyslipidaemia and steroid hormone alterations.

Equivalence of the insulin sensitivity index in man derived by the minimal model method and the euglycemic glucose clamp. The mechanism of insulin resistance caused by HIV protease inhibitor therapy.

A novel use of abacavir to simplify therapy in PI experienced patients successfully treated with HAART [abstract CNA]. Program and abstracts of the 7th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections San Francisco. Effects of aerosolized pentamidine on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion in HIV-positive patients: a controlled study.

Pentamidine-induced derangements of glucose homeostasis: determinant roles of renal failure and drug accumulation: a study of patients. Hypoglycemia and diabetes mellitus following parenteral pentamidine mesylate treatment in AIDS patients. Diabetes mellitus in a patient with AIDS after treatment with pentamidine aerosol.

Severe hyperglycemia in an HIV clinic: preexisting versus drug-associated diabetes mellitus. Transient insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in an HIV-infected patient receiving didanosine.

Hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic syndrome following treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection with didanosine. The use and toxicity of didanosine ddI in HIV antibody-positive individuals intolerant to zidovudine AZT.

Insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. Pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction as the primary genetic lesion in NIDDM: evidence from studies in normal glucose-tolerant individuals with a first-degree NIDDM relative.

Earlier appearance of impaired insulin secretion than of visceral adiposity in the pathogenesis of NIDDM: 5-year follow-up of initially nondiabetic Japanese-American men. Changes in body habitus and serum lipid abnormalities in HIV-positive women on highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART.

Diabetes, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia in lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART. Redistribution of body fat in HIV-infected women undergoing combined antiretroviral therapy. A syndrome of peripheral fat wasting lipodystrophy in patients receiving long-term nucleoside analogue therapy.

A syndrome of lipoatrophy, lactic acidaemia and liver dysfunction associated with HIV nucleoside analogue therapy: contribution to protease inhibitor-related lipodystrophy syndrome.

Mitochondrial toxicity induced by nucleoside-analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors is a key factor in the pathogenesis of antiretroviral-therapy-related lipodystrophy.

The effects of discontinuing stavudine therapy on clinical and metabolic abnormalities in patients suffering from lipodystrophy. A prospective, open-label pilot trial of a maintenance nevirapine-containing regimen in patients with undetectable viral loads on protease inhibitor regimens for at least 6 months [abstract 45].

Impact of switching from HIV-1 protease inhibitors PI to efavirenz EFV in patients with lipodystrophy [abstract 50]. Protease inhibitor-associated hyperglycemia: results of switching from indinavir to nelfinavir [abstract ].

High fat diet and susceptibility to obesity increase the effects of HIV protease inhibitors on metabolism in mice [abstract 37].

Hyperlactatemia in 20 patients receiving NRTI combination regimens [abstract 56]. Effect of troglitazone on body fat distribution in type 2 diabetic patients. Activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma have depot-specific effects on human preadipocyte differentiation.

Hepatotoxicity due to troglitazone: report of two cases and review of adverse events reported to the United States Food and Drug Administration. Hepatocellular injury in a patient receiving rosiglitazone: a case report. Effects of metformin on insulin resistance and central adiposity in patients receiving effective protease inhibitor therapy.

Physical activity and cardiovascular health. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health. Nutrition recommendations and principles for people with diabetes mellitus.

Resistance exercise training reduces hypertriglyceridemia in HIV-infected men treated with antiviral therapy [abstract 54]. Kenneth H. Mayer, Section Editor. Issue Section:. Download all slides. Comments 0. Add comment Close comment form modal.

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Total Views 8, Email alerts Article activity alert. Advance article alerts. New issue alert. Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic. More on this topic The Relationship between Nucleoside Analogue Treatment Duration, Insulin Resistance, and Fasting Arterialized Lactate Level in Patients with HIV Infection.

Lipid Abnormalities. TAILoR TelmisArtan and InsuLin Resistance in Human Immunodeficiency Virus [HIV] : An Adaptive-design, Dose-ranging Phase IIb Randomized Trial of Telmisartan for the Reduction of Insulin Resistance in HIV-positive Individuals on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

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Metabolism - The Metabolic Map: Carbohydrates Official websites use. gov Disorddrs. gov website belongs to an official government Glucowe in the Glucose metabolism disorders States. gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Glucose metabolism disorders

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